National Guidelines for
Livestock Relief Interventions
in Pastoralist Areas of Ethiopia
Federal Democratic Republic of Eth...
National Guidelines for
Livestock Relief Interventions
in Pastoralist Areas of Ethiopia
Federal Democratic Republic of Eth...
ii
Correct Citation: Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (2008) National Guidelines for
Livestock Relief Interve...
iii
Table of Contents
Acknowledgements vii
Abbreviations ix
Preface x
Chapter 1: I...
iv
Chapter 4: Livestock Feed Supplementation 37
4.1 Overview 37
4.2 Needs assessment and plann...
v
5.3.3 Distribution 55
5.3.4 Water quality and safety 56
5.3.5 Local equity and manageme...
vi
Chapter 7: Restocking 83
7.1 Overview 83
7.2 Needs Assessment and Planning 84
...
vii
Acknowledgements
These guidelines were produced by the National Livestock Policy Forum, convened by the Federal Min-
i...
viii
Dr. Fasil Awol International Rescue Committee
Dr. Wondwosen Asfaw SPS and Livestock Meat Marketing Project
Dr. Y...
ix
Abbreviations
ATF Agriculture Task Force
CAHW Community-based Animal Health Worker
CCPP Contagious caprine pleuro...
x
Preface
The huge areas of Ethiopia occupied by pastoralist communities represent one of the most important
economic, cul...
1
Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 Pastoralism in Ethiopia
In Ethiopia pastoralism and agropastoralism are an important means o...
2
1.2 About the guidelines
These guidelines are designed to promote best practice in the design, implementation and asses...
3
Destocking, including both commercial destocking and slaughter destocking with meat dis-o
tribution
Livestock feed supp...
4
5
Chapter 2
Common Principles for all Livestock Interventions
This section of the guidelines presents information on cross...
6
2.2 Analytical approaches and models
2.2.1 Livelihoods analysis
During the last 25 years or so, pastoralist areas of E...
7
Box 2.1: Livelihoods analysis and pastoralism
Livelihoods analysis aims to understand how people source, develop and use...
8
2.2.2 Drought cycle management
In the case of slow onset emergencies such as drought, livelihoods analysis highlights t...
9
such as veterinary care, feed supplementation and water provision. The need to combine different in-
terventions simulta...
10
However, current evidence points to the cost-effectiveness of early response to drought in pastoral areas
using approac...
11
livestock can require the rapid procurement of novel items, such as large quantities of animal feed.
Alternatively, it ...
12
or inputs are most likely to emerge from disaster responses when these responses promote participation,
recognise local...
13
Assessing local services and markets – the assessment should clearly describe existing local service
providers, explain...
14
problems, while also ensuring accurate recording of activities and expenditure. Monitoring indicators
need to be carefu...
15
Annex 2.1	Further reading
Abebe, D., Cullis, A., Catley, A., Aklilu, Y., Mekonnen, G. and Ghebrechirstos, Y. (2008). Li...
16
17
Chapter 3
Destocking and Market Support
3.1 Overview
During drought in pastoral areas a substantial number of livestoc...
18
Box 3.1: The value of livestock sales during drought for sustaining pastoralist households
Commercial destocking
Drawin...
19
Water supply - adequate water for the needs of remaining animals needs to be provided as well as the
water that is requ...
20
Establishment and management of contingency funds - coordinating the different sources of funds re-
quired to support t...
21
Box 3.2: National coordination arrangements during commercial destocking in Ethiopia
During the 2006 drought in the Bor...
22
Periodically however, drought may affect the entire eco-system and extend to populations in neighbour-
ing countries. T...
23
The demand for specific types of livestock and meat in various domestic and international mar-•
kets.
The capacity of ...
24
Health inspection of purchased livestock• - by government veterinary public health officers.
Temporary holding grounds...
25
Box 3.3: Expanding coverage through temporary markets
During the drought in 2006 in parts of southern Ethiopia, commerc...
26
A significant element of profit maximisation for traders is the minimising of costs including road access,
provision of...
27
Are there particular households which could be assisted? Within a community there may be specific
disadvantaged sub-gro...
28
Assigning responsibilities to different community groups•
Assisting with the identification of beneficiaries•
Organis...
29
Types of meat for distribution - dried meat processing can be a complex and costly process that in-
volves skinning, cu...
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National guidelines

National Guidelines for Livestock Relief Interventions in Pastoralist Areas of Ethiopia
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Government & Nonprofit      
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  • 1. National Guidelines for Livestock Relief Interventions in Pastoralist Areas of Ethiopia Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
  • 2. National Guidelines for Livestock Relief Interventions in Pastoralist Areas of Ethiopia Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
  • 3. ii Correct Citation: Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (2008) National Guidelines for Livestock Relief Interventions in Pastoralist Areas of Ethiopia, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 105 pp.
  • 4. iii Table of Contents Acknowledgements vii Abbreviations ix Preface x Chapter 1: Introduction 1 1.1 Pastoralism in Ethiopia 1 1.2 About the guidelines 2 1.3 Intended users of the guidelines 2 1.4 How to use the guidelines 2 Chapter 2: Common Principles for all Livestock Interventions 5 2.1 Coordination 5 2.2 Analytical approaches and models 6 2.2.1 Livelihoods analysis 6 2.2.2 Drought cycle management 8 2.3 Preparedness and contingency planning 9 2.4 Community participation 11 2.5 Rapid assessment at community level 12 2.6 Targeting of interventions 13 2.7 Monitoring, evaluation and impact assessment 13 Annex 2.1 Further reading 15 Chapter 3: Destocking and Market Support 17 3.1 Overview 17 3.2 Coordination issues 19 3.3.1 Guidance on the timing of commercial destocking 21 3.3.2 Determining the feasibility of commercial destocking 22 3.3.3 Guidance on the design and implementation of commercial destocking 23 3.4 Slaughter destocking 26 3.4.1 Guidance on the timing of slaughter destocking 26 3.4.2 Determining the feasibility of slaughter destocking 26 3.4.3 Guidance on the design and implementation of slaughter destocking 27 3.4.4 Monitoring, evaluation and impact assessment 32 3.5 Policy implications and outstanding issues 32 Annex 3.1 Contribution of dried meat to recommended daily protein allowances for different age groups and categories of people 33 Annex 3.2 Monitoring and evaluation indicators for destocking projects 34 Annex 3.3 Further reading 35
  • 5. iv Chapter 4: Livestock Feed Supplementation 37 4.1 Overview 37 4.2 Needs assessment and planning issues 39 4.2.1 Cost and logistical issues 39 4.2.2 Guidance on timing of livestock feed supplementation 40 4.2.3 Assessing existing feed resources 41 4.2.4 Assessment of existing local livestock feed suppliers 41 4.3 Design and implementation of livestock feed supplementation 42 4.3.1 Selection of households 42 4.3.2 Types of livestock to be fed 42 4.3.3 Number of beneficiary households and livestock 42 4.3.4 Feeding arrangements 43 4.3.5 Transportation, storage and distribution 43 4.3.6 Feed formulation and management 44 4.3.7 Avoiding feed toxicity during drought 44 4.4 Monitoring, evaluation and impact assessment 45 4.5 Policy implications and future strategies 45 4.5.1 Strengthening markets 45 4.5.2 Pasture and fodder development 45 Annex 4.1 46 Annex 4.2 Further reading 49 Chapter 5: Emergency Provision of Water to Livestock 51 5.1 Overview 51 5.1.1 The importance of water for livestock in emergencies 51 5.1.2 Links to development 51 5.1.3 Options for water provision 51 5.1.4 Distribution 52 5.1.5 Complementary interventions 52 5.2 Needs and feasibility assessments of water sources 53 5.2.1 Collate background information 54 5.2.2 Rapid participatory assessment 54 5.2.3 Coordination issues 54 5.3 Water source selection and intervention design 55 5.3.1 Supply and demand 55 5.3.2 Costs 55
  • 6. v 5.3.3 Distribution 55 5.3.4 Water quality and safety 56 5.3.5 Local equity and management issues 56 5.3.6 Long-term management and maintenance 57 5.3.7 Environmental issues 57 5.4 Water trucking 58 5.4.1 Management issues 58 5.4.2 Design issues 58 5.4.3 Distribution issues 59 5.5 Monitoring and evaluation 60 5.6 Policy implications 60 Annex 5.1 Participatory mapping and other PRA/RRA tools 60 Annex 5.2 Daily water requirements for livestock 62 Annex 5.3 Further reading 62 Chapter 6: Animal Health Interventions 65 6.1 Overview 65 6.2 Coordination issues 65 6.3 Clinical veterinary care: general approaches and principles 66 6.3.1 Support to basic services for the examination and treatment of individual animals or herds 66 6.3.2 Mass treatment and vaccination programmes 69 6.3.3 Guidance on the timing of veterinary interventions 70 6.4 Guidance on supporting basic services for the examination and treatment of individual animals or herds 70 6.4.1 Guidance on rapid assessment 70 6.4.2 Guidance on the design and implementation of clinical veterinary services 74 6.4.3 Monitoring of veterinary service provision 76 6.5 Mass treatment and vaccination programmes 77 6.6 Support to public sector veterinary functions during emergencies 78 6.6.1 Guidance on disease surveillance 78 6.6.2 Veterinary public health 79 6.7 Policy implications and outstanding issues 80 Annex 6.1 Examples of monitoring and evaluation indicators for primary veterinary service provision 81 Annex 6.2 Further reading 82
  • 7. vi Chapter 7: Restocking 83 7.1 Overview 83 7.2 Needs Assessment and Planning 84 7.2.1 Local acceptability of restocking 85 7.2.2 Cost issues 86 7.2.3 Community participation 86 7.2.4 Environmental issues 87 7.2.5 Timing of restocking 87 7.2.6 Market analysis 88 7.2.7 Areas for restocking 88 7.3 Design and implementation of restocking 89 7.3.1 Selection of individual beneficiaries 89 7.3.2 Types of livestock for restocking 89 7.3.3 Number of animals provided 90 7.3.4 Purchasing arrangements 90 7.3.5 Credit and repayment options 91 7.3.6 Complementary interventions: veterinary care 91 7.4 Monitoring, evaluation and impact assessment 92 7.5 Policy implications 92 Annex 7.1 Checklist for planning restocking projects 94 Annex 7.2 Further reading 95
