NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL
REGULATIONS FOR SEAFOOD QUALITY
AND SAFETY
By: ABDULRAHMAN MOHAMMED
(L-2012-V-21-D)
School...
Introduction
• Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by
humans.
• Seafood prominently includes fish and shel...
Introduction….
• In North America, although not generally in the United
Kingdom, the term "seafood" is extended to fresh...
Introduction….
• The population of highly susceptible persons is
expanding worldwide because of ageing, malnutrition,
H...
Introduction….
• Fish and fishery products are in the forefront of food
safety and quality improvement because they are ...
TYPES OF SEAFOOD
Seafood and Fish
shellfish
Mollusks
Clams
Oysters
Squid
Octopus
Arthropods
Shrimp
Lobster
Crab...
WORLD SEAFOOD PRODUCTION
• World fish food supply has grown dramatically in the last five decades,
with an average growt...
WORLD SEAFOOD PRODUCTION
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
(Million tonnes)
PRODUCTION
Capture
Inland 9.8 10.0 10.2 10.4 ...
Health benefits
• Research over the past few decades has shown that the
nutrients and minerals in seafood can make impro...
Health benefits…..
• Fish is thought to protect the heart because eating
less saturated fat and more Omega-3 can help to...
Health benefits…..
Fish is high in minerals such as zinc, iodine and selenium,
which keep the body running smoothly.
Io...
Food implicated in food-borne disease in the US 1993-1997
(modified from Olsen et al., 2000).
Food
Outbreaks Cases Deat...
Fresh Fish Qualities:
• Eyes:
• Bright, clear and full
• As fish becomes stale, eyes become cloudy and
sunken
• Gills...
Fresh Fish Qualities:
• Odor:
• Fresh and mild
• As age increases, a strong, offensive odor develops
• Skin:
• Shiny ...
Fresh Fish Qualities
• Flesh:
• Firm, elastic and not separating from the bones
• As fish ages, flesh changes colors an...
Shellfish Qualities:
• Lobsters and Crabs
• Heavy for size and show leg movement
• Tail of live lobster curls under bod...
Shellfish Qualities:
• Oysters and Clams
• Hard, well cupped shells
• Gaping shell indicates the shellfish is dead and ...
Controlling Quality:
• Quality determined by:
• Species
• Method of catching
• Handling
• Processing
Controlling Quality:
• Chemical changes
• Enzymes remain active resulting in spoilage and
flavor changes
• Occur durin...
Controlling Quality:
• Oxidative Rancidity
• Fat content increases rancidity
• Affects taste and aroma
• Bacterial spo...
Characterization of Hazards in
Seafood
 Hazard: A biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food
wit...
Hazards
Physical
bolts and nuts
metal fragments
sand
Biological
pathogenic
bacteria
viruses
worms
helminths
pro...
Pathogenic bacteria in seafood/aquatic food
 Aquatic environment Vibrio spp.
Clostridium botulinum Type E
(non-proteol...
Factors affecting bacterial growth
(Preventive measures)
1. Cleaning and sanitation
2. Personal hygiene
3. Heat (chill...
Pathogenic parasites transmitted by seafood
 raw uncooked fish products
o Nematodes (round worms
o Anisakis simplex - ...
Chemical hazards - examples
• Food additives
• Veternary drugs residues
• Pesticides
• Natural toxicants
 Mycotoxins...
Environmental chemical contaminants. Tolerances and
critical limits in fish and fish products (EC, 2001a; FDA,
1998).
S...
Natural marine toxins
• Scombrotoxin
• Ciguatoxin – ciguatera from marine algae - >400 fish spp.
• Shellfish toxins
 ...
Physical Hazards
• glass
• utensils, bottles
windows, lights
• metal
• equipment, wire,
employees
• stones
• field...
Pathogenic bacteria indigenous to the aquatic environment
and naturally present on fish (based on Huss 1997).
Organism P...
Pathogenic bacteria indigenous to the general environment
and frequently present on fish (based on Huss, 1997).
Organism...
Pathogenic bacteria in the animal/human
reservoir.
Organism Primary habitat Quantitative levels
Salmonella spp.
Intest...
Viruses
 The marine environment is full of viruses which represent the most
abundant life form in the sea, typically nu...
Groups of viruses causing gastrointestinal diseases from
seafood. Based on Lees (2000) and Caul (2000).
Virus Type Famil...
Parasites
• The presence of parasites in fish is very common, but
most of them are of little concern with regard to
eco...
Pathogenic parasites transmitted by
seafood.
Parasite Geographical distribution
Nematodes or round worms
Anisakis spp....
Marine biotoxins and the associated
poisonings.
The disease Toxins Occurrence
PSP-Paralytic shellfish
Saxitoxin Worldw...
Amino acid precursors and biogenic amines
formed in food products.
Amino acid precursor Biogenic amine
Histidine Histam...
Examples of antibiotics used in aquaculture.
Group Compound Comments
Sulphonamides Sulphamerazine
Sulphaimidine
Sulfad...
