Nanoparticles and Animal
Health
DOCTORAL SEMINAR
ABDULRAHMAN MOHAMMED
L-2012 -V-21-D
SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH & ZOONOS...
Nano:
Nanobots A prefix that means very,
Nano-
Nanometre
stuff
Nanotechnol
Nano-Produ
Nanomedicine
Nanoscience
ve...
How Small Is Nanoscale?
What is Nanotechnology?
 A disruptive technology, with a potential to change
the world as we know it today.
 Nanotech...
Definitions
 A nanometer is a billionth of a meter.
 It’s difficult to imagine anything so small, think of something o...
National Nanotechnology Initiative
 The National Nanotechnology Initiative, a government initiative in
the USA describe...
History of Nanotechnology
• ~ 2000 Years Ago – Sulfide nanocrystals used by Greeks and Romans to dye
hair
• ~ 1000 Year...
A Brief History of Nanotechnology
 On December 29, 1959,
physicist Richard Feynman
gave a radical lecture at an
Ameri...
Hibbs’s Idea on Nanotechnology in Medicine
 Albert R. Hibbs -a noted mathematician was fascinated by
self-actuated mach...
Various Types of Nanomaterials
10
Anthropogenic or
Engineered NPs
Incidental Particles
from:
Natural Particles
from...
Types of Nanoparticles
• Nanoparticles fall into three major types:
• Naturally occurring
• Incidental
• Engineered
•...
The size of selected nanotechnology materials is
estimated to be as follows:
 Nanoparticles 1 – 100 nm
 Fullerene (C6...
Creation of Nanoparticles
Two basic approaches for creating nanodevices.
Top-down approach
Bottom-up approach
Top-Down
 Milling processes: The
mechanical production approach
uses milling to crush
microparticles.
 This approac...
Bottom-up
 Vapour condensation: typically
used to make metallic oxide ceramic
nanoparticles.
 A solid metal is evapo...
Nanodevices Are Small Enough to Enter Cells
Most animal cells are 10,000 to 20,000 nanometers in diameter
 Nanoscale d...
Nanomaterials categories
 One dimension
 Less than 100nm
 Nanoscale layers
Eg. thin films or surface coatings like ...
Nanoparticles preparation
 Nanoparticles prepared from such substances as
proteins, olysaccharides and synthetic polyme...
Types of nanoparticles
 Nanomaterials are materials (either newly created throughnanotechnology or
that exist in nature...
Bucky balls (fullerenes)
 Fullerenes, a carbon allotrope
 The buckminster fullerene is the most common form of fullere...
Nanotubes…
 Nanotubes - opened on two sides with additional atom groups added in the characteristic
hexagon shape to fo...
nanotubes
Dendrimers…
 Dendrimers are 3-D man-made nanomolecules with regular
branching structures
 The branches arise from the...
Quantom dots…
 A 2-10 nm nano-scale crystalline structure made from
cadmium selenide
 Re-emits the white light in a c...
…Quantom dots…
…Quantom dots
 Quantum dots - emit light at any wavelength
 Inserted almost anywhere, including liquid solution,
dyes...
Nano shells
 Dielectric (silica) core coated with an ultra-thin metallic
(gold), layer size ranging from 10-500 nm.
 ...
Biosilicon
 Highly porous silicon based nanomaterial product, that can
release a medicine slowly over a period of time....
Viral nanoparticles
 Viruses including cowpea mosaic virus, cowpea chlorotic
mottle virus, canine parvovirus, and bacte...
Applications
Applications in Surgery
 With nanotechnology, minute surgical
instruments and robots can be made which can
be used to ...
Applications in Medical Robotics
 Nano-robotics, although having
many applications in other areas,
have the most usefu...
Drug delivery
By only targeting the afflicted cells, less of the drug is
needed, reducing the side effects and making t...
Applications in Drugs and Medicine
 Nanotechnology can deliver medicine or drugs into
specific parts of the human body,...
Disease diagnosis and treatment
 Diagnosis and Imaging: Microchips labelled with human
molecules are designed to emit a...