  • 8. vii Acknowledgements These guidelines were produced by the National Livestock Policy Forum, convened by the Federal Min- istry of Agriculture and Rural Development. Under the forum, a series of Working Groups addressed specific technical areas and the members of the Working Groups were as follows: Name Organisation or Project Destocking and Market Support Working Group Members Dr. Getachew Gebru Global Livestock CRSP/ PARIMA, Chairperson Mr. Ginjo Giya OXFAM Canada Mr. Yacob Aklilu Feinstein International Center, Tufts University Mr. Mitiku Kassa SNNPR Pastoral Areas Development Commission Mr. Adrian Cullis Save the Children US Mr. Ali Mekonen Save the Children US Dr. Solomon Demeke Save the Children UK Mr. Belachew Hurissa SPS and Livestock Meat Marketing Project Mr. John Graham United States Agency for International Development Mr. Sahlu Tekle Ethiopian Live Animals Exporters Association Mr. Assaye Legesse The World Bank Ms. Azeb Fissha The World Bank Livestock Feed Supplementation Working Group Members Mr. Seyoum Bediye Ethiopian Institute for Agriculture Research, Chairperson Dr. Amha Sebsibe Amhara Regional Agriculture Research Institute Dr. Lemma Gizachew Food and Agriculture Organisation Mr. Teffera Gebremeskel Ethiopian Sheep & Goat Productivity Improvement Program Dr. Adugna Tolera Hawassa University Mr. Alemayehu Mengistu Private professional Dr. Alemu Yami Ethiopian Sheep & Goat Productivity Improvement program Mrs. Beletu Tefera Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Authority Mr. William Hill International Rescue Committee Dr. Italo Rizzi Lay Volunteers International Association Dr. Dereje Damte Lay Volunteers International Association Animal Health Working Group Members Dr. Berhe Gebreegziabher National Veterinary Institute, Chairperson Dr. Dawit Abebe Feinstein International Center, Tufts University Dr. Berhanu Admassu Feinstein International Center, Tufts University Dr. Sileshi Zewde Ethiopian Sheep & Goat Productivity Improvement Program Dr. Sintayehu Abdicho Ethiopian Institute for Agriculture Research Dr. Merga Bekana Addis Ababa University Dr. Mohammed Abdella Haramaya University Mr. Mulushewa Beshah Ethiopian Veterinary Association Dr. Yilma Jobre Food and Agriculture Organisation Dr. Gedlu Mekonnen Save the Children US
  • 9. viii Dr. Fasil Awol International Rescue Committee Dr. Wondwosen Asfaw SPS and Livestock Meat Marketing Project Dr. Yirgalem Gebremeskel United States Agency for International Development Dr. Dagninet Yimenu Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Dr. Abay Bekele CARE Ethiopia Mr. Hilina Mikrie Harrarghe Catholic Secretariat Restocking Working Group Members Dr. Workneh Ayalew International Livestock Research Institute, Chairperson Dr. Tadelle Dessie Ethiopian Society of Animal Production Mr. Darius Radcliffe Mercy Corps Mr. Tekle Zeleke Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Mr. Melaku Gebremichael Save the Children US Mr. Mesfin Ayele FARM Africa Mr. Hailemariam Hailemeskel Africa Development Bank Dr. Kassahun Awgichew Institute of Biodiversity Conservation Mr. Gifawwosen Tessema Ministry of Federal Affairs Hon. Mr. Awoke Aike Parliamentarian Pastoral Affairs Standing Committee Natural Resources Management Working Group Members Mr. Amare Worku Ministry of Agriculture & Rural Development, Chairperson Mr. Zena Estifanos Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Mr. Gebru Bonger Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Dr. Abebe Fanta Haramaya University Dr. Cary Farley CARE Ethiopia Dr. Getahun Mulat Institute of Biodiversity Conservation Hon. Mr. Mear Ali Sirro Parliamentarian Pastoral Affairs Standing Committee Dr. Bayou Abera Action Contra La Faim Mr. Talew Deressa SOS Sahel Ethiopia Mr. Solomon Wakgari Save the Children UK Mr. Tefera Mengistu Wondogenet Forestry college Mr. Kahsay Gebretensaie Ethiopian Wildlife Association Mr. Abayneh Tulorie Ministry of Water Resources Dr. Nigussie Tekle Arbaminch University Mr. Resene Fesehaye Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural research Mr. Gary Campbell Campbell Project Management Services (Ethiopia) plc The MoARD acknowledges the contributions of all Working Group members and the in-kind support provided by their respective organisations and projects. The National Livestock Policy Forum and Working Groups also received technical and financial assis- tance from the USAID Pastoralist Livelihoods Initiative programme, with policy support and technical editing from the Feinstein International Center, Tufts University.
  • 10. ix Abbreviations ATF Agriculture Task Force CAHW Community-based Animal Health Worker CCPP Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia CP crude protein DCM Drought Cycle Management DM dry matter DPPA Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Agency Eth birr Ethiopian birr FAO Food and Agriculture Organisation g gram HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus/Autoimmune deficiency syndrome IDP Internally displaced person kg kilogram LEGS Livestock Emergency Guidelines and Standards M&E monitoring and evaluation ME metabolisable energy MJ megajoule MoARD Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development MRC Meat Relief Committee NGO Non governmental organisation OIE Office international des epizooties (World Organisation for Animal Health) OPDC Oromiya Pastoralist Development Commission PRA Participatory Rural Appraisal RRA Rapid Rural Appraisal RDA Recommended Daily Allowance UN United Nations UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund USAID United States Agency for International Development USD United States dollar
  • 11. x Preface The huge areas of Ethiopia occupied by pastoralist communities represent one of the most important economic, cultural and natural resources of the country. However, for many years Ethiopian pastoral- ists have faced repeated droughts and experienced emergency interventions which have often under- mined development programmes. Most recently the severity and frequency of drought in some areas has increased, creating an urgent need to improve drought risk management and support development policies in which drought is anticipated and properly managed. Since 2005 in partnership with USAID and various non governmental and academic institutions, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development has implemented the Pastoralist Livelihoods Initiative programme. Under this programme the Ministry has led the production of this first edition of the Na- tional Guidelines for Livestock Relief Interventions in Pastoralist Areas of Ethiopia. The guidelines repre- sent a synthesis of evidence and best practice as is currently known in Ethiopia, and draw heavily on the field experience of practitioners and researchers. Crucially, the guidelines use both livelihoods-based analysis and the drought cycle management model to bridge the gap between emergency response and development. The guidelines highlight the value of pastoralists’ indigenous livestock knowledge and skills, and the need to combine this local resource with technical assessments for designing drought responses. The guidelines also show the benefits of working with the private sector, particularly for interventions such as commercial destocking. The guidelines will now act as the point of reference for the design of livestock relief interventions in pastoralist areas of Ethiopia, and should be used to guide government agencies, donors and non gov- ernmental organisations. I encourage all stakeholders involved in pastoralist and livestock development and emergency response to use these guidelines, but also, to contribute to the on-going process of rigor- ous impact assessment of interventions leading to future revision of the guidelines. Dr. Abera Deresa State Minister Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
  • 12. 1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Pastoralism in Ethiopia In Ethiopia pastoralism and agropastoralism are an important means of livelihood for more than four million people, with most pastoralists living in the Somali, Afar, Oromiya and Southern Nations regions. Ethiopia’s arid or semi-arid pastoral lands comprise approximately 63% of the total land area. The Min- istry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MoARD) estimates that nationally, pastoralists own 73% of the goats (equivalent to 7.05 million head), 25% of the sheep (equivalent to 4.25 million head), 20% of the cattle (equivalent to 7.70 million head) and a substantial proportion of the camels (approximately 1 million head). From a livelihoods perspective, pastoralists in Ethiopia possess relatively high financial assets in the form of livestock. It is also increasingly recognized that extensive, mobile pastoralist livestock pro- duction systems are a rational and efficient use of natural resources in non-equilibrium rainfall en- vironments, and can outperform more modern ranching systems. Increasingly, pastoralist areas are contributing to domestic and export markets in livestock and livestock products, and becoming more integrated into Ethiopia’s national economy. However, pastoralist areas are still characterized by constraints such as low levels of infrastructure development, and weak social services such as health and education. Pastoralist areas also face human population growth and recurrent drought, with some indications that the frequency and severity of drought is increasing. These features of pastoral- ist areas mean that despite their wealth in livestock assets, pastoralist communities remain highly vulnerable and subject to repeated episodes of short-term humanitarian assistance. It is part of the overall strategy of the MoARD to promote livestock development in pastoralist areas, and to encour- age long-term thinking which views natural events such as droughts and floods as predictable rather than unexpected shocks. Humanitarian assistance in pastoral areas has been dominated by food aid since emergency interven- tions began in the 1970s, and food aid provision has been based on the objective of saving human lives. However, it is increasingly recognized that emergency assistance during drought or flood should also aim to protect people’s livelihoods. In pastoral areas, livelihoods-based emergency programming means protection of pastoral livestock in appropriate numbers, and support to the services and markets which are needed to assist rapid recovery. Therefore, livelihoods-based programming aims to avoid undue disruption to local service providers and markets, and where possible, work with local actors to design and deliver drought or flood assistance. In 1993 the National Policy for Disaster Prevention, Prepared- ness and Management proposed that each district should prepare a drought action plan which would describe interventions to save livestock, including supply of feed and water, veterinary inputs, livestock purchase centres and mobile abattoirs. However, these types of emergency livestock-related interven- tion were not widely applied. When agencies did provide livestock support during drought, experiences were not well-documented and therefore details of how best to design and implement different types of intervention were not widely available.
