Polymer
Chemistry tr.
Polymer
• It is derived from Greek word.
• Macromolecule- high M.W and composed
small repeating unit called monomers.
• Fu...
• Monomers - small and simple molecule.
Capacity forming 2 Chemical bond with
2 other monomers.
Example
• DNA , protein, nerve fibers, muscle, hair, nail etc.
• Carbohydrate- polysaccharide.
• Toy made by plastic.
• Ca...
Classification based on source
1. Natural polymer:- plant and animal.
Eg. Cellulose, jute, linen(carpet), silk, wool etc.
...
Classification based on structure
A) Liner polymers:-
Repeating unit Long continuous chain.
Eg. Polythene, PVC.
n CH2 = CH...
B) Branched polymer
One chain of molecule with smaller chain is
braches of main chain.
C) Network or cross- linked polymers
• Link by strong covalent bond leads to network.
Eg. Melamine, Bakelite, vulcanizatio...
Classification based on polymerisation process
1) Addition polymer:-
Eg. Orlone, teflon, PVC, polythene, etc.
Addition polymer Example
• Vinyl cyanide- CH2= CHCN→ orlon
• Tetrafluoroethylene nCF2=CF2 → Teflon
Classification based on Molecular force
• Force bind chain
• Intermolecular force(H-bondig, vandar waals
force)
A) Elastom...
B) Fibers:-
• H-bonding, tensile strength.
• Use textile industries, ropes, tyre etc.
• Eg. Nylon-6, terylene.
ε-Caprolact...
C) Thermoplastic polymer
• Property between elastomer & fiber.
• Heating- soft and cooling- hard.
• Remoulded and recycled...
D) Thermosetting polymer
• Heating- no soft
• Cannot remoulded and recycled.
• These are cross linked polymer.
• Cannot be...
Classification based on growth
polymerisation
Eg. polythene
Eg. dacron.
Classification based monomerunit
1. Homopolymers-
Obtained from 1 type of monomer.
Eg. Polyethene, nylon-6, polystyrene et...
• Copolymerisation- more then one monomer
combined to give polymer of required and
desired properties.
• Acrylonitril(A), ...
Some Other Commercially Important
Polymers
Name of
polymer
Class of polymer Name of monomer Uses
Dynel Copolymer
Vinyl chloride and
acrylonitrile
Human hair wigs
Gly...
Chain growth polymerisation or
(addition polymerisation)
A. Free radical polymerisation:-
Initiator- benzoyl peroxide or t...
Preparation of some addition polymer
A. Preparation of polythene:- 2 types(ethene)
a. Low density polymer(LDPE):-
• Monome...
b. High density polymer(HDPE):-
Monomer- ethylene
heat - 373K,6-7 atm.
Catalyst- Zieglar-Natta catalyst(titanium chloride ...
B. Preparation of polyacrylonitril(PAN)
or orlon:-
• Monomer- acrylonitril or vinyl cyanide.
• Catalyst- peroxide
• Produc...
C. Preparation of Teflon(PTFE)
• Monomer- tetrafluoroethylene.(CF2=CF2)
• Catalyst – heated with Oxygen high pressure.
• P...
Step growth polymerisatin or
condensation polymerisation
• Preparation of some step growth polymers.
A. Preparation of nylon-6,6
• Monomer- adipic acid and hexamethylene
diamine
• Catalyst – heat. Nutrilization
• Polymer- n...
B. Preparation of nylon-6
• Monomer- ԑ-caprolactum
• Catalyst- heat 553K inert atm(non oxygen)
• Polymer- nylon-6
• Step- ...
C. Preparation of terylene a polyester
or dacron:-
• Monomer- ethylene glycol and
dimethylterephthalate.
• Catalyst- heat ...
D. Preparation of Bakelite(
formaldehyde phenol) polymer
• monomer- phenol and formaldehyde.
• Catalyst- 1)alkali
2) acid
...
Other polymer of formaldehyde
1) urea formaldehyde polymer-
• Monomer- formaldehyde and urea
• Dehydration
• Step-2
• Poly...
2) Melamine(formaldehyde melamine polymer)-
Monomer- melamine and formaldehyde
Dehydration
Polymer-
Step-2 Use- crockeries.
Natural Rubber
• Obtained from latex tree. Cis-1,4-polyisoprene.
• It has long flexible chain with weak intermolecular
for...
Vulcanization of rubber
• Natural rubber is cis-1,4-polyisoprene.
• Soft, sticky, less tensile strength.
• Vulcanisation m...
Preparation of synthetic rubber
A) Buna-S or styrene butadiene rubber(SBR)
• Monomer- styrene and 1,3-butadiene
• Catalyst- potassium persulfate(K2S2O8)
•...
B) Buna-N
• Monomer- 1,3-butadiene and vinyl cyanide
• Polymer
• Use- making sole of shoes, tank, oil seat etc.
C) Neoprene rubber
• Monomer- 2-chloro-1,3-diene
• Polymer-
• Use- chemical container, belts etc
D) Butyl rubber
• Monomer- isobutylene and isoprene
• Polymer
• Use- inner tube of tyre and motors.