Nanoshells:
injected into the
animal’s loodstream
with targeted agents.
 Attach to the surface
receptors of cancer
...
Cancer-battling nanoshells
The nanoshell has a gold exterior layer which covers interior
layers of silica and Drugs. It ...
‘Smart’ superparamagnetic
nanoparticles:
• when injected in the bloodstream target
tumour receptor cells.
 made from ...
Gold nanoparticles: Shows intense color in
visible region for spectroscopic detection.
 Used in biological labeling and...
Nanochips: employs the power of an electronic
current that separates DNA probes to specific
sites on the array based on ...
MEMS
 Methods of making micro-sized
machines or microelectromechanical systems
(MEMS) are already established.
 Full...
Tissue reconstruction
Treatment of an Injured Bone:
 An ultrasound is performed on existing bone
structures and then b...
Treatment of an injured nerves:
 Samuel Stupp and John Kessler at Northwestern
University in Chicago have made tiny rod...
Applications to animal health
 Nanotechnology has opened up new vistas for applications in molecular
biology, biotechno...
Applications to animal health…
 “Smart” drug delivery system
 Disease diagnosis and treatment
 Gene therapy or DNA d...
Smart drug delivery system…
 The development of ‘smart’ treatment delivery systems on
the nanoscale uses similar concep...
…Smart drug delivery system
Advantages of Drug delivery system
 Time-controlled
 Spatially Targeted
 Self-regulated
 Remotely Regulated
 Pre...
Antimicrobial property
 The silver nanoparticles show efficient antimicrobial
property compared to other salts
 Most ...
Early detection of cancer…
 The current systems are limited by their selectivity
and efficiency to concentrate rare cel...
Nanobarcode
 Cancer cells detection
 Protein and nucleic acid detection based on biobarcode-amplification
 Gold nano...
Quantom dots on cancer detection…
 QD staining provides spatial localization information (both
inter- and intracellular...
Detection of tumor
Cancer therapy
Imaging & therapy for tumors
Multifunctional nanoparticles for integrated cancer imaging and
therapy
Quantom dots on cancer detection…
Nanovaccines…
 Vaccines require immunostimulating compounds,
adjuvants, which act nonspecifically to increase the
immu...
…Nanovaccines
 VLP vaccine against BT & AHS – strong protection
 ISCOM based vaccines effective on H5N1 in
chickens a...
Some of the proteins, polysaccharides
synthetic polymers and lipids used as
nanocarrier for drug delivery.
Nanoformulations against infectious organisms
tested for drug delivery in experimental animals with
potential for veteri...
Nanovaccines/adjuvants against infectious organisms tested in
experimental animals with potential for veterinary use.
(M...
Examples
 Disease diagnosis: A rapid, sensitive test has been developed for detection of
FMD virus which relies on the ...
Safety and toxicological issues
 Aggregates of nanoparticles are water soluble and kill useful
bacteria. (Balbus et al ...
Conclusions
 Nanotechnology is still in its early stages.
 As further research continues in this field, more treatment...
“Any intelligent fool can make things bigger, more
complex and more violent. It takes a genius- and a
lot of courage- to...
Nanotechnology and animal health
Nanotechnology and animal health
Nanotechnology and animal health
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Nanotechnology and animal health

Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Health & Medicine      
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Transcripts - Nanotechnology and animal health

  • 1. Nanoparticles and Animal Health DOCTORAL SEMINAR ABDULRAHMAN MOHAMMED L-2012 -V-21-D SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH & ZOONOSES
  • 2. Nano: Nanobots A prefix that means very, Nano- Nanometre stuff Nanotechnol Nano-Produ Nanomedicine Nanoscience very, small. The word nano is from the Greek word ‘Nanos’ meaning Dwarf. It is a prefix used to describe "one billionth" of something, or 0.000000001.
  • 3. How Small Is Nanoscale?