INTERNATIONAL REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
SEAFOOD SAFETY AND QUALITY
• The increasing demand for fish and fishery products and the
development in international fish trade have raised major
...
The World Trade Organization
(WTO) agreement
• The Final Act of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade
negotiations, w...
WTO Agreements of particular
relevance for fisheries
oAgreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS)
oAgreement...
The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary
and Phytosanitary (SPS) Measures
• The SPS agreement confirms the right of ...
Agreements on the application
of SPS measures…..
• It requires that, with regard to food safety measures, WTO
members b...
Agreements on the application
of SPS measures…..
• Finally, the SPS Agreement requires that SPS measures are to
be base...
Agreements on the application
of SPS measures (highlights)
• Right of Members to apply measures they deem necessary to
...
The agreement on Technical
Barriers to Trade (TBT)
• The Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement (TBT) ensures that
membe...
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations (FAO): Codex Alimentarius
 The CAC is an intergovernmental ...
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the
United Nations (FAO): Codex Alimentarius
• The work of the Codex Alimentari...
The FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible
Fisheries
• The FAO Committee on Fisheries (COFI) at its Nineteenth
Session in ...
Other institutions:
• Global Aquaculture Alliance: GAA is a non-profit trade
association dedicated to advancing responsi...
Other institutions:
• The GFSI objectives are to:
• Reduce food safety risks by delivering equivalence and
convergence ...
HACCP
• HACCP: is a system which identifies, evaluates and controls
hazards which are significant for food safety (CAC, ...
Food Safety and quality, an integrated approach
(from Jouve, 1998).
The basic seven principles of HACCP
Principle 1: Conduct a hazard analysis
Principle 2: Determine the critical control
...
Application of the HACCP principles
• The Codex guidelines suggest that the introduction and
application of the HACCP pr...
Step 2:…….
Elements of the product description
1 Product name
2 Raw material and ingredients used
3 Parameters influen...
• Step 3: Identify intended use and consumer
• Step 4: Construct flow diagram
• Step 5: On-site confirmation of flow dia...
• Step 7: Determine the critical control points
(CCPs)
 Is a step at which control can be applied and is
essential to ...
Critical control point decision tree (ILSI, 1997).
• Step 8 Establish critical limits
• Critical limit:is a criterion which separates acceptability from
unacceptability (C...
• Monitoring: is the act of conducting a planned sequence of
observations or measurements of control parameters to
asses...
Considerations in the Application of the HACCP Principles to
Seafood Production
• The safety of seafood products varies ...
Considerations in the Application of the HACCP Principles to
Seafood Production…….
Molluscan shellfish
Raw fish to be...
Considerations in the Application of the HACCP Principles to
Seafood Production…….
• Semi-preserved fish i.e. NaCl >6% i...
HACCP AND ISO
• The seven HACCP principles are included in the
international standard ISO 22000 FSMS 2005.
• This stand...
National Regulations (India)
India is a member of WTO
All rules and regulations that apply in WTO are also applicable ...
National Regulations (India)
The Food Safety and Standards
Authority of India
• Established under the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 as a
statu...
The Food Safety and Standards Regulations,
2011
FSS (Licensing and Registration of Food businesses)
regulation, 2011
F...
Conclusion
• Seafood constitutes an important food resource providing
much-need nutrients
• Globalization, internationa...
References
• Huss, H.H., Ababouch, L. and Gram, L. (2004). Assessment and
management of seafood safety and quality. FAO ...
National and international regulations of seafood quality and
National and international regulations of seafood quality and
National and international regulations of seafood quality and
National and international regulations of seafood quality and
National and international regulations of seafood quality and
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National and international regulations of seafood quality and

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Transcripts - National and international regulations of seafood quality and

  • 1. NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS FOR SEAFOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY By: ABDULRAHMAN MOHAMMED (L-2012-V-21-D) School of Public Health and Zoonoses GADVASU, Ludhiana CREDIT SEMINAR-I
  • 2. Introduction • Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans. • Seafood prominently includes fish and shellfish. Shellfish include various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms.  Historically, sea mammals such as whales and dolphins have been consumed as food, though that happens to a lesser extent these days.  Edible sea plants, such as some seaweeds and microalgae, are widely eaten as seafood around the world, especially in Asia.
  • 3. Introduction…. • In North America, although not generally in the United Kingdom, the term "seafood" is extended to fresh water organisms eaten by humans, so all edible aquatic life may be referred to as seafood. • Food quality, including safety, is a major concern facing the food industry today. • A number of surveys have shown that consumer awareness about quality of their food is increasing. • A great number of socio-economic changes such as increased urbanization (crowding), migrations and population demographics are further contributing to the safety of foods.
  • 4. Introduction…. • The population of highly susceptible persons is expanding worldwide because of ageing, malnutrition, HIV infections and other underlying medical conditions with a weakened immune system. • Food control includes all activities carried out to ensure the quality and safety of food. • Every stage from initial production to processing, storage, marketing and consumption must be included in a food quality and safety programme.