  • 13. 2 1.2 About the guidelines These guidelines are designed to promote best practice in the design, implementation and assessment of emergency livestock interventions in response to natural disasters in pastoral areas of Ethiopia. The guidelines represent a synthesis of experience from practitioners working in government agencies, non governmental organisations (NGOs) and research institutes in Ethiopia, plus lessons learned from other countries with substantial pastoral populations. All information was collated by Working Groups under the National Livestock Policy Forum, who conducted literature reviews, consulted pastoralists and professionals, and commissioned research and assessments to determine best practice. The guide- lines present best practice as it is currently known in Ethiopia, and will be subject to review and refine- ment over time. 1.3 Intended users of the guidelines The guidelines are intended to be used by: Managers and technical staff working for government agencies at federal, regional, zonal and• woreda levels who are involved in the design, implementation or assessment of emergency in- terventions in pastoral areas, including staff deployed to the Agricultural Task Forces at federal or regional levels. Government staff at all levels who are involved in the coordination of emergency response, includ-• ing assessment and approval of NGO emergency projects. Donor personnel and staff of coordination and technical agencies such as the United Nations Of-• fice for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, and Food and Agriculture Organisation, plus any other donor or UN staff involved in emergency assistance in pastoral areas. Managers, coordinators and technical staff working for NGOs in pastoral areas of Ethiopia.• Universities teaching subjects related to pastoral development, rural development, humanitarian• assistance, disaster risk reduction or related topics. Research institutes and universities conducing research in pastoral areas.• 1.4 How to use the guidelines The guidelines are organised into two main sections: The first section covers principles and issues which are common to all types of livestock-related• interventions during natural disasters in pastoral areas of Ethiopia. This section includes guidance on: Coordination of emergency responseo Early warning, early response and contingency planningo Community participationo Gender issueso Monitoring and evaluationo Outstanding learning and research issueso As these issues are generic for all types of livestock response, this section is relevant to all readers. The second section provides detailed guidance on different types of emergency livestock interven-• tions viz.
  • 14. 3 Destocking, including both commercial destocking and slaughter destocking with meat dis-o tribution Livestock feed supplementationo Emergency water supply for livestocko Emergency veterinary careo Restockingo Each section includes short case studies which illustrate specific technical points, plus a Further Read- ing section.
  • 15. 4
  • 16. 5 Chapter 2 Common Principles for all Livestock Interventions This section of the guidelines presents information on cross-cutting issues and principles which are common to all livestock interventions which are delivered during natural disasters in pastoral areas. 2.1 Coordination Coordination is the systematic use of policy instruments to deliver humanitarian assistance in a cohe- sive and effective manner. The coordination of livestock interventions is similar to coordination in other technical sectors, and relevant policy instruments include: Strategic planning• Continuous data gathering, managing information and contextual analysis• Mobilising resources and ensuring accountability• Orchestrating a functional division of labour in the field• Providing leadership• A range of actors can be involved in emergency livestock responses in pastoral areas. Strong coordina- tion is required to ensure overall technical direction and harmonisation of interventions, and to ensure that interventions follow these best-practice guidelines. Coordination not only involves linking govern- mental and non-governmental agencies, but for some interventions, requires liaison and support to vari- ous private sector actors and their respective bodies. Ideally, the coordination effort should also involve linkages with government and UN agencies responsible for the provision of food aid and/or productive safety nets in pastoral areas, thereby also ensuring integrated, harmonised programming between food, cash and livestock interventions. During drought, different types and combinations of livestock interventions are required at different times of the drought cycle. Coordination helps to ensure that different interventions complement each other under an overall coherent strategy, with appropriate sequencing of interventions. The combina- tions and types of interventions are described more fully under the guidelines on drought cycle manage- ment (see section 2.2). At federal level, the MoARD Agriculture Task Force (ATF) is the main government coordinating body with respect to livestock interventions. The ATF is replicated at regional levels. The ATF brings together all relevant UN, NGO and private sector actors. In addition to formal coordination entities convened by federal and regional government, various ad hoc coordination groups can be formed to lead specific types of intervention.
  • 17. 6 2.2 Analytical approaches and models 2.2.1 Livelihoods analysis During the last 25 years or so, pastoralist areas of Ethiopia have experienced repeated cycles of livestock relief and development programmes. Nearly always, these programmes have been discon- nected and often, they have been contradictory. While development seeks to build local capacity for decision making and management, relief agencies often override local organisations claiming that decisions have to be made quickly and impartially by technical experts. Development supports privatisation and the creation of services which are financially sustainable within an enabling regu- latory framework. Relief repeatedly undermines this process by delivering free or subsidised inputs in isolation of local, private service providers. One of the main outcomes of this relief-development incoherence is confusion and resignation at community level, and suboptimal investment in private services and livestock marketing. When the dichotomy between relief and development is viewed from a livelihoods perspective, it is evident that badly designed relief programmes may save lives in the short-term but in the long-term, make people more vulnerable. In relation to these guidelines, livelihoods analysis increasingly points to the need to harmonise livestock relief and development programmes in pastoralist areas, and use relief to complement development processes. In practice, this means that access to livestock markets and the utilisation of local livestock resources in relief interventions can help to stabilise livelihoods, and enhance the sustainability of other productive interventions (such as community-based animal health care) by increasing purchasing power. The need for more livelihoods-based thinking and practice also arises from important trends in pasto- ralist areas of Ethiopia and beyond. These trends include growing interest and investment in livestock export markets, gradual acceptance of privatised veterinary services at a policy level, climate change and environmental trends such as bush encroachment.
  • 18. 7 Box 2.1: Livelihoods analysis and pastoralism Livelihoods analysis aims to understand how people source, develop and use assets within a com- plex set of trends, shocks, and formal and informal policies and institutional arrangements. Such analysis is commonly based on a livelihoods framework which categorises assets in terms of five main types of capital: Human capital represents the skills, knowledge, ability to labour and good health that together, enable people to pursue different ways of making a living. In pastoralist areas, formal education and health services are often poorly developed and levels of literacy and health are low. However, pastoralists possess rich indigenous knowledge on livestock health and production, and some com- munities have traditional healers and traditional schools. Social capital is the social resources which people use to pursue different ways of making a living. Social capital includes networks, group membership, relationships of trust, and access to the wider institutions of society, including political institutions. The concept of reciprocity is important, as are the exchanges which facilitate co-operation, reduce transaction costs and safeguard the poor. Pastoralists often have strong social capital at community level, with complex systems of indigenous social support based on the exchange of livestock. Financial capital is the financial resources which people use to achieve livelihood objectives. It relates to both production and consumption, and the availability of cash (or equivalent) which en- ables conversion to other types of capital. In pastoralist communities, financial capital is based on the ownership of livestock or access to livestock resources. People consume directly from livestock (e.g. milk) and sell livestock and livestock products – markets are a crucial factor in the attainment of financial capital. Natural capital is the natural environmental resources which people use to make a living. It includes soil, water, vegetation and wildlife resources, and encompasses access rights and land ownership. In general, pastoralist areas are characterised by low rainfall with high spatial variability. It is this rainfall pattern which largely determines the seasonal movement of pastoral herds, and the seasonal variations in production and markets. Physical capital is the basic infrastructure and producer goods needed to support livelihoods. In pastoralist areas, the physical capital required to support livestock production is often poorly devel- oped. This includes roads, communication infrastructure and livestock markets. Access to and use of these different types of capital is determined by various factors: Seasonality, particularly seasonal variations in rainfall, livestock production and the terms of trade for livestock and cereals. Trends such as global climatic trends, the increasing occurrence and severity of drought, the growth of export markets for livestock, environmental change associated with bush encroachment, private enclosure of rangeland, and human population growth. Shocks such as livestock disease epidemics and conflict; as drought becomes more regular and predictable it might be categorised as a seasonal factor rather than a shock. In addition, pastoralist livelihoods are affected by various formal and informal norms, policies and institutions.