A) PHBV polymer(polyhydroxy
butyrate-CO- β-hydroxy valerate)
• Monoer- 3-hydroxy butanoic acid and 3-
hydroxy pentanoic ac...
B) Dextron
• Monomer- lactic acid and glycollic acid
• Polymer- polyglycollic acid-polylactic acid
polymer(dextron)
C) Nylon- 2-nyon-6
• Monomer- glycine and ԑ- amino caproic acid
• Polymer
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Polymer 12

it contain class 12 maharashtra board matericla
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Polymer 12

  • 1. Polymer Chemistry tr.
  • 2. Polymer • It is derived from Greek word. • Macromolecule- high M.W and composed small repeating unit called monomers. • Functionality depend upon no. of bonding site in monomer. • Plymerisation- synthesizing.
  • 3. • Monomers - small and simple molecule. Capacity forming 2 Chemical bond with 2 other monomers.
  • 4. Example • DNA , protein, nerve fibers, muscle, hair, nail etc. • Carbohydrate- polysaccharide. • Toy made by plastic. • Car tyres, • Day to day life using Polyvinyl chloride(PVC)- pipe, polythene, raincoats, carpets etc. • Glass and concrete inorganic polymer. • Article coated with paint(polymer).
  • 5. Classification based on source 1. Natural polymer:- plant and animal. Eg. Cellulose, jute, linen(carpet), silk, wool etc. 2. Semisynthetic polymers:- chemically modified natural.(appearance, tensile strength, lusture) Eg. Acetate rayon, viscose rayon, cuprammonium silk etc. 3. Synthetic polymer:- man made- laboratory. Eg. Nylon, terylene, polythene etc.
  • 6. Classification based on structure A) Liner polymers:- Repeating unit Long continuous chain. Eg. Polythene, PVC. n CH2 = CH2 → CH2-CH2 → -[CH2-CH2]- ethene(monomer) repeating unit polythene
  • 7. B) Branched polymer One chain of molecule with smaller chain is braches of main chain.
  • 8. C) Network or cross- linked polymers • Link by strong covalent bond leads to network. Eg. Melamine, Bakelite, vulcanization of rubber etc.
  • 9. Classification based on polymerisation process 1) Addition polymer:-
  • 10. Eg. Orlone, teflon, PVC, polythene, etc.
  • 11. Addition polymer Example • Vinyl cyanide- CH2= CHCN→ orlon • Tetrafluoroethylene nCF2=CF2 → Teflon
  • 12. Classification based on Molecular force • Force bind chain • Intermolecular force(H-bondig, vandar waals force) A) Elastomer:- Elasticity- stretches, cross link prevent tear, again original position, soft, stretchy, rubber band. Eg. Neoprene, vulcanized rubber. Choroprene → neoprene c-c=c-c
  • 13. B) Fibers:- • H-bonding, tensile strength. • Use textile industries, ropes, tyre etc. • Eg. Nylon-6, terylene. ε-Caprolactam cyclic amide of caproic acid Nylon-6
  • 14. C) Thermoplastic polymer • Property between elastomer & fiber. • Heating- soft and cooling- hard. • Remoulded and recycled. • They are either linear or branched chain. • Eg. Polythene, polystyrene, PVC etc • PVC used in synthetic leather.
  • 15. D) Thermosetting polymer • Heating- no soft • Cannot remoulded and recycled. • These are cross linked polymer. • Cannot be reused. Eg Bakelite.
  • 16. Classification based on growth polymerisation Eg. polythene Eg. dacron.
  • 17. Classification based monomerunit 1. Homopolymers- Obtained from 1 type of monomer. Eg. Polyethene, nylon-6, polystyrene etc. 2. Heteropolymers-(co-polymer) Obtained from 2 or 3 type of monomer. Eg. Buna-S, terylene, styrene, nylon-6,6.
  • 18. • Copolymerisation- more then one monomer combined to give polymer of required and desired properties. • Acrylonitril(A), butadiene(B), styrene(S) combined together to form ABS plastic. • Which tough, strong used as paper article. • Vinylidene chloride and vinylchloride form a polymer used as film for wrapping food.(saran)
  • 19. Some Other Commercially Important Polymers
  • 20. Name of polymer Class of polymer Name of monomer Uses Dynel Copolymer Vinyl chloride and acrylonitrile Human hair wigs Glyptal Copolymer Ethylene glycol and phthalic acid In paints Thiokol Condensation(polysulphide rubber) Ethylene chloride and sodium tetra sulphate. Rubber Superglue Homopolymer Methyl α- cyanoacrylate Glue Kevlar Polyamide condensation Terephtalic acid chloride and p- phenylene diamine Bullet proof, vasts and helmets. Nomex Polyamide condensation m-phthalic acid and m-dinitrobenzene Protective clothes for race car drivers and fire fighters. Lexan Polycarbonate, polyester condenstation Diethylcarbonate and bisphenol A Bullete proof window, helmet. Polyurethane or thermocole Copolymer Vinyl chloride and vinylidene chloride Bumpers
  • 21. Chain growth polymerisation or (addition polymerisation) A. Free radical polymerisation:- Initiator- benzoyl peroxide or tert-butyl peroxide or acetyl peroxide free radical. a) Formation of free radical- benzoyl oxyradical which undergoes decarboxylation to give phenyl radicals. b) Chain initiating step- c) Chain propagation step- d) Chain terminating step-
  • 22. Preparation of some addition polymer A. Preparation of polythene:- 2 types(ethene) a. Low density polymer(LDPE):- • Monomer- ethylene(polymer) • Heat- 200ᴼC-300ᴼC and at 1000atm • Catalyst- Oxygen/ peroxide • Polymer- Formed branched chain. • Low density and Low M.P.