  • 5. Introduction…. • Fish and fishery products are in the forefront of food safety and quality improvement because they are among the most internationally traded food commodities. • In 2010, fish trade amounted to US $217.5 billion, of which approximately 50 percent originated in developing countries
  • 6. TYPES OF SEAFOOD Seafood and Fish shellfish Mollusks Clams Oysters Squid Octopus Arthropods Shrimp Lobster Crab Crawfish Bony Catfish Bass Trout Salmon Cartiligenous Sharks Rays Finfish
  • 7. WORLD SEAFOOD PRODUCTION • World fish food supply has grown dramatically in the last five decades, with an average growth rate of 3.2 percent per year in the period 1961– 2009, outpacing the increase of 1.7 percent per year in the world’s population. • World per capita food fish supply increased from an average of 9.9 kg (live weight equivalent) in the 1960s to 18.4 kg in 2009, and preliminary estimates for 2010 point to a further increase in fish consumption to 18.6 kg. • Of the 126 million tonnes available for human consumption in 2009, fish consumption was lowest in Africa (9.1 million tonnes, with 9.1 kg per capita), while Asia accounted for two-thirds of total consumption, with 85.4 million tonnes (20.7 kg per capita), of which 42.8 million tonnes was consumed outside China (15.4 kg per capita).
  • 8. WORLD SEAFOOD PRODUCTION 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 (Million tonnes) PRODUCTION Capture Inland 9.8 10.0 10.2 10.4 11.2 11.5 Marine 80.2 80.4 79.5 79.2 77.4 78.9 Total capture 90.0 90.3 89.7 89.6 88.6 90.4 Aquaculture Inland 31.3 33.4 36.0 38.1 41.7 44.3 Marine 16.0 16.6 16.9 17.6 18.1 19.3 Total aquaculture 47.3 49.9 52.9 55.7 59.9 63.6 TOTAL WORLD FISHERIES 137.3 140.2 142.6 145.3 148.5 154.0 UTILIZATION Human consumption 114.3 117.3 119.7 123.6 128.3 130.8 Non-food uses 23.0 23.0 22.9 21.8 20.2 23.2 Population (billions) 6.6 6.7 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.0 Per capita food fish supply (kg) 17.4 17.6 17.8 18.1 18.6 18.8
  • 9. Health benefits • Research over the past few decades has shown that the nutrients and minerals in seafood can make improvements in brain development and reproduction and has highlighted the role for seafood in the functions of the human body. • Doctors have known of strong links between fish and healthy hearts ever since they noticed that fish-eating Inuit populations in the Arctic had low levels of heart disease. • One study has suggested that adding one portion of fish a week to your diet can cut your chances of suffering a heart attack by half.
  • 10. Health benefits….. • Fish is thought to protect the heart because eating less saturated fat and more Omega-3 can help to lower the amount of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood – two fats that, in excess, increase the risk of heart disease. • Omega-3 fats also have natural built-in anti-oxidants, which are thought to stop the thickening and damaging of artery walls. • Regularly eating fish oils is also thought to reduce the risk of arrhythmia – irregular electrical activity in the heart which increases the risk of sudden heart attacks.
  • 11. Health benefits….. Fish is high in minerals such as zinc, iodine and selenium, which keep the body running smoothly. Iodine is essential for the thyroid gland, which controls growth and metabolism, while selenium is used to make enzymes that protect cell walls from cancer-causing free radicals, and helps prevent DNA damage caused by radiation and some chemicals. Fish is also a source of vitamin A, which is needed for healthy skin and eyes, and vitamin D, which is needed to help the body absorb calcium to strengthen teeth and bones.
