Prevalence & Economic Importance
of FMD & CBPP Outbreaks in Cattle
in Isingiro & Nakasongola Districts,
Uganda
AFRICAN LIV...
Structure of the Presentation
• Introduction
• Materials & Methods
• Results & Discussion
• Conclusions & Recommendations
...
Introduction
• Livestock enterprises & animal production
contribute significantly to the world economy,
provide household ...
Introduction
• TADs such as FMD & CBPP are associated with
widespread transmission, prevention &
control of these diseases...
FMD World Map
6/26/2014 Baluka S A et al., 2014 5
CBPP World Map
6/26/2014 Baluka S A et al., 2014 6
6/26/2014 Baluka S A et al., 2014 7
6/26/2014 Baluka S A et al., 2014 8
6/26/2014 Baluka S A et al., 2014 9
6/26/2014 Baluka S A et al., 2014 10
Introduction
• FMD reduces milk yields, increases probability of
mastitis, abortions, perinatal mortality, lameness, loss
...
Introduction
• FMD & CBPP influence the level of sales of LLPs.
• Understanding the financial losses associated
with FMD &...
Introduction
• The study determined the financial losses
associated with FMD & CBPP outbreaks in
selected case study cattl...
6/26/2014 Baluka S A et al., 2014 14
Materials and Methods
• Case studies were done in Mbaare S/c, Isingiro
district & Nabiswera S/c, Nakasongola district
to e...
Estimation of the financial losses associated with FMD
& CBPP outbreaks at farm level
• FMD case studies were done in 17 h...
Determination of economic cost of FMD & CBPP
outbreaks among case study herds
• Economic cost was analyzed using the conce...
6/26/2014 Baluka S A et al., 2014 18
The economic cost due to FMD and CBPP outbreaks on cattle production was analyzed usi...
Determination of economic cost…
• Impact of FMD & CBPP
on farmers was
considered in terms of
reduced cattle
productivity i...
Results: Distribution of case study households
according to herd size in Isingiro district (Table 1)
• FMD case study herd...
Results & Discussion
FMD Prevalence in Isingiro district
6/26/2014 Baluka S A et al., 2014 21
Results & Discussion
6/26/2014 Baluka S A et al., 2014 22
• FMD prevalence was
highest in small herds &
decreased as the h...
Results & Discussion
• Average reported herd prevalence
for FMD was 23.6% which is
comparable to that found by
Mannan et a...
Results & Discussion
• FMD prevalence was
highest in small herds&
decreased as the herd size
increased.
• This is probably...
Results & Discussion –FMD control costs in US
Dollars in case study herds in Isingiro (Table 2)
Item Small
herd
Medium
her...
Results & Discussion – Economic cost of FMD in
US Dollars in case study herds in Isingiro
• The FMD control cost per head ...
Results & Discussion – Economic cost of FMD in
US Dollars in case study herds in Isingiro
• During FMD outbreaks, more far...
The economic losses or costs (USD) associated with
FMD in case study herds in Isingiro per annum
(Table 3)
Item Small
herd...
CBPP Economic costs
Average herd cost of prophylactic treatment of CBPP
infected herds with tylosin in Nakasongola distric...
CBPP Economic costs
• Average prohylactic treatment with tylosin per
head of cattle infected with CBPP cost $48
• Vaccinat...
CBPP Economic costs
• Economic costs associated with CBPP were
mainly due to mortality & treatment costs.
• Average econom...
Conclusions & Recommendations
• Overall, treatment costs were higher than
vaccination costs.
• FMD & CBPP disproportionate...
Acknowledgements
• DAAD / ILRI for funding the first phase of this
research.
• Carnegie & Makerere University for funding
...