  • 4. What is Nanotechnology?  A disruptive technology, with a potential to change the world as we know it today.  Nanotechnology? It is the study of controlling and manipulating matter on an atomic and/or molecular scale.  It deals with structures the size of 100 nanometers or smaller in at least one dimension.  It’s a very diverse technology
  • 5. Definitions  A nanometer is a billionth of a meter.  It’s difficult to imagine anything so small, think of something only 1/80,000 the width of a human hair.  Ten hydrogen atoms could be laid side-by side in a single nanometer.  Nanotechnology is the creation of useful materials, devices, and systems through the manipulation of matter on this miniscule scale.  The emerging field of nanotechnology involves scientists from many different disciplines, including physicists, chemists, engineers, and biologists.  There are many interesting nano devices being developed that have a potential to improve cancer detection, diagnosis, and treatment
  • 6. National Nanotechnology Initiative  The National Nanotechnology Initiative, a government initiative in the USA describes nanotechnology as: ‘research and development (R&D) aimed at understanding and working with – seeing, measuring and manipulating – matter at the atomic, molecular and supramolecular levels. This correlates to length scales of roughly 1 to 100 nanometres. At this scale, the physical, chemical and biological properties ofmaterials differ fundamentally and often unexpectedly from those of the corresponding bulk materials’.  Nanotechnology, as a new enabling technology, has the potential to revolutionise agriculture and food systems throughout the world. Nanotechnology can provide new tools for molecular and cellular biology and new materials for pathogen detection, so there are several areas in which nanotechnology could be applied to the science and engineering of agriculture and food systems, e.g. agricultural and food systems security, disease treatment delivery systems, and the protection of the environment
  • 7. History of Nanotechnology • ~ 2000 Years Ago – Sulfide nanocrystals used by Greeks and Romans to dye hair • ~ 1000 Years Ago (Middle Ages) – Gold nanoparticles of different sizes used to produce different colors in stained glass windows • 1974 – “Nanotechnology” - Taniguchi uses the term nanotechnology for the first time • 1981 – IBM develops Scanning Tunneling Microscope • 1985 – “Buckyball” - Scientists at Rice University and University of Sussex discover C60 • 1986 – “Engines of Creation” - First book on nanotechnology by K. Eric Drexler. Atomic Force Microscope invented by Binnig, Quate and Gerbe • 1989 – IBM logo made with individual atoms • 1991 – Carbon nanotube discovered by S. Iijima • 1999 – “Nanomedicine” – 1st nanomedicine book by R. Freitas • 2000 – “National Nanotechnology Initiative” launched
  • 8. A Brief History of Nanotechnology  On December 29, 1959, physicist Richard Feynman gave a radical lecture at an American Physical Society meeting at Caltech titled “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom”.  Feynman suggested that it should be possible to make machines at a nano-scale that "arrange the atoms the way we want", and do chemical synthesis by mechanical manipulation.  This lecture was the birth of the idea and study of nanotechnology.
  • 9. Hibbs’s Idea on Nanotechnology in Medicine  Albert R. Hibbs -a noted mathematician was fascinated by self-actuated machines. According to Feynman, Hibbs originally suggested to him (circa 1959) the idea of a medical use for Feynman's theoretical micromachines: “A friend of mine (Albert R. Hibbs) suggests a very interesting possibility for relatively small machines. He says that… it would be interesting in surgery if you could swallow the surgeon. You put the mechanical surgeon inside the blood vessel and it goes into the heart and ``looks'' around … It finds out which valve is the faulty one and takes a little knife and slices it out. Other small machines might be permanently incorporated in the body to assist some inadequately-functioning organ”. – Richard Feynman, “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom”.  What Feynman and Hibbs considered a possibility, today 51 years later, is becoming a reality.