  • 12. Food implicated in food-borne disease in the US 1993-1997 (modified from Olsen et al., 2000). Food Outbreaks Cases Deaths Number % Number % Number % Meat 66 2.4 3 205 3.7 4 13.8 Pork 28 1.0 988 1.1 1 3.4 Poultry 52 1.9 1 871 2.2 0 0.0 Other meat 22 0.8 645 0.7 2 6.9 Shellfish 47 1.7 1 868 2.2 0 0.0 Fish 140 5.1 696 0.8 0 0.0 Egg 19 0.7 367 0.4 3 10.3 Dairy products 18 0.7 313 0.4 1 3.4 Ice cream 15 0.5 1 194 1.4 0 0.0 Bakery goods 35 1.3 853 1.0 0 0.0 Fruits and 70 2.5 12 369 14.4 2 6.9 vegetables Salads 127 4.6 6 483 7.5 2 6.9 Other 66 2.4 2 428 2.8 0 0.0 Several foods 262 9.5 25 628 29.8 1 3.4 Total known foods 967 35.2 58 908 68.5 16 55.2 Total unknown food 1 784 64.8 27 150 31.5 13 44.8 TOTAL 2 751 100.0 86 058 100.0 29 100.0
  • 13. Fresh Fish Qualities: • Eyes: • Bright, clear and full • As fish becomes stale, eyes become cloudy and sunken • Gills: • Red and free from slime • Gill color fades with age from pink to gray, brown and then green
  • 14. Fresh Fish Qualities: • Odor: • Fresh and mild • As age increases, a strong, offensive odor develops • Skin: • Shiny with bright colors • As fish ages, skin colors fade and become less pronounced
  • 15. Fresh Fish Qualities • Flesh: • Firm, elastic and not separating from the bones • As fish ages, flesh changes colors and takes on a dried out appearance
  • 16. Shellfish Qualities: • Lobsters and Crabs • Heavy for size and show leg movement • Tail of live lobster curls under body and doesn’t hang down when picked up
  • 17. Shellfish Qualities: • Oysters and Clams • Hard, well cupped shells • Gaping shell indicates the shellfish is dead and is no longer edible • Shells are graded as fancy, choice, standard, and commercial
  • 18. Controlling Quality: • Quality determined by: • Species • Method of catching • Handling • Processing
  • 19. Controlling Quality: • Chemical changes • Enzymes remain active resulting in spoilage and flavor changes • Occur during the first few days of cold storage before bacterial spoilage begins
  • 20. Controlling Quality: • Oxidative Rancidity • Fat content increases rancidity • Affects taste and aroma • Bacterial spoilage • Surface slime, intestines, and gills harbor bacteria • When fish dies, loses defense against bacteria
  • 21. Characterization of Hazards in Seafood  Hazard: A biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food with a potential to cause an adverse health effect (CAC, 2001).  Biological hazards include pathogenic bacteria (infectious or toxin producing), biogenic amines, viruses, parasites and aquatic biotoxins.  Seafood-borne pathogenic bacteria may conveniently be divided into 3 groups according to their ecology and origin as those who are indigenous to:  The aquatic environment  The general environment  The animal/human reservoir
  • 22. Hazards Physical bolts and nuts metal fragments sand Biological pathogenic bacteria viruses worms helminths protozoa Chemical histamine heavy metals pesticides antibiotics dyes mycotoxin
  • 23. Pathogenic bacteria in seafood/aquatic food  Aquatic environment Vibrio spp. Clostridium botulinum Type E (non-proteolytic) Aeromonas Plesiomonas  General environment Listeria monocytogenes Clostridium botulinum Type A,B (proteolytic) C. perfringens Bacillus cereus  Animal-human reservoir Salmonella E. coli (EPEC, ETEC, EHEC) S. typhi Staphylococcus aureus Shigella
  • 24. Factors affecting bacterial growth (Preventive measures) 1. Cleaning and sanitation 2. Personal hygiene 3. Heat (chilling, super chilling, freezing, canning, pasteurizing) 4. Water activity aw ( drying, salting) 5. pH (e.g. fermentation, organic acids) 6. Preservatives (e.g. benzoic and ascorbic acids) 7. Radiation 8. Others
  • 25. Pathogenic parasites transmitted by seafood  raw uncooked fish products o Nematodes (round worms o Anisakis simplex - herring o Angiostrongylus spp. -freshwater prawns, snails, fish o Pseudoterranova dicipiens (cod worm) o Cestodes (tape worms) o Diphyllobothrium latum - fresh water o D. pacificum – seawater o Trematodes or flukes o Paragonimus-snails, crustaceans, fishes (lung flukes) o Clonorchis spp. – fresh water fish (liver flukes) o Opisthorchis spp.- fresh water fish
  • 26. Chemical hazards - examples • Food additives • Veternary drugs residues • Pesticides • Natural toxicants  Mycotoxins, biotoxins • Histamine • Environmental contaminants  Mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic,  Dioxins
  • 27. Environmental chemical contaminants. Tolerances and critical limits in fish and fish products (EC, 2001a; FDA, 1998). Substance Maximum levels Food commodity US (ppm) EU (mg/kg wet weight) Arsenic 76-86 molluscs, crustaceans Cadmium 3-4 0.05-1.0 fish, molluscs Lead 1.5-1.7 0.2-1.0 fish, molluscs Methyl mercury 1.0 1.0 all fish PCB 2.0 all fish DDT, TDE 5.0 all fish Diedrin 0.0 all fish Dioxin 0.000004