  • 19. 8 2.2.2 Drought cycle management In the case of slow onset emergencies such as drought, livelihoods analysis highlights the need to pro- tect assets and support the services and systems which in the long-term, are required for recovery and development. Increasingly, it is becoming questionable whether drought really is a shock, but more a regular and predictable event which occurs seasonally. In terms of the practicalities of designing livestock interventions, these can be categorised according to their relevance at a particular stage of a typical drought cycle. Some interventions such as water supply and veterinary care are always needed, whereas other interventions are appropriate only at cer- tain times. For example, support to commercial destocking should occur during the alarm/alert phases whereas restocking should take place during the recovery phase. Drought cycle ALERT/ALARM PHASE EMERGENCY PHASE RECOVERY PHASE NO DROUGHT                      Commercial destocking Feed supplementation Water supply Veterinary care General livestock development: Early warning system with triggers for action Drought contingency planning Water supply Veterinary services Livestock marketing Natural resource management Capacity-building Emergency livelihoods-based programming: Feed supplementation Recovery livelihoods-based programming Restocking Veterinary inputs - service provision Ongoing early warning system Water supply Slaughter destocking Veterinary care Ongoing drought monitoring Policy reform Early livelihood-based programming: Ongoing drought monitoring Figure 1. Livelihoods-based livestock interventions in the drought cycle. These guidelines refer to livestock interventions during the alert/alarm phase, the emergency phase and the recovery phase. A prerequisite for an effective and timely response is a strong early warning system based on livelihoods indicators. In pastoralist areas, such systems include indicators of livestock status and market conditions. Assigning different interventions to different stages in the drought cycle indicates that combined in- terventions are often needed. For example, in the alert/alarm phase commercial destocking to remove some animals from the rangeland should be accompanied by efforts to protect the remaining livestock,
  • 20. 9 such as veterinary care, feed supplementation and water provision. The need to combine different in- terventions simultaneously is a challenge, particularly if different interventions are assigned to different agencies - hence the need for strong coordination. Not only are different interventions appropriate at different stages of drought, the intensity and scale of the intervention often needs to change during the drought cycle. An example of activities at different stages of a drought is provided below. Table 2.1. Example of the type and intensity of activities required at different stages of a drought cycle Stage of drought cycle Activities Alert Organise meetings with government livestock departments and relief• bureaux Facilitate visits to areas of concern• Assist commercial destocking• Conduct water point surveys and check state of repair of water facilities;• check status of water management committees (if any) If not already in place, start weekly tracking of cereal and livestock prices• Check status of veterinary services, including availability of drugs in pub-• lic and private sectors, and status of CAHWs Alarm Scale up and intensify all the above activities, plus: Intensify commercial destocking• Expand livestock/cereal exchange• Define strategies for livestock feed supplementation• Support veterinary care as needed• Rapid rehabilitation of water points; co-ordinate with human water sup-• ply agencies as necessary Emergency Scale up all of the above activities, plus: Destocking for slaughter and local meat distribution• Supplementary feeding of core breeding animals• Recovery Maintain veterinary interventions, plus: Restocking of viable pastoralist households• No drought Drought contingency planning• 2.3 Preparedness and contingency planning A common experience during emergency response in pastoral areas of Ethiopia has been that livestock- related interventions have been delivered late, thereby reducing their relevance and effectiveness. This problem occurs even among agencies with long-term development programmes and experiences in a given area, and relates to at least two constraints affecting early warning and early response. First, exist- ing early warning systems are not yet well linked to drought response or drought cycle management, and so early warning reports do not fully assist agencies to design responses. Second, the absence of agreed triggers for response tends to delay response because different actors conduct their own assess- ments, often independently of others. In addition, once a decision has been made to act many agencies have to prepare funding proposals because contingency funds are not available. Even when contin- gency funds are accessible, administrative and procurement processes delay response. All of these issues relate to broader institutional and organisational capacities to prepare for, and re- spond to emergencies in the country, and are not specific to livestock interventions in pastoralist areas.
  • 21. 10 However, current evidence points to the cost-effectiveness of early response to drought in pastoral areas using approaches such as commercial destocking (Box 2.2). Box 2.2: Cost-effectiveness of commercial destocking During commercial destocking in parts of Moyale woreda in 2006 drought , households received Eth birr 1,620 (US$ 186) on average from the sale of cattle to traders, approximately 5,405 house- holds were reached and the total inflow of cash into communities from private traders was approxi- mately Eth birr 8.8 million (US$ 1.01 million). Those households which sold cattle used the income as follows: 28%• on food for people 19% on livestock feed• 12% on transporting livestock to better grazing areas• 9% on human health• 7% was saved• 6% on veterinary care• 5% on school expenses• 15% on other items• Overall, 79% of the income derived from destocking was used to buy local commodities or ser- vices, and of this proportion, 37% of income was used to support remaining livestock. Even though the intervention took place relatively late in the drought, the benefit-cost ratio of the commercial destocking in terms of aid investment was estimated at 41:1. Source: Abebe et al. (2008) Emergency preparedness and contingency planning activities which can support early response to emergencies in pastoralist areas include the following: Contingency plans and triggers – all agencies should develop contingency disaster plans with clearly- defined triggers for action and the subsequent release of funds and other resources. Many of the most effective emergency livestock responses have been implemented by agencies with long-term develop- ment experience in a particular area, and which have incorporated disaster response plans into devel- opment programmes. Such plans are informed by knowledge of past crises, and the types of response which can be implemented within a given operational and funding context. It is important that con- tingency plans are developed with local partners and include specific, clearly defined and pre-agreed triggers for prompting action and the release of contingency funds. Procurement and administrative arrangements – using these guidelines and by reference to their own operational experience, agencies should pre-empt the types of livestock intervention which are most likely to be applied in different types of emergency and in the case of drought, different phases of the drought cycle management model. They should ensure that supportive and rapid procurement, and other administrative procedures, are put in place before emergencies occur. Despite the development of contingency plans, during implementation some agencies are faced with unexpected financial or ad- ministrative barriers within their own organisations. Innovative livelihoods-based programming around
  • 22. 11 livestock can require the rapid procurement of novel items, such as large quantities of animal feed. Alternatively, it may need contracts with private sector operators such as transport companies, feed sup- pliers or veterinary workers. Agencies need to review their administrative procedures in light of the need for flexibility and rapid decision making during emergency response. Drought cycle management - contingency plans should be based on the principles of drought cycle management and early response, with appropriate sequencing of interventions. Although drought is usually described as an emergency, livelihoods-based approaches suggests that drought should be viewed as an expected and normal event in many dryland areas. Systematic impact assessment and benefit-cost analyses of early livelihoods-based drought interventions such as commercial de-stocking clearly show the rational for this approach. During drought in pastoralist areas, different combinations of interventions are appropriate at different stages of a drought, and drought cycle management uses specific indicators to trigger these different responses. 2.4 Community participation Pastoralist and agropastoralist communities in Ethiopia possess very rich indigenous knowledge on livestock husbandry and health, and natural resources such as vegetation and water. Increasingly, this indigenous knowledge is becoming documented by research institutes, universities and other actors, and is central to the process of community participation in the identification, design, implementation and assessment of livestock relief interventions. Guidelines for ensuring community participation are detailed below. Involvement of vulnerable groups - all specific sub-sets and vulnerable groups in a population are identified, informed that an assessment and possible intervention(s) will take place, and encouraged to participate in the assessment process. The actual or potential uses or ownership of livestock often varies in pastoralist communities according to wealth, gender or other factors. If community views are represented only by more wealthy or powerful individuals, it is possible that livestock interventions will be biased towards these people. While wealthier people might own larger animals such as cattle or camels, and request assistance for these animals, it is possible that poorer female-headed households would prefer assistance with sheep and goats, poultry or donkeys. Agencies need to be sensitive to these differences and ensure appropriate representation of different groups. In relief settings there is no standard definition of participation. For some agency staff, participation can mean the delivery of inputs to affected communities who have not been involved in setting priorities or identifying needs. In this case, people participate in the programme often because they have no choice. Other types of participation are based on a process of joint assessment, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. This type of participation assumes that affected communities have a right to be involved in the programme and can make intellectual contributions which improve effectiveness and efficiency. The common principle of participation recognises that local knowledge and skills are valuable resourc- es for relief agencies and should be actively sourced. When specifically seeking the involvement of women in relief programming, knowledge of local social and cultural norms is required. It is usually better to hold separate meetings with women, where men cannot dominate or influence the discussion. Similarly, such meetings are best facilitated by women. Indigenous knowledge and sustainability - key indigenous livestock production and health knowledge and practices, and pre-existing livestock services should be documented and used. Sustained services
  • 23. 12 or inputs are most likely to emerge from disaster responses when these responses promote participation, recognise local knowledge and skills, and use and strengthen pre-existing services and systems. In the case of livestock interventions, agencies need to be especially aware that when relief operations are implemented in isolation of local private service providers, these local systems suffer. In some cases, early interventions which allow livestock keepers to convert some of their livestock into cash also en- ables people to buy the commodities and services they wish. A similar result can be achieved through voucher schemes. Social and cultural norms - interventions are based on an understanding of social and cultural norms. Social, cultural and religious beliefs and practices influence livestock ownership, and the use and con- sumption of livestock products. Uses of certain types of animals or animal-derived feeds may seem ap- propriate and practical to outsiders, but may be resisted due to local customs. Although people are not always averse to adopting new practices, such adoption often takes time and the use of agency staff with long experience in the communities concerned. When rapid intervention is required, an understanding of social and cultural norms helps to ensure that interventions are appropriate. 2.5 Rapid assessment at community level The reliable and timely assessment of needs, capabilities and intervention options is a crucial stage in any livestock-based emergency response. The assessment should provide an understanding of the role of livestock in the livelihoods of different socio-economic groups within a population, and an analysis of appropriate livestock interventions in relation to operational context and existing service providers and systems. Participatory analysis - the assessment should use systematic, participatory inquiry conducted by trained workers, and it should also triangulate findings with pre-existing technical data when avail- able. Rapid and systematic participatory inquiry is an appropriate and valid approach to collecting and analysing information with local people. The approach requires clearly defined objectives/questions and a methodology which focuses on meeting these objectives. Validity of findings increases with the level of training and experience of agency staff who conduct the inquiry; when data is cross-checked with pre-existing technical reports, government data or published data; and when results are discussed and verified with local livestock workers, when available. When conducted well, participatory inquiry inherently seeks to understand the perceptions of vulnerable and marginalised groups and therefore, automatically disaggregates data by subgroup. Security and safety - the assessment should include a rapid review of the operational environment and the security and safety implications of different livestock interventions. Essentially, livestock assets are valuable, and the ownership or management of livestock may place people at greater risk of violence, abduction or abuse. Analysis of the local security environment in relation to livestock ownership pat- terns, recent history of livestock looting or raiding, husbandry practices and the need to access livestock services or markets should indicate high-risk practices and activities. These practices and activities include moving livestock to insecure grazing areas or water points, using grazing areas which are mined or which have unexploded ordinance, or containing livestock at night in unprotected areas. The assessment should analyse the trade-offs between the potential livelihoods benefits of greater livestock ownership or access to livestock products, with the security risks. In some cases, traditional livestock management might be modified to enhance protection. In addition, agencies need to understand the risks to their own staff or the staff of partner organisations.