  • 10. Various Types of Nanomaterials 10 Anthropogenic or Engineered NPs Incidental Particles from: Natural Particles from: •Carbon-based •Nanotubes, •Fullerenes •Metal Oxides •Quantum Dots •Nanotubes •Nanowires •Dendrimers •Combustion products •Industrial Processes •Vehicles emissions •Construction •Plants, Trees •Oceans, other •water bodies •Erosion •Dust
  • 11. Types of Nanoparticles • Nanoparticles fall into three major types: • Naturally occurring • Incidental • Engineered • Naturally Occurring • Examples of naturally occurring nanoparticles include: • Sea spray • Mineral composites • Volcanic ash • Viruses • Incidental Nanoparticles • A result of man-made industrial processes, incidental nanoparticles include: • Cooking smoke • Diesel exhaust • Welding fumes • Industrial effluents • Sandblasting • Engineered Nanoparticles • Engineered nanoparticles comprise of any manufactured particles with nanoscale dimensions. Examples include: • Metals • Quantum dots • Buckyballs/nanotubes • Sunscreen pigments • Nanocapsules
  • 12. The size of selected nanotechnology materials is estimated to be as follows:  Nanoparticles 1 – 100 nm  Fullerene (C60) 1 nm  Quantum Dot 8 nm  Dendrimer 10 nm Materials found in nature are typically referenced to have the following dimensions:  Atom 0.1 nm  DNA (width) 2 nm  Protein 5 – 50nm  Virus 5 – 100nm  Bacteria 1,000 – 10,000 nm  White Blood Cell 10,000 nm
  • 13. Creation of Nanoparticles Two basic approaches for creating nanodevices. Top-down approach Bottom-up approach
  • 14. Top-Down  Milling processes: The mechanical production approach uses milling to crush microparticles.  This approach is applied in producing metallic and ceramic nanomaterials.  For metallic nanoparticles, high-energy ball mills are used. Such mills are equipped with grinding media composed of wolfram carbide or steel
  • 15. Bottom-up  Vapour condensation: typically used to make metallic oxide ceramic nanoparticles.  A solid metal is evaporated and is then rapidly condensed to form nanosized cluster that settle down in form of powder.  Or, the metal vapour is released into a vacuum chamber which contains a rotating drum coated with a thin layer of viscose substance.  Nanoparticles form in suspension in the liquid coating on the drum.
  • 16. Nanodevices Are Small Enough to Enter Cells Most animal cells are 10,000 to 20,000 nanometers in diameter  Nanoscale devices (less than 100 nm) can enter cells and the organelles inside them to interact with DNA and proteins.  Tools developed through nanotechnology may be able to detect disease in a very small amount of cells or tissue.  They may also be able to enter and monitor cells within a living body.
  • 17. Nanomaterials categories  One dimension  Less than 100nm  Nanoscale layers Eg. thin films or surface coatings like computer chips  Two dimensions  Nanowires and nanotubes  Three dimensions  Precipitates  Colloids and Quantum dots (tiny particles of semiconductor materials)
  • 18. Nanoparticles preparation  Nanoparticles prepared from such substances as proteins, olysaccharides and synthetic polymers  The selection of matrix materials is dependent on a) Size of nanoparticles required b) Inherent properties of the drug, e.g., aqueous solubility and stability c) Surface characteristics such as charge and permeability d) Degree of biodegradability, biocompatibility and toxicity e) Drug release profile desired f) Antigenicity of the final product
  • 19. Types of nanoparticles  Nanomaterials are materials (either newly created throughnanotechnology or that exist in nature) that provide the potential to manipulate structures or other particles at the nanoscale and to control and catalyse chemical reactions.  Materials are generally composed of particles of many sizes. The shape, structure and aggregation of particles at the nanoscale influence the properties of the material at the macro-level.  Specific examples of nanomaterials are buckeyballs, dendrimers, nanoshells, nanotubes and quantum dots.  Liposomes, polymer nanoparticles (nanospheres and nanocapsules)  Solid lipid nanoparticles, nanocrystals, polymer therapeutics such as dendrimers, fullerenes (most common as C60 or buckyball, similar in size of hormones and peptide a-helices)  Inorganic nanoparticles (e.g. gold and magnetic nanoparticles)
  • 20. Bucky balls (fullerenes)  Fullerenes, a carbon allotrope  The buckminster fullerene is the most common form of fullerene  7 Å in diameter with 60 carbon atoms arranged in a shape known as truncated icosahedrons  It resembles a soccer ball with 20 hexagons and 12 pentagons  Scientists (6) have discovered how to make the metal-filled buckeyballs soluble, bringing them a step closer to biological applications, such as the delivery of medicine or radioactive material to a disease site The idea of using the 60-atom to 80-atom hollow carbon molecules for drug delivery is what gives added biological functionality to a buckeyball. The aim is to attach water-soluble groups of peptides or hydrophilic chains to get these molecules into the blood stream.