  • 28. Natural marine toxins • Scombrotoxin • Ciguatoxin – ciguatera from marine algae - >400 fish spp. • Shellfish toxins  Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP)/domoic acid poisoning  Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP)  Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP)  Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) • Other marine toxins  Tetrodotoxin - About 80 species of puffer fish, blowfish or fugu  Gempylotoxin -Gemplids, escolars or pelagic mackerels (escolar; oilfish, castor oil fish or purgative fish; snek)  Tetramine marine algae – filter feeding shellfish
  • 29. Physical Hazards • glass • utensils, bottles windows, lights • metal • equipment, wire, employees • stones • fields, buildings • wood • fields, pallets, boxes, buildings • plastic • packaging materials, pallets, boxes • bone • fish - improper processing • insulation • building material • personal effects • jewellery • cigarettes • hair • paper flaked paint
  • 30. Pathogenic bacteria indigenous to the aquatic environment and naturally present on fish (based on Huss 1997). Organism Primary habitat Quantitative levels Clostridium botulinum; non-proteolytic types B, E, F Temperate and Arctic aquatic environment; multiplication in aquatic carrion (type E) Generally low (<0.1 spores/g fish) but up to 5.3 spores/g fish has been recorded Pathogenic Vibrio spp. incl. V. cholerae V. parahaemolyticus V. vulnificus Ubiquitous in warm (>15°C) seawater environment Up to 102-103 cfu/g in shellfish; up to 104-108 cfu/g in intestines of shellfish-eating fish Plesiomonas shigelloides Warm aquatic environment; Freshwater fish (animals) Aeromonas spp.1 Aquatic environment Generally low, but up to 104 cfu/ml in seawater; 107 cfu/ml in sewage and 106 cfu/g in raw seafood
  • 31. Pathogenic bacteria indigenous to the general environment and frequently present on fish (based on Huss, 1997). Organism Primary habitat Quantitative levels Listeria monocytogenes Soil, decaying vegetation ubiquitous in general (temperate) environments <100 cfu/g in freshly produced fish products Clostridium botulinum proteolytic type A, B Soil Generally low (<0.01 spore/g soil) Clostridium perfringens Soil (type A); animals (type B, C, D and E) 103-104 cfu/g soil Bacillus spp. Ubiquitous in general environment (soil, natural waters, vegetation) 101-103 cfu/g or ml raw, processed food
  • 32. Pathogenic bacteria in the animal/human reservoir. Organism Primary habitat Quantitative levels Salmonella spp. Intestines of warm blooded animals/humans Shigella spp. Escherichia coli Levels in symptomatic and asymptomatic carriers vary; levels in seafood assumed to be sporadic and low. May accumulate in molluscan shellfish Campylobacter jejuni and other mesophilic campylobacter Birds, intestines of warm blooded animals Sporadic, low levels. Possibly accumulation in molluscan shellfish Staphylococcus aureus Outer surface (skin) and mucus membranes (nose) Transient, but present on 50% of population. Generally <100 cfu/cm2 skin
  • 33. Viruses  The marine environment is full of viruses which represent the most abundant life form in the sea, typically numbering ten billion per litre, however, none of these are pathogenic to man (Lees, 2000).  Viruses being implicated in seafood-borne diseases all have their niche in the human gastro-intestinal (GI) tract and their presence in water and seafood is a consequence of poor hygiene; either water being contaminated with sewage or products being contaminated by food handlers.
  • 34. Groups of viruses causing gastrointestinal diseases from seafood. Based on Lees (2000) and Caul (2000). Virus Type Family Associated with seafood-borne disease Comment Norwalk-like SS1 RNA Caliciviridae Frequently Hepatitis A SS RNA Picornaviridae Frequently Hepatitis E SS RNA Caliciviridae ? not documented cause of enteric non- A and non-B hepatitis. Outbreaks associated with drinking water Astrovirus SS RNA Astroviridae astrovirus from oysters were suspected in one outbreak few food-borne cases Rotavirus DS2 RNA Reoviridae not documented isolated from sewage Adenovirus DS DNA Adenoviridae not documented isolated from sewage and seafood
  • 35. Parasites • The presence of parasites in fish is very common, but most of them are of little concern with regard to economics or public health. • More than 50 species of helminth parasites from fish and shellfish are known to cause diseases in man.