  • 24. 13 Assessing local services and markets – the assessment should clearly describe existing local service providers, explain if and how the interventions will work with these actors, and define an exit strategy intended to maximise the sustained use of local services and markets. Livestock interventions which support local services and markets are an important aspect of livelihoods-based programming. Local service providers include livestock feed suppliers, water suppliers, veterinary and para-veterinary work- ers, livestock traders and livestock transporters. The assessment should describe these actors, their cur- rent capacity and their potential capacity. Policies and regulations - the assessment should include a rapid analysis of national policies and regu- lations which may enable or prevent certain interventions, and review the capacity of local regulatory bodies to enforce official rules and regulations as needed. 2.6 Targeting of interventions Emergency livestock interventions should aim to protect the assets of the most vulnerable groups within a population. This principle together with the realities of the funds available in disasters means that some form of targeting is needed in most if not all programmes. In some cases, a particularly vulnerable group is relatively easy to identify and target because they are already congregated around a food aid distribution point, or living in an IDP camp. In other situations, vulnerable people are still living within communities and a special effort is needed to identify them and target them. Note that if the principle of community participation has been followed (section 2.4) and the initial participatory analysis has been done well (section 2.5), the needs and capacities of specific vulnerable groups will already be known. Some additional guidelines for targeting are as follows: Targeting criteria - should be based on an understanding of the actual or potential uses of livestock by vulnerable groups, and they should be clearly defined and widely disseminated. The targeting criteria should be developed with community representatives or better, in wider community meetings, and should be informed by prior knowledge of vulnerable groups by agency staff, as obtained during the initial participatory assessment. In communities who are highly reliant on livestock, analysis of indig- enous social support systems will often reveal different types of vulnerable people by wealth, gender or social relationship. Working with local community groups can lead to a targeting system based on this traditional knowledge. Targeting mechanisms - to ensure transparency and impartiality during the selection of beneficiaries, a targeting mechanism should be agreed with representatives of the wider community and/or specific vulnerable groups. Mechanisms will vary from place to place, but may include public meetings in which the targeting criteria are explained and the actual selection takes place. In some communities, such public selection may be inappropriate for social or cultural reasons. 2.7 Monitoring, evaluation and impact assessment Monitoring, evaluation and impact assessment are one of the weakest aspects of livestock relief pro- grammes. In the absence of good evaluation and with limited understanding of livelihoods impact, agencies can easily fall into a pattern of simply repeating the same interventions over many years. Monitoring systems - should be systematic and established as soon as possible during implementation. Monitoring should be conducted with sufficient frequency to enable rapid detection and correction of
  • 25. 14 problems, while also ensuring accurate recording of activities and expenditure. Monitoring indicators need to be carefully selected to have meaning beyond a simplistic measurement of inputs (for example, see Box 2.3). Box 2.3: Meaningful indicators Many monitoring and evaluation reports present data on activities, without relating the data to tar- get communities, livestock populations or other baseline information. Example: animal health A report which states that ‘1,500 sheep and goats were dewormed’ might look impressive in terms of activity. But, assume that the sheep and goat population in the target areas was 100,000 and the estimated incidence of worm disease during the project period was 10%. In this example, 1,500 treated animals actually represents only 15% of the population at risk and therefore, low cover- age of the intervention. A more meaningful indicator would be to report the number of treatments against the number of animals at risk of disease. Example: water provision A report states that ‘10 wells were improved’, again showing a level of activity. But, more useful indicators would be the five standard indicators for service provision viz. changes in accessibility, availability, affordability, quality and acceptance. These indicators are relatively easy to measure and can be presented against a baseline. Local monitoring and evaluation indicators - following the common principle of community partici- pation (section 2.4), the monitoring and evaluation of livestock interventions should be participatory in nature. Not only can livestock users make intellectual contributions to the assessment and design of interventions, they are also well-placed to observe the impact of these interventions over time. Par- ticipatory approaches to monitoring and evaluation can use local people’s own indicators of benefits derived from livestock. When combined with monitoring data on project activities, an accurate picture of project impact can then be developed. Evaluate against objectives – the project evaluation should aim to assess achievements against the original stated objectives of the project. It can combine measurement of technical indicators and com- munity-defined indicators. Assess livelihoods impact – impact assessment goes beyond project objectives to examine the changes in people’s livelihoods which have resulted from a project. For emergency livestock interventions such impacts can include consumption of livestock-derived foods by vulnerable groups, uses of income derived from the sale of livestock or livestock products, benefits derived from access to pack animals, or social benefits such as livestock gifts or loans. Impact assessment should aim to understand these benefits and the relative importance or role of projects in increasing or decreasing these benefits. Coordinated approaches - for programmes involving multiple agencies, standardised and coordinated approaches to monitoring and evaluation allows programme-wide lessons to be generated. Standardised approaches can be based on a set of core objectives, issues or questions common to all agencies, while also allowing for the flexible use of community-defined indicators in different locations.
  • 26. 15 Annex 2.1 Further reading Abebe, D., Cullis, A., Catley, A., Aklilu, Y., Mekonnen, G. and Ghebrechirstos, Y. (2008). Livelihoods impact and benefit-cost estimation of a commercial de-stocking relief intervention in Moyale district, southern Ethiopia. Disasters, 32/2, June 2008. ALNAP (2003). Participation by Crisis-Affected Populations in Humanitarian Action: A Handbook for Practitioners. Active Learning Network for Accountability and Performance in Humanitarian Action, Overseas Development Institute, London, UK. Anon (2007). Livestock Emergency Guidelines and Standards - Second Consultative Draft November 2007, http://www.livestock-emergency.net Anon (2003). Livestock Interventions: Important Principles for OFDA. Office for Foreign Disaster Assistance, Washington DC. http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/humanitarian_assistance/disaster_ assistance/sectors/mods/docs/livestock_guidances_11-19-02.pdf Gosling, L. and Edwards, M. (1995). Toolkits: A practical guide to planning, monitoring, evaluation and impact assessment. Development Manual No. 5, Save the Children, London. IIRR, Acacia Consultants Ltd. and CORDAID (2004). Drought Cycle Management: A toolkit for the drylands of the Greater Horn. IIRR, Acacia Consultants Ltd. and CORDAID, Nairobi, Kenya. Morton, J. (2006). Pastoralist coping strategies and emergency livestock intervention In: J.G. McPeak and P.D. Little (eds.), Pastoral Livestock Marketing in Eastern Africa: Research and Policy Challenges. Intermediate Technology Publications, Rugby, 227-255. Pastoralist Livelihoods Initiative (2007). Impact Assessments of Livelihoods-based Drought Interventions in Moyale and Dire Woredas, Ethiopia. Feinstein International Center, Tufts University. http://fic.tufts.edu/ downloads/ImpactAssessmentsofLivelihoods-basedDroughtInterventionsinMoyaleandDireWoredas.pdf Pratt, C. (2001). Traditional Early Warning Systems and Coping Strategies for Drought Among Pastoralist Communities, North Eastern Province, Kenya. Feinstein International Famine Center, Medford. Smith, G. and Lough, R. (2001). Drought-Related Livestock Interventions. Food and Agricutlure Organisation, Rome, Italy. The Sphere Project (undated). The Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response. The Sphere Project http://www.sphereproject.org/content/view/27/84 Transitional Government of Ethiopia (1993). National Policy on Disaster Prevention and Management. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
  • 27. 16
  • 28. 17 Chapter 3 Destocking and Market Support 3.1 Overview During drought in pastoral areas a substantial number of livestock will perish, and communities will therefore lose some or all of their animals. Recovery of herds after drought can take many years, during which time households remain dependent on local support mechanisms or external aid. Alternatively, after drought, restocking programmes may assist some households but are far more expensive than pre- serving key livestock assets during a drought. At a time when market prices for livestock can be falling, destocking aims to convert non-essential livestock into resources - mainly cash or meat - which people can use during the drought. Destocking has been carried out in Ethiopia since the 1980s when the Relief and Rehabilitation Commis- sion (now the DPPA) and UNICEF initiated destocking operations to provide relief meat to feeding camps in the north and south of the country. Since then, a number of agencies, mainly NGOs, have carried out destocking in pastoral areas for slaughter and meat distribution. Such operations have usually been small- scale, localised, and often implemented in an ad hoc fashion. More importantly, these interventions have nearly always started late in the drought cycle when substantial livestock mortality has already occurred, or when livestock had lost considerable body weight resulting in a sharp decline in prices. The value of animals salvaged in this way has generally been minimal although some useful lessons have been learnt that now have the potential to support the design of more effective destocking programmes. More recently, ‘commercial destocking’ (sometimes called ‘accelerated livestock off-take’) has been used in pastoral areas of southern Ethiopia, with government and NGOs facilitating linkages between livestock traders and drought-affected communities. Therefore, there are two main approaches to de- stocking currently being used in Ethiopia: Commercial destocking• involves the engagement of livestock traders to boost livestock off-take from a drought-affected area so that they can be fattened and sold through terminal markets. This type of destocking provides pastoralists with cash, which they can then use to buy the commodities and services they need, including items to protect their remaining livestock. This type of destocking should take place as soon as possible, at the onset of drought. Slaughter destocking• programmes are based on the purchase of livestock by an aid agency, fol- lowed by immediate, local slaughter and the distribution of meat in either a wet or dry form. This type of destocking takes place later in a drought, at a time when livestock traders are no longer purchasing livestock. One way to view destocking is as a cash-transfer mechanism. As such, commercial destocking is pre- ferred because it results in pastoralists selling animals earlier in a drought and receiving a higher price per animal. Even when livestock prices are falling and grain prices are rising during drought, the sale of only a few animals can provide a pastoral household with sufficient grain to sustain it for weeks or even months.