THANK U FOR LISTENING
• DANKE SCHÖNE
• ASANTENI SANA
• MWEBALE INNO
Baluka S A et al., 2014 346/26/2014
of 34

Prevalence economic importance of fmd by dr. sylvia baluka

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Food      Business      Technology      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Prevalence economic importance of fmd by dr. sylvia baluka

  • 1. Prevalence & Economic Importance of FMD & CBPP Outbreaks in Cattle in Isingiro & Nakasongola Districts, Uganda AFRICAN LIVESTOCK CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION, SPEKE RESORT & CONFERENCE CENTRE, MUNYONYO, KAMPALA, UGANDA JUNE 20TH, 2014 Drs. Baluka S A, Ocaido M., Mugisha A. Baluka S A et al., 2014 16/26/2014
  • 2. Structure of the Presentation • Introduction • Materials & Methods • Results & Discussion • Conclusions & Recommendations • Acknowledgements Baluka S A et al., 2014 26/26/2014
  • 3. Introduction • Livestock enterprises & animal production contribute significantly to the world economy, provide household source of income, food security, source of energy, draft power, high quality animal proteins, vitamins, manure, hides & skins, and bride price. • Animal diseases undermine the livestock sector potential & compromise food security. • Animal diseases affect livelihoods via their impact on animal health, reduced production & mitigation measures. Baluka S A et al., 2014 36/26/2014
  • 4. Introduction • TADs such as FMD & CBPP are associated with widespread transmission, prevention & control of these diseases incur high costs. • FMD is endemic in Asia, Middle East, parts of South America & Africa. • CBPP is endemic in Africa & is widespread in West, Central & Eastern Africa. Baluka S A et al., 2014 46/26/2014
  • 5. FMD World Map 6/26/2014 Baluka S A et al., 2014 5
  • 6. CBPP World Map 6/26/2014 Baluka S A et al., 2014 6
  • 7. 6/26/2014 Baluka S A et al., 2014 7
  • 8. 6/26/2014 Baluka S A et al., 2014 8
  • 9. 6/26/2014 Baluka S A et al., 2014 9
  • 10. 6/26/2014 Baluka S A et al., 2014 10
  • 11. Introduction • FMD reduces milk yields, increases probability of mastitis, abortions, perinatal mortality, lameness, loss of body weight, causes premature culling of cattle. • CBPP causes production losses, increases production costs via increased disease control costs, compromises food security thru loss of proteins & draft power, disrupts LLPs trade, causes high morbidity & mortality losses especially in newly affected areas among susceptible herds. • CBPP causes high productivity losses accompanied by significant financial losses. Baluka S A et al., 2014 116/26/2014
  • 12. Introduction • FMD & CBPP influence the level of sales of LLPs. • Understanding the financial losses associated with FMD & CBPP outbreaks facilitates estimation of economic costs of these diseases. • FMD costs include vaccination costs, salvage, disposal, cleaning, disinfecting, labor, equipment, changes in market prices etc. • CBPP costs include vaccination & treatment costs, mortality losses Baluka S A et al., 2014 126/26/2014
  • 13. Introduction • The study determined the financial losses associated with FMD & CBPP outbreaks in selected case study cattle herds in Isingiro & Nakasongola districts respectively. • This information is needed to motivate cattle farmers to comply with the prevention & control measures for these diseases that are implemented by MAAIF. • Control & prevention helps to control costs of production which is necessary if farmers are to achieve more efficient livestock production. Baluka S A et al., 2014 136/26/2014
  • 14. 6/26/2014 Baluka S A et al., 2014 14
  • 15. Materials and Methods • Case studies were done in Mbaare S/c, Isingiro district & Nabiswera S/c, Nakasongola district to estimate the financial losses & economic costs associated with FMD & CBPP outbreaks respectively. • Mbaare, Isingiro was typically affected by FMD & Nabiswera, Nakasongola, had experienced a CBPP Outbreak 3months before the study. Baluka S A et al., 2014 156/26/2014