  • 21. Nanotubes…  Nanotubes - opened on two sides with additional atom groups added in the characteristic hexagon shape to form a hollow carbon tube (cylinder)  Sheet of graphite (a hexagonal lattice of carbon) rolled into a cylinder  This nanotubes are used to tracking oestrus in animals - detect the estradiol antibody at the time of oestrus by near infrared fluorescence  Used in gene therapy  Another nanodevice that will help identify DNA changes associated with cancer is the nanotube.  Nanotubes are carbon rods about half the diameter of a molecule of DNA that not only can detect the presence of altered genes, but they may help researchers pinpoint the exact location of those changes.  To prepare DNA for nanotube analysis, scientists must attach a bulky molecule to regions of the DNA that are associated with cancer. They can design tags that seek out speciÞc mutations in the DNA and bind to them.
  • 22. nanotubes
  • 23. Dendrimers…  Dendrimers are 3-D man-made nanomolecules with regular branching structures  The branches arise from the core in shape of a spherical structure by means of polymerisation  This results in formation of cavities within the dendrimer molecule which can be used for drug transport  The ends of the dendrimer molecule can be attached with other molecules for transport
  • 24. Quantom dots…  A 2-10 nm nano-scale crystalline structure made from cadmium selenide  Re-emits the white light in a couple of nanoseconds - specific color which can be made to fluoresce when stimulated by light  Their structure consists of an inorganic core, the size of which determines the colour emitted, an inorganic shell and an aqueous organic coating to which biomolecules are conjugated  These particles enable powerful new approaches to genetic analysis, drug discovery, and disease diagnostics
  • 25. …Quantom dots…
  • 26. …Quantom dots  Quantum dots - emit light at any wavelength  Inserted almost anywhere, including liquid solution, dyes etc  Quantum dots can be attached to a variety of surface ligands, and inserted into a variety of organisms for in-vivo research  quantum dots respond to light- it may be possible to illuminate the body with light and stimulate the quantum dot to heat up sufficient to kill the cancerous cell
  • 27. Nano shells  Dielectric (silica) core coated with an ultra-thin metallic (gold), layer size ranging from 10-500 nm.  Strong optical absorption.  Optical response depends on size of the core and thickness of the gold shell.  Shows broad range of an optical spectrum. Nanoshells are extremely small beads of glass coated with gold. They can be fashioned to absorb light of almost any wavelength, but nanoshells that capture energy in the near-infrared, which can easily penetrate several centimeters of tissue
  • 28. Biosilicon  Highly porous silicon based nanomaterial product, that can release a medicine slowly over a period of time.  First by Australian company Sivida ,they fashion tiny capsules(to be swallowed) and also tiny needles that can be built into patch to invisibly pierce the skin and deliver drugs.  Monitor sugar level in the blood.
  • 29. Viral nanoparticles  Viruses including cowpea mosaic virus, cowpea chlorotic mottle virus, canine parvovirus, and bacteriophages have been used in tissue targeting and drug delivery.  ligands or antibodies including transferrin, folic acid, and single-chain antibodies have been conjugated to viruses for specific tumor targeting in vivo. ( Manchester M et al 2006)  canine parvovirus, have natural affinity transferrin receptors that are up-regulated on a variety of tumor cells. (Singh P et al. 2006)
  • 30. Applications
  • 31. Applications in Surgery  With nanotechnology, minute surgical instruments and robots can be made which can be used to perform microsurgeries on any part of the body.  Instead of damaging a large amount of the body, these instruments would be precise and accurate, targeting only the area where surgery should be done.  Visualization of surgery can also be improved. Instead of a surgeon holding the instrument, computers can be used to control the nano-sized surgical instruments. “Nanocameras” can provide close up visualization of the surgery  Less chance of any mistakes or faults  Surgery could also be done on tissue, genetic and cellular levels.