  • 29. 18 Box 3.1: The value of livestock sales during drought for sustaining pastoralist households Commercial destocking Drawing on experiences from commercial destocking in Moyale woreda, southern Ethiopia in 2006, it was known that livestock traders were paying on average Eth birr 438 per head of cattle purchased. If a pastoralist sold only one animal and used the money to buy grain to feed the household, then approximately 292kg of maize could be acquired (assuming a maize price of Eth birr 150/100kg). This amount of grain could cover the energy requirements of a seven-person pastoral household (two adults and five children) for 83 days. Although in this example it is unlikely that the maize would be the only type of food eaten by the household the calculation shows the value of commercial destocking. Not only were the cattle pur- chased using funds from the private sector, a potential saving in terms of food aid was also evident. Slaughter destocking Using the sale price of livestock during a slaughter destocking intervention in Dire woreda in 2006, similar calculations can be made as follows: Livestock spe- cies Sale price (Eth birr) Amount of maize which can be purchased (kg) from the sale of one animal Number of days for which pur- chased maize could cover a seven- person household energy needs Camel 580 387 110 Cattle 290 193 55 Sheep and goats 70 47 13 Although these calculations will vary from place to place, they indicate that even during drought when livestock prices are low and grain prices are high, the sale of livestock to buy food for people is efficient in terms of acquiring food to sustain families during drought. While the calculations in Box 3.1 show the logic of converting livestock into grain for people, both types of destocking outlined assume that to some degree, pastoralists will use some of the cash derived from destocking to protect their remaining livestock assets. Therefore, destocking relates to the concept of maintaining a ‘core herd’ which is needed for post-drought recovery. It follows that various other types of livestock service or intervention are complementary to destocking because they may assist pas- toralists to maintain a core group of adult breeding animals. Depending on the timing of destocking and private sector actors in a given area, these additional services may be available from private suppliers or service providers, or, will need to be provided by government or an NGO. The services include: Supplementary feeding - the adequacy of feed resources for the animals that are retained after destock- ing needs to be considered and provision made for supplementary feeding as necessary. Ideally, if de- stocking is conducted early enough private suppliers can provide at least some of the required feed. Veterinary support - destocking can reduce the risk of disease transmission by reducing animal den- sity and the removal of sick animals. However, adequate veterinary care still needs to be provided for remaining animals. Again, if conducted early in a drought, veterinary care can be provided by private veterinary workers.
  • 30. 19 Water supply - adequate water for the needs of remaining animals needs to be provided as well as the water that is required to ensure hygienic practices during slaughter destocking operations. In addition to these services, agencies need to be aware of food aid distribution and safety net provisions in a given area and where possible, integrate livestock interventions with these other types of assistance. Although destocking is sometimes justified in terms of limiting pressure on grazing resources, to date in Ethiopia there is limited evidence to show the environmental impact of these interventions. It is possible that large-scale commercial destocking could have positive environmental impacts, and this is an area which requires evaluation in future. 3.2 Coordination issues Many agencies in Ethiopia have had substantial involvement in planning and implementing destocking programmes. Ensuring that this experience contributes to future responses is more likely to result in a time- ly response and effective implementation. In particular, commercial destocking requires linkages between actors such as traders who are not based in pastoral areas, and actors on the ground in pastoral areas. This type of destocking requires a strong, central coordination body for ensuring support and harmonisation of local and international organisations (both governmental and non-governmental) and livestock traders. In previous commercial destocking approaches, the Livestock Marketing Authority has taken an overall lead in facilitating the process and has worked closely with NGOs and livestock traders. n slaughter destocking, operations tend to be more localised and these interventions are far less reliant on actors who are not normally present in pastoral areas. Therefore, the coordination effort needs to be particularly strong at the regional and woreda levels. The coordination needs, for example, to ensure consistency in livestock sale prices offered to pastoralists in neighbouring areas. Specific functions of coordination bodies during destocking include: Needs and capacity assessment - coordinating the collection and collation of information required to identify priority areas for intervention and to assess needs to be addressed by the response. Identification of lead and support agencies - conducting an assessment of the capacity of agencies operating in affected areas e.g. extent of presence in the field, length of experience, knowledge of lo- cal norms and customs. This will help to ensure that the resources devoted to the response are used effectively. Support for policy measures - for example gathering market price data to assist with the setting of prices paid under a slaughter destocking programme. Engagement with traders - in commercial destocking, ensuring that traders are identified to participate in a commercial destocking initiative and that their needs and any contractual obligations are properly addressed. Facilitation of livestock transport by easing taxation - in commercial destocking, the coordination body can liaise with different tax authorities along routes where livestock are being transported by traders. Provision of uniform services - ensuring that the support services required by the programme such as animal feeds, water, slaughter equipment and personnel are provided at all locations in which it will operate.
  • 31. 20 Establishment and management of contingency funds - coordinating the different sources of funds re- quired to support the operational costs of the destocking programme is a way of ensuring that they are used effectively. Ensuring linkages with food aid and safety nets – liaison with food aid and safety programmes can assist targeting and other aspects of destocking. Documentation of experiences and practices - effective recording of lessons learned (e.g. in respect of intervention timing and management, efficiency, efficacy, cost-benefits and levels of community participation) is likely to be of considerable value in enhancing the value of future operations. Table 3.1. Advantages and disadvantages of destocking Advantages Disadvantages Allows purchase of livestock which otherwise would have died, thereby provides cash to households (commercial destocking), or, cash and meat to households (slaughter destocking); meat is a use- ful dietary supplement particularly for children and pregnant or nursing women. Livestock prices can be rapidly eroded in emergency situations. As a result, commercial destocking initiatives have a narrow window of opportunity during which implementation is financially viable. The cash derived from destocking - especially com- mercial destocking - is often used to support local markets and services, and to protect remaining livestock. This reduces the need for other interven- tions and helps to maintain the local markets and services needed for recovery. The interest of commercial traders will partly depend on factors such as the final demand for meat or live animals in terminal domestic or export markets, and the capacity of holding grounds or feedlots. Commercial destocking is therefore highly dependent on the state of live- stock markets during normal periods. Commercial destocking can be very cost-effective as a large part of the financial burden is borne by participating traders. Some traders may have insufficient capital to buy large numbers of animals. The provision of rapid loans during drought is currently problem- atic. Slaughter destocking can augment other sources of food aid by redistributing meat within affected com- munities. Some pastoral communities are reluctant to consume meat from drought-stricken animals for cultural reasons. Careful dialogue with communi- ties is needed to change attitudes. If a substantial proportion of the livestock popu- lation in a given area is destocked, pressure on natural resources may be reduced. Commercial destocking by private traders partly depends on good infrastructure, especially roads, to access more remote communities. As part of an integrated emergency response, judicious destocking can be used to enhance the viability of other interventions aimed at preserving herds (e.g. supplementary feeding). Removal of livestock from a community is a drastic measure. Other interventions (e.g. relocation or supplementary feeding) will allow more rapid herd reconstitution during the recov- ery phase. If a longer term view is taken, destocking offers the opportunity to cull poorer quality or chronically diseased stock. These may be replaced with better animals during the recovery phase. Many NGOs are not used to working with traders during emergencies, or donors may not allow NGO support to traders.
  • 32. 21 Box 3.2: National coordination arrangements during commercial destocking in Ethiopia During the 2006 drought in the Borana area of Ethiopia, a national coordination strategy was de- vised through the State Ministry of Agricultural Inputs and Marketing, comprising Ethiopian Live Animals Exporters Association, Meat Exporters Association, Oromiya Pastoral Development Com- mission (OPDC), NGOs, UN agencies and academic partners. Initially, meetings were held on a weekly basis and bi-weekly thereafter as the drought situation improved. All national and export livestock traders were invited to participate in commercial destocking (through mass media) and field visits were arranged for the traders in three drought-affected areas. NGOs on the ground arranged purchase sites and secured temporary assembling grounds close to purchase points for the traders. Similarly, the Ministry in collaboration with the OPDC arranged ac- cess for the traders to acquire temporary holding grounds close to fattening centres. USAID also arranged a meeting between commercial banks and the livestock traders to explore if fast track loans could be made available. However, the banks were not in a position to provide loans to the traders due to time constraints. The strong coordination enabled the purchase of some 25,000 head of drought-stricken cattle by traders, by far the largest amount of livestock purchased in the history of destocking interventions in Ethiopia. 3.3 Commercial destocking Although experiences with commercial destocking in Ethiopia during drought are limited, assessments conducted so far indicate that this intervention should be prioritised above other types of livestock intervention during the early stages of drought. The cash which is transferred to pastoralists during com- mercial destocking is derived from the private sector, and the key role of government and NGO actors is to link livestock traders with communities who need to sell some of their livestock. Furthermore, the cash acquired by pastoralists is used for local purchases of commodities and services and therefore helps to maintain local economies. Expenditure on livestock feed, veterinary care or the transport of livestock to distant grazing areas also helps to reduce the need for government or NGOs to intervene with these types of support. 3.3.1 Guidance on the timing of commercial destocking In Ethiopia various sources of early warning information are available to indicate that commercial de- stocking is required. In areas where early warning systems are not operational, field-level assessments by experienced practitioners can be as useful as early warning reports. In the case of early warning systems based on remote sensing, field-level verification of information is required. Using the drought cycle management model, commercial destocking should take place in the alert and alarm stages of a drought, and the indicators which can inform a decision to support commercial destocking include: Deviations in water availability and pasture production - rainfall failure or reductions in precipitation in the short and long seasons in any given year will generally lead to reduced pasture and standing water. In some cases, this could be a localised problem that can be resolved by indigenous responses.