  • 16. Estimation of the financial losses associated with FMD & CBPP outbreaks at farm level • FMD case studies were done in 17 herds that had experienced FMD outbreaks in Mbaare S/c i.e. 3, 9 & 5 herds were selected to represent small, medium & large herds. • CBPP case studies were done in 11herds that had experienced CBPP in Nabiswera i.e. 4, 3 & 4 herds were selected to represent small, medium & large herds. • Small, medium & large herds refer to herd sizes of 10- 50, 51-150 & 151-350 heads of cattle respectively. • Financial losses in the case study herds were estimated by modeling the behavior of these diseases in selected case study herds. Baluka S A et al., 2014 166/26/2014
  • 17. Determination of economic cost of FMD & CBPP outbreaks among case study herds • Economic cost was analyzed using the conceptual model (Figure 1). • Economic cost was considered the sum of costs due to: • Control of FMD in herds (vaccination & Rx) • Weight loss & mortality related losses • Abortion related losses • Milk production losses • Manure related losses • Traction related losses • Reduced crop production & increased cost of crop pdn • Salvage live sale loss during the outbreak Baluka S A et al., 2014 176/26/2014
  • 18. 6/26/2014 Baluka S A et al., 2014 18 The economic cost due to FMD and CBPP outbreaks on cattle production was analyzed using the conceptual model (see Figure 1). Farmer, cattle marketing losses Local government revenue losses Herd losses Cattle marketing losses Salvage sale losses Manure losses FMD/CBPP vaccination / treatment costs No sales Mortality losses Weight losses Abortion losses Milk losses
  • 19. Determination of economic cost… • Impact of FMD & CBPP on farmers was considered in terms of reduced cattle productivity i.e. reduced milk yield, age specific mortalities, weight loss & abortions 6/26/2014 Baluka S A et al., 2014 19
  • 20. Results: Distribution of case study households according to herd size in Isingiro district (Table 1) • FMD case study herds & reported FMD prevalence in Mbaare S/c were distributed as shown in Table 1. • There was a very highly negative correlation of reported FMD prevalence (%) with the cattle herd size (= -0.832, p ˂ 0.001), see Table 1 & Figure 2 Herd Size Average herd size Number of herds Reported FMD Prevalence % Small 12 3 100 Medium 85 9 37.6 Large 260 5 13.2 6/26/2014 Baluka S A et al., 2014 20
  • 21. Results & Discussion FMD Prevalence in Isingiro district 6/26/2014 Baluka S A et al., 2014 21
  • 22. Results & Discussion 6/26/2014 Baluka S A et al., 2014 22 • FMD prevalence was highest in small herds & decreased as the herd size increased • This is probably due to closer contact between cattle in smaller herds which facilitates transmission. • Or farmers with large herds can afford to fence their farms & construct water dams on the farms hence the low prevalence in large herds
  • 23. Results & Discussion • Average reported herd prevalence for FMD was 23.6% which is comparable to that found by Mannan et al., 2009 in Bangladesh. • Herd age prevalence was high for all age groups in small herds. • FMD prevalence for calves in medium & large herds was lower than that of heifers & cows which is in agreement with Mannan et al., 2009 who found a higher prevalence (34.1%) in adult cattle compared to heifers (23.4%) & calves (9.7%). • These results defer from other studies (Perry et al., 2003, Rufael et al., 2008) that found a higher FMD prevalence in calves than adults. 6/26/2014 Baluka S A et al., 2014 23
  • 24. Results & Discussion • FMD prevalence was highest in small herds& decreased as the herd size increased. • This is probably due to closer contact between cattle in smaller herds which facilitates transmission. • Or farmers with large herds can afford to fence their farms & construct water dams on the farms hence the low prevalence in large herds 6/26/2014 Baluka S A et al., 2014 24
  • 25. Results & Discussion –FMD control costs in US Dollars in case study herds in Isingiro (Table 2) Item Small herd Medium herd Large herd Total treatme nt costs 298 635 655 Vaccinat ion costs 6 34 103 Veterina ry costs 8 8 8 Total FMD control costs 312 677 766 FMD control cost per head of 26 8 3 6/26/2014 Baluka S A et al., 2014 25