  • 36. Pathogenic parasites transmitted by seafood. Parasite Geographical distribution Nematodes or round worms Anisakis spp. Worldwide Gnathostoma spp. Worldwide Capillaria philippensis The Philippines Angiostrongylus spp. Worldwide Cestodes or tape worms Diphyllobothrium spp. Worldwide Trematodes or flukes Clonorchis spp. South East Asia Opisthorchis spp. South East Asia, Eastern Europe Heterophyes spp. Worldwide Paragonimus spp. Worldwide Metagonimus yokagawai Asia, Egypt
  • 37. Marine biotoxins and the associated poisonings. The disease Toxins Occurrence PSP-Paralytic shellfish Saxitoxin Worldwide poisoning DSP-Diarrheic shellfish poisoning Okadaic acid dinophysis toxin Worldwide NSP-Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning Brevetoxins USA, Caribbean, New Zealand ASP-Amnesic shellfish poisoning Domoic acid North America Ciguatera fish poisoning Ciguatoxin (CTX) Tropical, subtropical Puffer fish (tetrodotoxin) poisoning Tetrodotoxin (TTX) Japan, South Pacific
  • 38. Amino acid precursors and biogenic amines formed in food products. Amino acid precursor Biogenic amine Histidine Histamine Ornithine Putrescine Putrescine1 Spermidine Lysine Cadaverine Tyrosine Tyramine Arginine Agmatine
  • 39. Examples of antibiotics used in aquaculture. Group Compound Comments Sulphonamides Sulphamerazine Sulphaimidine Sulfadimethoxine1 Bacteriostatic agents with broad-spectrum activity against furunculosis in salmonids (trout and salmon). Potentiated Sulphonamide Co-trimazine/Sulfatrim1,2,3 (combination of trimetho-prim and sulfadiazine) Used for treating diseases in salmon and trout (furunculosis, vibriosis and enteric red mouth). Tetracyclines Chlortetracycline Oxytetracycline1,2,3,4 Wide use in aquaculture. Effective against several fish pathogens and is relatively cheap. Used in salmon, trout, turbot and shrimp farming. Approved for prevention of "red tail" in lobsters in Canada. Penicillins (Beta-lactams) Ampicillin4 Amoxycillin2,4 Used to treat furunculosis in salmon and rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) in Europe. Benzyl penicillin3 Used for yellowtail and sea bream in Japan Quinolones Ciprofloxacin Used in shrimp farms in Asia Enrofloxacin Used in shrimp farms in Asia Norfloxacin Used in shrimp farms in Asia Oxolinic acid2,3,4 Perfloxacin Flumequine3,4 Sarafloxacin2 EU MRL 150ug/kg fish muscle Nitrofurans Furazolidone Broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent. Used in shrimp farms in Asia. Use discouraged as it is a potential carcinogen. Macrolides Erthromycin4 Spiramycin Aminoglycosides Gentamycin Other antibiotics Chloramphenicol Residues in foods may cause aplastic anaemia in man5. Use banned in the European Union. Florfenicol1,3,4 Thiamephenicol4 Tiamulin Nalidixic acid Milozacin Used to treat RTFS and furunculosis in salmon.
  • 40. INTERNATIONAL REGULATORY FRAMEWORK SEAFOOD SAFETY AND QUALITY
  • 41. • The increasing demand for fish and fishery products and the development in international fish trade have raised major concerns about:  The overexploitation of aquatic resources  the quality and safety of the products internationally traded.  Globalisation of the economy and the development of regional economic groupings have highlighted the need for harmonizing fish safety and quality assurance approaches, with the view to ensure fish safety and fair trade practices
  • 42. The World Trade Organization (WTO) agreement • The Final Act of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations, which began in Punta del Este, Uruguay in September 1986 and concluded in Marrakesh, Morocco in April 1994, established the World Trade Organization (WTO) to succeed the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). • Significant implications for food safety and quality arise from the Final Act of the Uruguay Round, especially from two binding agreements: • The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Measures • The Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT Agreement).
  • 43. WTO Agreements of particular relevance for fisheries oAgreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) oAgreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) oAgreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures oAgreement on Import Licensing Procedures oAgreement on Anti-Dumping oAgreement on Rules of Origin oDispute Settlement oTariff reduction (GATT)
  • 44. The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Measures • The SPS agreement confirms the right of WTO member countries to apply measures necessary to protect human, animal and plant life and health. • The purpose of the SPS Agreement is to ensure that measures established by governments to protect human, animal and plant life and health, in the agricultural sector, including fisheries, are consistent with obligations prohibiting arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination on trade between countries where the same conditions prevail and are not disguised restrictions on international trade
  • 45. Agreements on the application of SPS measures….. • It requires that, with regard to food safety measures, WTO members base their national measures on international standards, guidelines and other recommendations adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) where they exist. • Furthermore, the SPS Agreement calls for a programme of harmonization based on international standards. • This work is guided by the WTO Committee on SPS measures, to which representatives of the CAC, the International Office of Epizootics (OIE) which deals with animal (including fish) health, and the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) which deals with plant protection are invited
  • 46. Agreements on the application of SPS measures….. • Finally, the SPS Agreement requires that SPS measures are to be based on an assessment of the risks to humans, animal and plant life and health using internationally accepted risk assessment techniques.
  • 47. Agreements on the application of SPS measures (highlights) • Right of Members to apply measures they deem necessary to protect human, animal and plant life and health • Should not be a disguised restriction on international trade • Protection levels should not be more trade restrictive than required to provide “appropriate level of protection” APLP
  • 48. The agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) • The Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement (TBT) ensures that members do not use technical regulations or standards as disguised measures to protect domestic industries from foreign competition. • Labelling disputes • Testing procedures
  • 49. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO): Codex Alimentarius  The CAC is an intergovernmental body with a membership of 165 Member governments. In addition, observers from international scientific organizations, food industry, food trade and consumer associations may attend sessions of the Commission and of its subsidiary bodies.  Since 1962, the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) has been responsible for implementing the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme Codex Alimentarius  The Commission's primary objectives are the protection of the health of consumers, the assurance of fair practices in food trade and the coordination of the work on food standards  The Commission's primary objectives are the protection of the health of consumers, the assurance of fair practices in food trade and the coordination of the work on food standards.