  • 32. Applications in Medical Robotics  Nano-robotics, although having many applications in other areas, have the most useful and variety of uses in medical fields.  Potential applications include early diagnosis and targeted drug delivery for cancer, biomedical instrumentation, surgery, pharmacokinetics, monitoring of diabetes, and health care.  Future medical nanotechnology expected to employ nanorobots injected into the patient to perform treatment on a cellular level.
  • 33. Drug delivery By only targeting the afflicted cells, less of the drug is needed, reducing the side effects and making the drug less expensive. As drug only needs to go to certain targets instead of whole body, it works faster to relieve the patient.  Smaller the drug–carrying unit, more it tends to concentrate itself in inflamed areas.  By using the nanobiotechnology ,drug delivery can be accomplished by encapsulation of the drug inside a membrane with channels that open and close according to outside stimuli.
  • 34. Applications in Drugs and Medicine  Nanotechnology can deliver medicine or drugs into specific parts of the human body, thereby making them more effective and less harmful to the other parts of the body.  A recent study conducted by NIH found anti-cancer gold nanoparticles very effective.  Gold “nanoshells” are useful to fight cancer because of their ability to absorb radiation at certain wavelengths. Once the nanoshells enter tumor cells and radiation treatment is applied, they absorb the energy and heat up enough to kill the cancer cells.  Not only gold but other elements can also be used.
  • 35. Disease diagnosis and treatment  Diagnosis and Imaging: Microchips labelled with human molecules are designed to emit an electrical impulse signal when the molecules detect signs of a disease.  Special sensor nanobots cheap and portable.  Inserted into the blood, check and warn of any possible desease.  Quantum dots: bind themselves to proteins unique to cancer cells, kill the cancer cells by exposing UV light.
  • 36. Nanoshells: injected into the animal’s loodstream with targeted agents.  Attach to the surface receptors of cancer cells. Illumination of the body with infrared light raises the cell temperature to about 55°C, which ‘burns’ and kills the tumour.
  • 37. Cancer-battling nanoshells The nanoshell has a gold exterior layer which covers interior layers of silica and Drugs. It can release tumor- specific antibodies when infrared light is administered
  • 38. ‘Smart’ superparamagnetic nanoparticles: • when injected in the bloodstream target tumour receptor cells.  made from iron oxides (5-100 nm), when subjected to a magnetic field enhance the ability of the nanoparticles to locate tumour cells.  At the site of the tumour the nanoparticles emit an attached drug to kill the cancer cells.
  • 39. Gold nanoparticles: Shows intense color in visible region for spectroscopic detection.  Used in biological labeling and imaging.  Can be prepared easily; low toxicity.  Gold reflects red light at nanoscale, thus it is used to kill the cancerous cell with visible light without harming the normal cells. (Zahrov V P et al 2005)
  • 40. Nanochips: employs the power of an electronic current that separates DNA probes to specific sites on the array based on charge and size.  the test sample (blood) can be analyzed for target DNA sequences by hybridization with these probes.  Hybridised DNA will fluoresce which is detected an relayed back to an onboard system through platinum wiring.
  • 41. MEMS  Methods of making micro-sized machines or microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are already established.  Fully functional pumps, rotors, sensors and levers exist at the microscale.  swallowed capsule technology pills that allow doctors to visualize GI bleeding.  “The patient swallows a capsule containing a lightemitting diode for illumination, a CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) video camera and optics for taking images, a battery, and a transmitter”  The images are then transmitted to a receiver worn on the patient’s belt and the doctor is then able to diagnose the cause of the ailment.