  • 26. Results & Discussion – Economic cost of FMD in US Dollars in case study herds in Isingiro • The FMD control cost per head of cattle was highest in small herds compared to medium & large herds. • It is much more expensive for smallholder farmers to control FMD, & it dis- proportionately affects the poor smallholder farmers which is in agreement with Perry et al., 2003. Baluka S A et al., 2014 266/26/2014
  • 27. Results & Discussion – Economic cost of FMD in US Dollars in case study herds in Isingiro • During FMD outbreaks, more farmers with small & medium herds made losses because they were compelled to sale cattle at salvage prices due to lack of alternative income sources to pay for vaccination/ drugs. • Large herds farmers suffered higher milk losses during FMD outbreaks due to reduced milk production, loss of milk sales than either small or medium herds. Baluka S A et al., 2014 276/26/2014
  • 28. The economic losses or costs (USD) associated with FMD in case study herds in Isingiro per annum (Table 3) Item Small herds Medium herds Large herds Mortalit y 595 298 0 Salvage sale loss 198 1571 0 Milk loss 371 874 3708 Treatme nt 298 635 655 Vaccinat ion 6 34 103 Veterina ry costs 8 8 8 Total 1476 3419 4474 Annual economi 123 41 17 • The annual economic losses associated with FMD per head of cattle was highest in small herds (Table 3) which portrays a trend similar to FMD control costs presented in Table 2 • This confirms that FMD dis- proportionately affects the poor smallholder farmers more than the better off large farmers • Highest economic cost of FMD in case study herds was due to; mortality in small herds, salvage sale losses in medium herds & milk loss in large herds6/26/2014 Baluka S A et al., 2014 28
  • 29. CBPP Economic costs Average herd cost of prophylactic treatment of CBPP infected herds with tylosin in Nakasongola district (Table 4 Cattle age category Small herd Medium herd Large herd Bulls 238 524 1857 Cows 1524 3952 8238 Heifers 905 2476 2000 Steers 95 1000 429 Calves 667 2190 1762 Total 3429 10143 14286 Average vaccination costs in USD for all herds (Table 5) Cattle age category Small herd Medium herd Large herd Bulls 1 2 8 Cows 6 16 34 Heifers 4 10 8 Steers 0.4 4 2 Calves 3 9 7 Total 14 42 60 6/26/2014 Baluka S A et al., 2014 29
  • 30. CBPP Economic costs • Average prohylactic treatment with tylosin per head of cattle infected with CBPP cost $48 • Vaccination was only done during outbreaks & it cost $0.2 + vet fee of $8 • Average Prophylactic treatment & vaccination costs were highest in large herds. • The cost of tylosin is much higher than the cost of vaccination Baluka S A et al., 2014 306/26/2014
  • 31. CBPP Economic costs • Economic costs associated with CBPP were mainly due to mortality & treatment costs. • Average economic cost of CBPP per head was more twice as high as in the small & medium herds. • Mortality losses contributed highest to the total economic cost due to CBPP for all herds i.e. small, medium & large. Baluka S A et al., 2014 316/26/2014
  • 32. Conclusions & Recommendations • Overall, treatment costs were higher than vaccination costs. • FMD & CBPP disproportionately affect the poor stallholder farmers more than large farmers. • Farmers should invest more in vaccination rather than wait to incur higher costs in treatment during outbreaks. • GOU should retain responsibility for controlling & preventing these diseases since the most affected are the poor who cannot afford without government support. Baluka S A et al., 2014 326/26/2014
  • 33. Acknowledgements • DAAD / ILRI for funding the first phase of this research. • Carnegie & Makerere University for funding the rest of this research. • Co-authors & supervisors for their guidance and input. Baluka S A et al., 2014 336/26/2014
  • 34. THANK U FOR LISTENING • DANKE SCHÖNE • ASANTENI SANA • MWEBALE INNO Baluka S A et al., 2014 346/26/2014

Related Documents