  • 33. 22 Periodically however, drought may affect the entire eco-system and extend to populations in neighbour- ing countries. The severity and extent of disruption in biomass availability is monitored by the online Livestock Early Warning System. Non-seasonal changes in market activities - increases in livestock availability at markets (without a cor- responding increase in demand) can indicate that livestock keepers are resorting to distress disposal. In this situation, prices will fall but individuals may hope to salvage some value from their animals through normal market channels. Under these conditions, a 25 per cent drop in livestock prices is generally regarded as a trigger point for initiating destocking. Increases in cereal prices - early in the alert stage of a developing drought, cereal prices can show a tendency to rise with no associated increase in the value of livestock. In this situation, a 25 per cent increase in cereal prices can be regarded as the threshold for considering a destocking operation. Unseasonal migrations - early migrations in search of pasture and water are often initiated before the drought situation worsens and mass migrations commence. These generally involve the removal of only the most valuable animals and, when occurring widely, may provide strong evidence of indigenous concern that a drought may be approaching. Indeed, indigenous approaches to predicting drought are often accurate and should be recognised. Unusual migration routes - vertical migrations along unusual routes and taking place either at normal times or out-of-season may indicate local perceptions of a worsening situation. Examples of unusual vertical migrations include the migration of Afar to Cheffa and Issas to West Hararghe, Dakata, the Erer Valley and Fafem. 3.3.2 Determining the feasibility of commercial destocking Commercial destocking is highly reliant on private livestock traders and therefore, the domestic and ex- port demand for livestock and meat at a particular time, plus the capacity of holding grounds and feed- lots, should be assessed. Livestock traders will not buy substantial numbers of livestock from drought- affected areas unless there is a demand for live animals or meat at terminal markets in Ethiopia or outside the country. It follows that rapid analysis of the overall livestock marketing situation is central to assessing the feasibility of commercial destocking, and the scale of the livestock purchases which might take place. Such analysis should involve experts and government technical staff with a detailed and up-to-date knowledge of the local and national livestock marketing systems, trends in the export of livestock and meat, and the facilities and services that are in place at all levels. This rapid analysis should then inform dialogue and discussion with livestock traders in order to reach a joint decision on whether or not commercial destocking should take place. Some specific issues which need to be considered during the rapid analysis and subsequent dialogue with traders include: The location and size of the drought-affected area(s), and therefore, an approximate estimation of• types and numbers of livestock which might be available for sale. The general body condition of different species and types of livestock, and their market value;• while some traders may prefer to buy only animals in relatively good body condition, other traders may buy thin animals with a view to fattening them.
  • 34. 23 The demand for specific types of livestock and meat in various domestic and international mar-• kets. The capacity of abattoirs, feedlots and holding grounds, and government commitment to making• land available as temporary holding grounds if necessary. The location of the drought-affected area(s) with respect to main roads, accessibility to communi-• ties who may sell livestock, and an understanding of the additional transaction costs required to reach more remote areas. The capacity of local government and NGO actors to work with communities to create temporary• markets, and to explain the commercial destocking approach to communities. The commitment of government to relax certain taxation issues or other bureaucratic procedures,• thereby enabling rapid purchase and transport of livestock by traders. Options for combining off-take of livestock with the provision of livestock feed to remaining ani-• mals, using the same vehicles. During the analysis and discussion with livestock traders it is important to note that traders cannot be forced to purchase livestock in situations where demand at terminal markets does not support substan- tial purchases and inflow of animals into the supply chain. The status of markets will largely determine the economic rationale and ultimate success of commercial destocking. Government and NGO actors also need to be aware that livestock traders may request loans to assist rapid procurement, but that ide- ally, traders should use their own capital to buy livestock. Systems for the approval and administration of rapid loans to livestock traders are not well developed, and are not easily supported by many NGOs or private banks. When loans are to be used, a control mechanism should be put in place to ensure that loan funds are used specifically for the purchase and transport of animals. 3.3.3 Guidance on the design and implementation of commercial destocking Most types of livestock interventions in pastoral areas during drought are very much under the control of government agencies and NGOs, and these actors can work with communities to design specific aspects of the intervention in question. In contrast, commercial destocking is largely shaped by market factors and the need for private traders to make a reasonable profit from their activities and minimise risks to their investment. Design and implementation issues which can be influenced and facilitated by government and NGOs include: Communication and liaison with communities - to explain the commercial destocking approach and to introduce livestock traders to communities e.g. through field visits arranged for the traders. Identification of sellers - discussion with communities to agree which households should sell animals. As shown in Box 3.1 the sale of only a small number of animals can enable a household to acquire sufficient grain to meet its nutritional energy needs for many weeks, or even months. In terms of relief assistance, it is therefore preferable to support an approach whereby many households have the oppor- tunity to sell small numbers of livestock, rather than a few households selling many livestock. Support measures - through a strong, central coordination body government and NGO actors can help to ensure that various support measures are in place to facilitate commercial destocking. These mea- sures include:
  • 35. 24 Health inspection of purchased livestock• - by government veterinary public health officers. Temporary holding grounds• – the coordination body should support implementing agencies by liaising with regional, zonal and woreda authorities to secure temporary holding grounds where traders can assemble purchased animals until they are fit for transportation. Traders may also re- quire additional land close to feedlot centres in order to accommodate increasing numbers of animals. Provision of water and feed -• the national coordinating body should coordinate the provision of feed to livestock purchased by traders on a full cost recovery basis. These animals should also be given access to existing water points in the operational area. Veterinary services -• liaison with the Department of Veterinary Services will ensure that recom- mended vaccines and drugs can be supplied for livestock assembled by traders by veterinary pro- fessionals. Fuel availability -• the national coordinating body should take measures to ensure the availability of fuel along major destocking routes. Security -• coordination with local authorities will be needed to make sure that accessible sites are safe and secure enough for commercial destocking. Taxation -• the national coordinating body should negotiate with federal and regional customs of- fices to exempt livestock traders from paying transit taxes when moving livestock across regions in times of emergency. Transport -• the use of options, such as government owned vehicles, should be explored to alleviate transport shortages for moving livestock. Support should also be provided by the Road Transport Authority in order to minimise unnecessary delays. Control measures - a number of control measures need to be implemented to minimise the likelihood of unscrupulous individuals capitalising on the situation for personal gains. These measures are particu- larly important in the case of transport subsidies and as such subsidies are not a preferred option for de- stocking, they will not be commonly applied. In the event that transport subsidies are used, purchased livestock need to be marked (tagged or tattooed) and local officials need to ensure that their departures (date, time, vehicle particulars and operators etc.) are properly documented. Inspection officers receiv- ing animals at fattening centres can then verify that the livestock have been properly transported by checking against the original documents. In general, payments should only be made after ensuring that purchased stocks have arrived at the fattening centre. Selling arrangements - working with communities and traders to agree on issues such as the location and timing of purchase areas and temporary markets. Agencies need to identify target locations for destocking programmes based on both need and feasibility. Access problems can be a major issue limit- ing the geographical coverage of commercial destocking. Households wishing to sell livestock may be scattered within villages, and villages may be some distance from each other. Therefore, commercial destocking may tend to benefit people in villages that are relatively close to major roads at the expense of people living in more remote areas. To some extent, this problem may be addressed by adopting a rotational operation in which isolated communities are reached by specifying fixed, temporary market days for different locations. Purchase sites and timing of markets should be determined in consultation with local communities. They should generally be existing villages or temporary settlements to avoid the need for lengthy trekking of weakened animals.
  • 36. 25 Box 3.3: Expanding coverage through temporary markets During the drought in 2006 in parts of southern Ethiopia, commercial destocking took place in which private livestock traders were introduced to pastoralist communities with livestock to sell. Between 5th to 25th February 2006 the traders purchased 6,292 male cattle by expanding coverage through temporary markets. Purchased cattle were either transported directly to holding grounds in Nazreth, Awash and Metehara, or held in the Moyale area where they were provided with fod- der until they were healthy enough to travel. The traders used temporary market places to expand their coverage and utilise the time efficiently so that they could destock as many animals as possible. Malab, Tilo Medo, Tuqa, Argen, Medo, Goofaa, and Dembi are among some of the sites established as temporary market places in Moyale woreda of Ethiopia. Examples of some temporary market places around Moyale during the 2006 drought Location of tem- porary market (Eth birr) Number of cattle sold Average price (Eth birr) Total price Date of sales Tuqaa 708 512 362,240 February 5th – 8th, 2006 Qatella 826 428 353,505 February 5th – 8th, 2006 Malab 51 453 23,100 February 5th, 2006 Total 1,585 466 738,845 February 5th – 8th, 2006 Monitoring arrangements - so that livestock purchases by type and price can be recorded and assigned to specific households. This is a key role for NGO or government actors, and can greatly assist evalua- tion and assessment of the destocking at a later stage. Aspects of commercial destocking which are heavily influenced, if not determined by the traders in- clude: Types of livestock for purchase - the species, age and sex of livestock to be purchased, and the preferred body condition. Traders know the best end-markets for purchased livestock and will select animals ac- cordingly. As a general rule, young adult or adult male animals in good body condition will be bought, although in some situations traders will also buy very thin livestock knowing these animals can be fat- tened and sold at a later date. To some extent, trader preferences will match pastoralist’s preferences, because pastoralists will tend to retain adult breeding females to assist herd recovery after drought. The prices of livestock - the prime motivation for traders is profit. Traders realise this profit as a result of low prevailing purchase prices for drought-affected animals. When animals are thin, a rapid weight gain is possible when they are returned to an adequate plane of nutrition.