  • 42. Tissue reconstruction Treatment of an Injured Bone:  An ultrasound is performed on existing bone structures and then bone-like nanoparticles are created using the results of the ultrasound. (Silva et al 2004).  The bone-like nanoparticles (15-18 nm ceramic and poly methyl methacrylate copolymer) are inserted into the body in a paste form. (Adhikari et al 2005).  When they arrive at the fractured bone, they assemble themselves to form an ordered structure which later becomes part of the bone. (Adhikari et al 2005).
  • 43. Treatment of an injured nerves:  Samuel Stupp and John Kessler at Northwestern University in Chicago have made tiny rod like nano-fibers called Amphiphiles.  They are capped with amino acids and are known to spur the growth of neurons and prevent scar tissue formation. (Wiess et al 2005)  Artificial RBC’s: ultrathin polyethylene glycolpolylacetic acid (PEG-PLA) membrane containing Hb and enzymes. (Chang et al 2009)
  • 44. Applications to animal health  Nanotechnology has opened up new vistas for applications in molecular biology, biotechnology and almost all the disciplines of veterinary and animal sciences.  Excellence in animal health and production can be achieved by translation of this newer technology to create effective services and products for animals.  The ability to manufacture and manipulate matter on the nanoscale has offered opportunities for application in diverse areas of animal sciences.  Nanosensors, nanovaccines, adjuvants, gene delivery and smart drug delivery methods have the potential to revolutionize animal health and production.  There can be numerous applications of the nanomaterials for disease diagnosis, treatment, drug delivery, animal nutrition, animal breeding, reproduction, tissue engineering and value addition to animal products
  • 45. Applications to animal health…  “Smart” drug delivery system  Disease diagnosis and treatment  Gene therapy or DNA delivery  Drugs discovery  Nanovaccines and vaccine adjuvants  Tissue repair  Identity preservation and quality assurance  Animal breeding and reproduction  Animal nutrition  Value added to animal products
  • 46. Smart drug delivery system…  The development of ‘smart’ treatment delivery systems on the nanoscale uses similar concepts applied at the molecular level.  For example, ‘smart’ drug delivery systems in animals would most likely contain small, sealed packages of the drug to be delivered.  The packages would not be opened until they reach the desired location in the animal, e.g. the site of infection.
  • 47. …Smart drug delivery system
  • 48. Advantages of Drug delivery system  Time-controlled  Spatially Targeted  Self-regulated  Remotely Regulated  Pre-programmed
  • 49. Antimicrobial property  The silver nanoparticles show efficient antimicrobial property compared to other salts  Most effective on E.Coli, S.aureus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas  The nanoparticles preferably attack the respiratory chain, cell division finally leading to cell death  The STEM (Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy) confirms the presence of silver in the cell membrane and inside the bacteria  Silver nanoparticles in most studies are suggested to be non-toxic. But it suggested to be hazardous to the environment (Braydich-Stolle et al., 2005)
  • 50. Early detection of cancer…  The current systems are limited by their selectivity and efficiency to concentrate rare cells for molecular assays  Nanoscience can detect - circulating cancer cells, which present often at 1–2 cells per milliliter of blood.  Combinatorial use of magnetic nanoparticles and semiconductor QDs - increase the ability to capture and evaluate these rare circulating cancer cells  Bionanobarcodes, nanocantilevers, and nanowires are promising technologies
  • 51. Nanobarcode  Cancer cells detection  Protein and nucleic acid detection based on biobarcode-amplification  Gold nanoparticles are modified with both target capture strands and bar code strands that are subsequently hybridized to bar code DNA, and magnetic microparticles modified with target capture strands (BCA)  Gold nanoparticles and the magnetic microbeads form sandwich structures that are magnetically separated from solution.  Unhybridized bar code DNA are removed  The bar codes (hundreds to thousands per target) are detected by using a colorimetric method
  • 52. Quantom dots on cancer detection…  QD staining provides spatial localization information (both inter- and intracellular),  QD probes are delivered to tumors by both a passive targeting mechanism and an active targeting mechanism  In the passive mode, macromolecules and nanometer-sized particles are accumulated preferentially at tumor sites through the Enhanced permeability and retention (EPR)effect.  For active tumor targeting, Gao et al. used antibody conjugated QDs to target a specific membrane antigen.