  • 50. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO): Codex Alimentarius • The work of the Codex Alimentarius is divided between two basic types of committees: • nine general subject matter(s) Committees that deal with general principles, hygiene, veterinary drugs, pesticides, food additives, labelling, methods of analysis, nutrition and import/export inspection and certification systems and • 12 Commodity Committees which deal with a specific type of food class or group, such as dairy and dairy products, fats and oils, or fish and fish products
  • 51. The FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries • The FAO Committee on Fisheries (COFI) at its Nineteenth Session in March 1991 called for the development of new concepts which would lead to responsible, sustained fisheries. • Subsequently, the International Conference on Responsible Fishing, held in 1992 in Cancûn (Mexico) further requested FAO to prepare an international Code of Conduct to address these concerns. • The outcome of this Conference, particularly the Declaration of Cancûn, was an important contribution to the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), in particular its Agenda 21.
  • 52. Other institutions: • Global Aquaculture Alliance: GAA is a non-profit trade association dedicated to advancing responsible aquaculture through aquaculture certification standards. • Global Food Safety Initiative:The Global Food Safety Initiative is a business-driven initiative for the continuous improvement of food safety management systems to ensure confidence in the delivery of safe food to consumers worldwide. • GFSI provides a platform for collaboration between some of the world’s leading food safety experts from retailer, manufacturer and food service companies, service providers associated with the food supply chain, international organizations, academia and government.
  • 53. Other institutions: • The GFSI objectives are to: • Reduce food safety risks by delivering equivalence and convergence between effective food safety management systems • Manage cost in the global food system by eliminating redundancy and improving operational efficiency • Develop competencies and capacity building in food safety to create consistent and effective global food systems • Provide a unique international stakeholder platform for collaboration, knowledge exchange and networking
  • 54. HACCP • HACCP: is a system which identifies, evaluates and controls hazards which are significant for food safety (CAC, 2001). • The traditional approach to food safety assurance was based on applying codes of Good Hygiene Practices (GHP) and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) in food processing. • Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP): Those procedures for a particular manufacturing operation which practitioners of, and experts in, that operation consider to be the best available using current knowledge. • Good Hygienic Practices (GHP): all practices regarding the conditions and measures necessary to ensure the safety and suitability of food at all stages of the food chain.
  • 55. Food Safety and quality, an integrated approach (from Jouve, 1998).
  • 56. The basic seven principles of HACCP Principle 1: Conduct a hazard analysis Principle 2: Determine the critical control points (CCPs) Principle 3: Establish critical limits Principle 4: Establish monitoring procedures Principle 5: Establish corrective actions Principle 6: Establish verification procedures Principle 7: Establish record-keeping and documentation procedures.
  • 57. Application of the HACCP principles • The Codex guidelines suggest that the introduction and application of the HACCP principles should follow a series of 12 steps in a logic sequence as described below: • Step 1: Assemble the HACCP team • The microbiologist ,processing specialist, food chemist, a food engineer as well as packaging technologists, sales staff, training and personnel managers • Step 2: Describe product • A full and detailed description of the final production must be drawn up. The raw materials and ingredients used must be specified including the market name or Latin name of the fishery component.
  • 58. Step 2:……. Elements of the product description 1 Product name 2 Raw material and ingredients used 3 Parameters influencing safety (aw, pH, salt%, etc.) 4 Processing 5 Packaging and packaging material 6 Storage conditions and shelf life 7 Conditions during distribution 8 Intended use and consumer 9 Labelling instructions
  • 59. • Step 3: Identify intended use and consumer • Step 4: Construct flow diagram • Step 5: On-site confirmation of flow diagram • Step 6: List all potential hazards associated with each step in the operation, conduct a hazard analysis and consider any measure to control identified hazards (Principle 1) The words "hazard" and "hazard analysis" have been defined by Codex (CAC, 2001): Hazard A biological, chemical or physical agent in, or a condition of, food with the potential to cause an adverse health effect (CAC, 2001) Hazard Analysis The process of collecting and evaluating information on hazards and conditions leading to their presence to decide which are significant for food safety and therefore should be addressed in the HACCP plan (CAC, 2001)
  • 60. • Step 7: Determine the critical control points (CCPs)  Is a step at which control can be applied and is essential to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level (CAC
  • 61. Critical control point decision tree (ILSI, 1997).
  • 62. • Step 8 Establish critical limits • Critical limit:is a criterion which separates acceptability from unacceptability (CAC, 2001) • Step 9: Establish monitoring procedures (Principle 4) Monitoring of CCPs serves three purposes (NACMCF, 1997): • To determine if there is a loss of control and a deviation occurs at a CCP. Appropriate action must then be taken • Monitoring keeps check on the operation and provides information whether there is a trend towards loss of control and action can be taken to bring the process back into control before a deviation occur • Provides written documentation for use in verification and audit. All records must be signed.