  • 37. 26 A significant element of profit maximisation for traders is the minimising of costs including road access, provision of water, feed and security. As a result, traders will opt to purchase animals that are in better condition (for the price) and closer to roads. 3.4 Slaughter destocking Slaughter destocking is a less preferred option compared with commercial destocking, because it usual- ly takes place when livestock traders are no longer willing or able to buy livestock from drought-affected areas. Therefore, slaughter destocking occurs during the emergency phase of a drought when livestock condition is very poor and unless purchased and slaughtered, large numbers of animals are likely to die without any benefit (or only very minor benefit) to their owners. Slaughter destocking usually requires the use of funds from aid agencies and therefore is limited in terms of the numbers of animals which can be purchased. Compared to commercial destocking, there is much more experience in Ethiopia with slaughter de- stocking and in part, this is because slaughter destocking usually takes place later in a drought. 3.4.1 Guidance on the timing of slaughter destocking Although slaughter destocking is less preferred to commercial destocking, it is still an intervention which can offer a rapid way of reducing the burden of livestock upon peoples’ livelihoods under the extreme conditions of an emergency situation. At the same time, it can deliver tangible benefits to af- fected households by providing meat or cash, and can also provide short-term employment for a limited number of community members. The decision to conduct slaughter destocking or not should be informed largely by information on the stage of a drought and the behaviour of livestock traders. Therefore slaughter destocking should take place when: A drought has entered the emergency stage in terms of drought cycle management• Traders are no longer willing to buy livestock due to factors such as the poor body condition of• animals (and therefore, high mortality during transportation) or the inaccessibility of communities due to poor roads or other reasons. At this time, sharp drops in livestock prices resulting from loss of condition are evident. It can be noted that some areas may be viewed by traders as inaccessible during the alert or alarm stages of a drought and in these situations, slaughter destocking could be considered before the emergency stage. 3.4.2 Determining the feasibility of slaughter destocking A number of key questions can assist agencies to assess the feasibility of slaughter destocking. What is the stage of the drought and state of livestock markets? As indicated in section 3.4.1, the need for slaughter destocking partly depends on the stage of the drought and a rapid decline in livestock value in local markets.
  • 38. 27 Are there particular households which could be assisted? Within a community there may be specific disadvantaged sub-groups at particular risk of severe food or income deficits. Slaughter destocking can be a way to target these groups with assistance in the form of cash or meat. How might cultural factors affect the intervention? Some target populations may have cultural prefer- ences that will hinder slaughter destocking and meat distribution. For example, in Borana areas during drought in 2006 communities were initially reluctant to consume dried meat from thin, drought-strick- en livestock. Considerable community-level dialogue and patience was required to change attitudes and when evaluated some months later, people actually appreciated the dried meat as a source of food during the drought. What is the human food supply situation? Slaughter destocking can deliver food relief to affected households if supplies from other sources of emergency assistance are not adequate. Are there local community groups or local leadership in place? Slaughter destocking works best when the objectives and implementation are discussed with communities and a common understanding is reached. Strong local community groups or traditional leaders can greatly facilitate this process, and help to organise various stages of the intervention. Are there any local security concerns? If aid agency staff have to carry large sums of cash into an area which has been targeted for destocking, the prevailing security situation will need to be assessed and the safety of all staff guaranteed. In conflict situations, livestock can be attractive to criminals as they are easily mobile, disposable for cash or otherwise used for wealth accumulation. This can present an additional source of insecurity for their owners. Furthermore, destocking operations may also present an attractive target as they involve the handling of large amounts of cash in insecure areas making com- munities more vulnerable to risks. It may be possible to reduce this risk by the use of a coupon system that recipients can redeem against cash at a more secure central location. 3.4.3 Guidance on the design and implementation of slaughter destocking In slaughter destocking, drought-affected livestock are purchased by an aid organisation. Purchased livestock are then slaughtered locally and either fresh or dried meat is distributed to targeted house- holds. Within communities there are various distinct groups of actors and beneficiaries who need to be recognised and involved in the intervention. These community-level actors and beneficiaries are: Local or traditional leaders or decision-making groups• Livestock sellers• Meat handlers• Meat recipients• It can be useful to work with local or traditional leaders to establish a ‘meat relief committee’ (MRC) or similar local body. An MRC can be of considerable value for helping to identify beneficiaries, oversee- ing the operation and ensuring that distributions reach the intended recipients. The formation of MRCs can also help to distribute power that might otherwise be monopolised by other ‘Food Relief Commit- tees’ and share some of the general responsibilities of the implementing agency. Other specific roles for an MRC include:
  • 39. 28 Assigning responsibilities to different community groups• Assisting with the identification of beneficiaries• Organising groups for slaughtering and meat distribution• Distributing live animals for slaughter• Supervising slaughter, meat distribution and the collection of hides and skins from the beneficiary• groups for the intended purpose, if needed. Slaughter destocking: Key design issues Ideally, a participatory approach should be used during all stages of design and implementation with frequent use of open meetings in communities in which people can hear and contribute to discussion. Selection of livestock sellers - this should be based on clear, commonly understood criteria for identify- ing the most vulnerable households. Wealth ranking or similar techniques can assist this process, and the actual selection method should be sensitive to local culture and avoid compromising the dignity of the families involved. As the extent of livestock purchases is likely to be finite and defined by budgetary considerations, it is likely that not all drought-affected animals available for purchase can actually be purchased within a given community. Therefore, decisions will need to be made on who is eligible to sell animals and receive cash payments. Ideally, livestock sellers in a slaughter destocking intervention should comprise as many of the most vulnerable households as possible, with due emphasis on female- headed households. Types, number and prices of livestock to be sold - depending on the available budget, an agency will need to work with communities to carefully define the number and type of livestock which can be pur- chased from each household. The greater the number of animals purchased from each household and the higher the price per animal, the fewer the number of households which can be targeted. Again, discussion and decisions on these issues can take place in open meetings so that it becomes commonly known how decisions were reached. The amount of cash to be received by a household from livestock sales during slaughter destocking, needs to be sufficient to make a substantial contribution to household income during the anticipated drought period. If too little cash is received, households will continue to rely heavily on other forms of assistance, whereas if too much cash is received, fewer households will be reached. As a general rule young, reproductive female animals should be excluded from slaughter destocking programmes as they will form the foundation stock for herd re-establishment during the recovery phase. Old male animals, surplus young males, non-reproductive females and ailing stock (excluding any that may pose a disease risk to the people who eventually consume them) may be used for slaughter de- stocking. Often it will be sound practice for less drought tolerant species (cattle and sheep) to make up the bulk of the animals to be destocked. Excessive differences in the purchase price of animals for slaughter destocking within and between neighbouring geographical areas can lead to resentment and harassment of staff working for lower pay- ing agencies. Strong coordination within and between areas can help to overcome these problems. The coordinating body should assess the prevailing livestock market prices in various localities to determine a uniform purchase price for each type of species, which should be adhered to by all implementing agencies in the same geographical area.
  • 40. 29 Types of meat for distribution - dried meat processing can be a complex and costly process that in- volves skinning, cutting, slicing, salting, cooking, drying, storing and guarding the meat. It is important that proper hygiene procedures are implemented and that plenty of water is available for processing and cleaning. Local rituals, beliefs and taboos relating to animal slaughter may need to be taken into ac- count with guidance from local NGOs or other agencies with long-term development experience in the particular area. Fresh meat distribution is a far less complex process once purchasing and distribution systems have been put in place, but has the disadvantage that fresh meat is more perishable than dried meat. Overall, fresh meat distribution is relatively simple and cheaper than dried meat distribution. Amount of meat to be distributed - in order to represent a useful dietary supplement to vulnerable indi- viduals, the amount of meat distributed should be sufficient to make a good contribution to daily protein requirements, for a sufficient number of days. Annex 3.1 provides the recommended daily allowance of protein for people of different types and ages, and can be used to estimate for how many days a specific weight of fresh or dried meat can cover a person’s or households’ protein requirements. Box 3.4: Amount of meat derived from different livestock species if slaughtered during drought Livestock species and type Approximate body- weight if drought- stricken (kg) Approximate weight of fresh meat in car- cass (kg) Approximate weight of dried meat from 1 animal (kg) Camels: Afar/Issa adult male Somali adult male 200–250 250–300 70–88 88–105 18–22 22–26 Cattle, adult male 120–150 45–60 9–12 Sheep, adult male 10 5–6 1 Goat, adult male 10 5–6 1 Selection of meat recipients - the people selected to receive meat should include the most vulnerable families in the community and particularly those with many children, pregnant or nursing mothers, widows and the aged. For cultural reasons, it is likely that targeted households will share the meat with non-targeted households in pastoral and agro-pastoral settings. If this is the case and sufficient quanti- ties of meat are available, distributing meat more widely in the community will help to avoid resent- ment. Distribution may also include community-level facilities such as schools, hospitals or prisons that would otherwise go without direct supplies of food. Hygienic slaughter and meat distribution - the capacity for the programme to implement hygienic slaughter and meat preparation practices needs to be considered at the design stage. Slaughter destock- ing should include pre and post mortem inspection by livestock or public health officers. Environmental contamination can be reduced by slaughtering on concrete slabs with effective drainage systems or if such facilities are not available, by changing the slaughter sites as frequently as possible. Allowing ben- eficiary families to do their own slaughtering and distribution of fresh meat can reduce risks of disease. Proper disposal of inedible offal, blood and other wastes and hygienic meat preparation practices can be encouraged by providing rapid, basic training to community members. Locally-acceptable practices relating to the slaughter and skinning of animals and the preparation of dried meat must be observed and understood. These may be based on religious or cultural grounds, or in some cases may simply be associated with taste preferences. For example, in some areas meat may be boiled first before drying

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