  • 23. b. High density polymer(HDPE):- Monomer- ethylene heat - 373K,6-7 atm. Catalyst- Zieglar-Natta catalyst(titanium chloride & triethyl aluminium,[TiCl4+(C2H5)3Al]. Polymer- linear chain.Ethylene – titanium chloride complex(cordination polymer) High density and high M.P.
  • 24. B. Preparation of polyacrylonitril(PAN) or orlon:- • Monomer- acrylonitril or vinyl cyanide. • Catalyst- peroxide • Product- polyacrylonitril (orlon or acrilan) • Used- blankets as artificial wool.
  • 25. C. Preparation of Teflon(PTFE) • Monomer- tetrafluoroethylene.(CF2=CF2) • Catalyst – heated with Oxygen high pressure. • Polymer- polytetrafouroethylene or teflon. • Used- coating for coocking pans, gaskets, seat etc.
  • 26. Step growth polymerisatin or condensation polymerisation • Preparation of some step growth polymers.
  • 27. A. Preparation of nylon-6,6 • Monomer- adipic acid and hexamethylene diamine • Catalyst – heat. Nutrilization • Polymer- nylon-6,6 • Step- 2 step
  • 28. B. Preparation of nylon-6 • Monomer- ԑ-caprolactum • Catalyst- heat 553K inert atm(non oxygen) • Polymer- nylon-6 • Step- 1 • Used- brushes, scrubbers, sarees, ropes, fishing nets, paints, toys, shirts, bed coating etc.
  • 29. C. Preparation of terylene a polyester or dacron:- • Monomer- ethylene glycol and dimethylterephthalate. • Catalyst- heat 503K in Zn acetate and Antimony trioxide. • Step- 2 • Use- fishing nets, ropes, trousers, magnetic tape recorders etc
  • 30. D. Preparation of Bakelite( formaldehyde phenol) polymer • monomer- phenol and formaldehyde. • Catalyst- 1)alkali 2) acid • Polymer- Bakelite. • Step- 2 • Use- switches, handles of cooker, frying pans, combs etc. • Novolac use in paints.
  • 31. Other polymer of formaldehyde 1) urea formaldehyde polymer- • Monomer- formaldehyde and urea • Dehydration • Step-2 • Polymer- urea formaldehyde. • NH2-CO-NH2 + 2 H-CO-H
  • 32. 2) Melamine(formaldehyde melamine polymer)- Monomer- melamine and formaldehyde Dehydration Polymer- Step-2 Use- crockeries.
  • 33. Natural Rubber • Obtained from latex tree. Cis-1,4-polyisoprene. • It has long flexible chain with weak intermolecular force and exhibit elastic properties. • 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene. • Tran-1,4-polysioprene- gutta-percha(zigzag chain fitting one another) non elastic and crystalline.
  • 34. Vulcanization of rubber • Natural rubber is cis-1,4-polyisoprene. • Soft, sticky, less tensile strength. • Vulcanisation made strong, tough, elastic. • Discovered- Charles good years. • Preparation of vulcanize rubber- • Heating natural rubber with sulpher at high temp. Note- 3-10% S used making tyre & 1-3% S rubber band.
  • 35. Preparation of synthetic rubber
  • 36. A) Buna-S or styrene butadiene rubber(SBR) • Monomer- styrene and 1,3-butadiene • Catalyst- potassium persulfate(K2S2O8) • Polymer- • Use- inner tube tyres, bubble gum etc.
  • 37. B) Buna-N • Monomer- 1,3-butadiene and vinyl cyanide • Polymer • Use- making sole of shoes, tank, oil seat etc.
  • 38. C) Neoprene rubber • Monomer- 2-chloro-1,3-diene • Polymer- • Use- chemical container, belts etc
  • 39. D) Butyl rubber • Monomer- isobutylene and isoprene • Polymer • Use- inner tube of tyre and motors.
  • 40. A) PHBV polymer(polyhydroxy butyrate-CO- β-hydroxy valerate) • Monoer- 3-hydroxy butanoic acid and 3- hydroxy pentanoic acid. • Ester linkage. • polymer
  • 41. B) Dextron • Monomer- lactic acid and glycollic acid • Polymer- polyglycollic acid-polylactic acid polymer(dextron)
  • 42. C) Nylon- 2-nyon-6 • Monomer- glycine and ԑ- amino caproic acid • Polymer