  • 63. • Monitoring: is the act of conducting a planned sequence of observations or measurements of control parameters to assess whether a CCP is under control (CAC, 2001) • Step 10: Establish corrective actions (Principle 5) • Corrective Action: is any action to be taken when the results of monitoring at the CCP indicate a loss of control (CAC, 2001) • Step 11: Establish verification procedures (Principle 6) • Verification: is the application of methods, procedures, tests and other evaluations, in addition to monitoring to determine compliance with the HACCP plan (CAC, 2001). • Step 12: Establish record-keeping and documentation procedures (Principle 7) • Record keeping: ensures that the information resulting from the HACCP study and implementation of the resulting HACCP plan is available for validation, verification, review, auditing and other purposes (ILSI, 1997)
  • 64. Considerations in the Application of the HACCP Principles to Seafood Production • The safety of seafood products varies considerably and is influenced by a number of factors such as origin of the fish, microbiological ecology of the product, handling and processing practices and preparations before consumption. • Taking most of these aspects into consideration, seafood can conveniently be grouped as shown below (modified from Huss (1994))
  • 65. Considerations in the Application of the HACCP Principles to Seafood Production……. Molluscan shellfish Raw fish to be eaten without any cooking Fresh or frozen fish and crustaceans - to be fully cooked before consumption. Lightly preserved fish products i.e. NaCl <6% in water phase, pH >5.0. The prescribed storage temperature is <5°C. This group includes salted, marinated, cold smoked and gravad fish Fermented fish, i.e. NaCl <8% NaCl, pH changing from neutral to acid. Typically, the products are stored at ambient temperature
  • 66. Considerations in the Application of the HACCP Principles to Seafood Production……. • Semi-preserved fish i.e. NaCl >6% in water phase, or pH < 5, preservatives (sorbate, benzoate, nitrite) may be added. The prescribed storage temperature is <10°C. This group includes salted and/or marinated fish or caviar, fermented fish (after completion of fermentation) • Mildly heat-processed (pasteurised, cooked, hot smoked) fish products and crustaceans (including pre-cooked, breaded fillets). The prescribed storage temperature is <5°C • Heat-processed (sterilised, packed in sealed containers) • Dried, smoke-dried fish, heavily salted fish. Can be stored at ambient temperatures.
  • 67. HACCP AND ISO • The seven HACCP principles are included in the international standard ISO 22000 FSMS 2005. • This standard is a complete food safety and quality management system incorporating the elements of prerequisite programmes(GMP & SSOP), HACCP and the quality management system, which together form an organization's Total Quality Management system • ISO 22000 will not replace HACCP. • HACCP is a system - ISO 22000 is a standard • ISO 22000 can be used to measure the success of a company's implementation of HACC
  • 68. National Regulations (India) India is a member of WTO All rules and regulations that apply in WTO are also applicable to India. Fishing in India is a major industry in its coastal states, employing over 14 million people. India plays a major role in the global seafood export among the Asian countries.  The marine products exports from India reached 8 lakh tonnes worth 2.8 billion US $ in 2010-11
  • 69. National Regulations (India)
  • 70. The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India • Established under the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 as a statutory body for laying down science based standards for articles of food and regulating manufacturing, processing, distribution, sale and import of food so as to ensure safe and wholesome food for human consumption. • "Codex India" the National Codex Contact Point (NCCP) for India, is located at Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (Ministry of Health and Family Welfare). It coordinates and promotes Codex activities in India in association with the National Codex Committee and facilitates India's input to the work of Codex through an established consultation process.
  • 71. The Food Safety and Standards Regulations, 2011 FSS (Licensing and Registration of Food businesses) regulation, 2011 FSS (Packaging and Labelling) regulation, 2011 FSS (Food product standards and Food Additives) regulation, 2011 (part I) FSS (Food product standards and food additives) regulation, 2011 (part II) FSS (Prohibition and Restriction on sales) regulation, 2011 FSS (contaminants, toxins and residues) regulation, 2011 FSS (Laboratory and sampling analysis) regulation, 2011 Food Safety and Standards Rules (Amendment),2013 (Currently being developed)
  • 72. Conclusion • Seafood constitutes an important food resource providing much-need nutrients • Globalization, international trade and increased awareness on food safety have inspired development of national and international regulations • HACCP is the key instrument in an integrated approach to seafood safety and quality • WTO, WHO, FAO,Codex Alimentarius etc are key players in food safety and quality regulations
  • 73. References • Huss, H.H., Ababouch, L. and Gram, L. (2004). Assessment and management of seafood safety and quality. FAO Fisheries technical paper 444. • Training material from UNU-FTP/Icelandic Fisheries Laboratories WHO Technical Report Series, No. 883, 1999. Food safety issues associated with products from aquaculture • International Commission on Microbial Specification for Foods (1996). Microorganisms in Foods. 5. Microbiological specifications of food pathogens. Blackwell Scientific Puplications. • Website: http://www.seafood.ucdavis.edu • Lehane and Olley (2000). Histamine fish poisoning revisited. Int. Journal of Food Microbiol. 58, 1-37

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