  • 53. Detection of tumor
  • 54. Cancer therapy
  • 55. Imaging & therapy for tumors Multifunctional nanoparticles for integrated cancer imaging and therapy
  • 56. Quantom dots on cancer detection…
  • 57. Nanovaccines…  Vaccines require immunostimulating compounds, adjuvants, which act nonspecifically to increase the immune response to a defined antigen  Nanometer adjuvants are 1. Liposome 2. ISCOM based adjuvant 3. Biobullets 4. Virus like particles  Nano-particles - 40–50 nm - potential to induce potent cell mediated (CD4 and CD8 T cells) as well as humoral immune responses
  • 58. …Nanovaccines  VLP vaccine against BT & AHS – strong protection  ISCOM based vaccines effective on H5N1 in chickens and EHV - 2 in horses  Liposomes added vaccines protect the cattle against BVDV  Liposomes have also been used to deliver allergen extracts as immunotherapy for refractory canine atopic dermatitis  “Biobullets” made of photopolymerized PEG hydrogels can serve as biodegradable bullets used to wild animals for vaccination. Eg. Bruella abortus
  • 59. Some of the proteins, polysaccharides synthetic polymers and lipids used as nanocarrier for drug delivery.
  • 60. Nanoformulations against infectious organisms tested for drug delivery in experimental animals with potential for veterinary use. (Manuja eta l., 2012)
  • 61. Nanovaccines/adjuvants against infectious organisms tested in experimental animals with potential for veterinary use. (Manuja et al., 2012)
  • 62. Examples  Disease diagnosis: A rapid, sensitive test has been developed for detection of FMD virus which relies on the sensitivity and movement of liquid crystals at the nanoscale in the presence of a target molecule. Virus binding in a detection region is identified by changes in liquid crystal orientation.  Therapeutics: the common antibiotic molecule gentamicin was bound to a hydrogel using a peptide linker which can only be cleaved by a protease enzyme formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa; thus, the antibiotic is not released in absence of the organism Proteases specific to particular bacteria can be used as the signal for the release of different spectra of antibiotics from the same matrix depending on the strain of bacterium.  Animal nutrition: A nanocomposite of MgO-SiO2 has been used as an effective adsorbing agent for removal of aflatoxin from wheat flour. Similarly, a modified montmorillonite nanocomposite (MMN) has been used to reduce the toxicity due to aflatoxin in feeds of broiler chicks.  Value addition to animal products: Nanoparticles are being used to remove Campylobacter and E. coli from poultry products. Listeria monocytogenes, another foodborne pathogen was detected in spiked milk samples by magnetic nanoparticle-based immune-magnetic separation combined with real-time PCR.
  • 63. Safety and toxicological issues  Aggregates of nanoparticles are water soluble and kill useful bacteria. (Balbus et al 2005).  Nanoparticles are very light and can easily become airborne and can cause asthma, bronchitis and can be fatal. (Donaldson et al 2004).  Nanoparticles flowing thorough the bloodstream may affect the clotting system. (Donaldson et al 2004).  May damage the brain and nervous system, could be fatal.  Might move through a mother’s placenta to the foetus. (Howard V 2004)  Nanoparticles used in sunscreens created free radicals that damage DNA.
  • 64. Conclusions  Nanotechnology is still in its early stages.  As further research continues in this field, more treatments will be discovered.  Many diseases that do not have cures today may be cured by nanotechnology in the future.  If everything runs smoothly, nanotechnology will one day become part of our everyday life and will help save many lives.
  • 65. “Any intelligent fool can make things bigger, more complex and more violent. It takes a genius- and a lot of courage- to move in the opposite direction.”- Albert Einstein THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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