WildPets
APRIL 2014
THE DEBATE OVER
OWNING EXOTIC ANIMALS
FOUND IN FRANCE: A ROMAN BOATCAN COAL EVER BE CLEAN?
8:45 p.m., January 20, 2014
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Shot with the Nokia Lumia 1020
Follow my journey through the
Seven Natural Wonders of the World at
nationalgeographic.com/nokia.
||
“Every day on this as...
*OUSPEVDJOHUIF,
GSPN,JB
,7FYQFDUFE4QSJOH*OJUJBMMZPOMZBWBJMBCMFJOTFMFDUNBSLFUTXJUIMJNJUFEBWBJMBCJMJUZ,7QSPUPUZQFTIPXOXJUIPQ...
LJBDPN,
The Romans had a serious
trash problem, though it
was good-looking trash.
page 126
28
The Shentou Number 2 power plant spe...
AVeil of Eggs
The monkfish lays a million at a time,
protected by a floating, gauzy film.
Commuter Science
A city-by-city bre...
dyson.com/DC59
Sucks up as much dust as a
conventional vacuum.*
Without the hassle of a cord.
Dyson digital motor V6.
A mo...

EDITOR’S NOTE
PHOTO: VINCENT J. MUSI
The Bear in the Backyard
About 15 years ago I had an assignment to photo-
graph wil...
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JULIETTE, GEORGIA
Steam and smoke rise
from the cooling towers
and chimneys of the
Robert W. Scherer power
plant, the larg...

CAN COAL
EVER BE
CLEAN?
It’s the dirtiest
of fossil fuels.
We burn eight billion
tons of it a year,
with growing
conseq...
POCA, WEST VIRGINIA
The Poca High School
“Dots” practice near an
American Electric Power
coal-fired plant that powers
nearl...
Just look at West Virginia, where whole Appa-
lachian peaks have been knocked into valleys
to get at the coal underneath a...
coal 
the days that followed,  people died, and ,
people—nearly half the town—were sickened.
Coal, to use the econ...
C
hina
U.S.
India
Russia
G
erm
any
South
Africa
Japan
Poland
South
Korea
Australia
2011
3.8 billion
tons
2000
1.5 billion
...
coal 
a solution of ammonium carbonate, which ab-
sorbed the CO2. The CO2 was then drastically
compressed and injected i...
or at any of the handful of other large storage sites
around the world. Scientists consider the risk of a
catastrophic lea...
CO2 hasn’t increased its internal pressure, and
there’s been no sign of quakes or leaks.
European researchers estimate tha...
Five
largest
emitters
since
1850
Cumulative atmospheric carbon
added by human activities
BILLIONS OF METRIC TONS
Fossil fu...
including some of the country’s richest deposits
of coal. “God is fair,” says Yulin deputy mayor
Gao Zhongyin. From here c...
records, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC) issued its latest report. For the
first time it estimated an...
Photographs by Robb Kendrick
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into extracting it from ...
It burns nearly half the world’s coal, mostly to
support a 13-fold increase in electricity generation
since 1980. Demand i...
SHUOZHOU, CHINA
Amid the withered stalks
of last year’s corn, a farmer
prepares for spring near
a power plant in Shanxi
Pr...
DATONG, CHINA
At a coal terminal in Shanxi
Province workers pick rocks
from low-priced coal as it
moves past on a conveyor...
The U.S. mines more than a billion tons of coal
a year. Once it came mostly from underground
mines in the East; now strip ...
MADISON, WEST VIRGINIA
They call it mountaintop
removal. For each ton of
coal taken from the Hobet
21 mine, 20 cubic yards...
NORFOLK, VIRGINIA
At the Lamberts Point
Coal Terminal, railcars
loaded with coal line up
to fill waiting ships. Some
20 mil...
WRIGHT, WYOMING
The Black Thunder mine,
one of the world’s largest,
covers 75 square miles of
public and private land.
Tru...
It has 300 million people without electricity
and the fifth largest coal reserves in the world.
The pressure to produce coa...
JHARKHAND, INDIA
A young boy carries
a chunk of coal into the
mining camp where he
lives. His family will burn
the coal to...
JHARKHAND, INDIA
Northeastern India has a
long history of coal mining,
and fires ignited by mining
accidents almost a centu...
MEGHALAYA, INDIA
A miner (left) works in one of hundreds of coal mines in eastern
India that are neither sanctioned nor re...
MEGHALAYA, INDIA
A coal miner climbs a
shaky ladder to daylight.
A 19th-century mine in
the U.S. or Europe might
have look...
of
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Tale
Two
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OCEANMozambique
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Lagoon: 18.1 sq mi...
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National geographic usa 2014 04

Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Education      
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Transcripts - National geographic usa 2014 04

  • 1. WildPets APRIL 2014 THE DEBATE OVER OWNING EXOTIC ANIMALS FOUND IN FRANCE: A ROMAN BOATCAN COAL EVER BE CLEAN?
  • 2. 8:45 p.m., January 20, 2014 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Shot with the Nokia Lumia 1020
  • 3. Follow my journey through the Seven Natural Wonders of the World at nationalgeographic.com/nokia. || “Every day on this assignment, I woke up astounded that a place this beautiful could be real. Soccer isn’t all that will amaze people in Rio this year. The Harbor is the world’s larg- est bay; mountains rise up all around it; and wedged right between is the spectacular city. Easy to see why it’s one of the Seven Natural Wonders of the World, and once again, the Nokia Lumia 1020 let me explore and shoot in a whole new way. In fact, I look at my images and can’t believe they were all shot with a smartphone. The Lumia 1020 is an absolutely incred- ible low-light camera. The details it captures, like the sparkling lights in this nighttime image, astonish me. I used the 1020 just like a DSLR camera, shooting aerials, action, in all kinds of light with fantastic quality. I just can’t believe the pictures—and I took them!” —Stephen Alvarez, National Geographic photographer NOKIA LUMIA 1020 Telling Rio’s story like never before.
  • 4. *OUSPEVDJOHUIF, GSPN,JB ,7FYQFDUFE4QSJOH*OJUJBMMZPOMZBWBJMBCMFJOTFMFDUNBSLFUTXJUIMJNJUFEBWBJMBCJMJUZ,7QSPUPUZQFTIPXOXJUIPQUJPOBMGFBUVSFT/PUBMM GFBUVSFTBSFBWBJMBCMFPOBMMUSJNMFWFMT5).53*9 5).53*93-0%% 5).53*9370-65*0/4Ą𘅣8BSOFS#SPTOUFSUBJONFOU*OD T 5IFZTBZUIBUUSBEJUJPOJTXIBUNBLFTBMVYVSZTFEBO CVUJTUIBUUSVMZUIFDBTF 0SDBOMVYVSZ TJNQMZCFEFGJOFECZUIFXBZTPNFUIJOHMPPLT 5IFXBZJUGFFMT 5IFXBZJUNBLFTZPVGFFM 1FSIBQT JU𙙧TUIFXBZJUNBLFTPUIFSTGFFMBCPVUZPV 8IJMFTPNFXJMMDMJOHUPUIFOPUJPOUIBUIFSJUBHFJT XIBUNBLFTBMVYVSZTFEBO UIFPQFONJOEFEXJMMGPSNBOPQJOJPOPGUIFJSPXO $IBMMFOHFUIFMVYVSZZPVLOPXĄ
  • 5. LJBDPN,
  • 6. The Romans had a serious trash problem, though it was good-looking trash. page 126 28 The Shentou Number 2 power plant spews fly ash and coal dust over the country- side near Shuozhou, China. The coal-fired plant provides electricity to Beijing. Hats Off to Breton Women Have you ever tried to climb into a tiny car with a 13-inch-tall column of lace on your head? By Amanda Fiegl Photographs by Charles Fréger Wild Obsession Owners love their pet chimps, tigers, bears. Critics say it’s dangerous and cruel. By Lauren Slater Photographs by Vincent J. Musi Romans in France The muddy Rhône River is full of surprises: stat- ues, luxury goods, a 102-foot-long Roman boat. By Robert Kunzig Photographs by Rémi Bénali Can Coal Ever Be Clean? We burn eight billion tons a year. Demand is surg- ing. The challenge: control the carbon pollution. By Michelle Nijhuis Photographs by Robb Kendrick A Tale of Two Atolls Amorous turtles and young sharks find happiness by a pair of Indian Ocean islands. By Kennedy Warne Photographs by Thomas P. Peschak Cosmic Dawn When a star is born, the best way to take a look is with ALMA, the gigantic new telescope in Chile. By Yudhijit Bhattacharjee Photographs by Dave Yoder 86 96 120 28 62 76 April 4 ROBB KENDRICK
  • 7. AVeil of Eggs The monkfish lays a million at a time, protected by a floating, gauzy film. Commuter Science A city-by-city breakdown of hours lost Gallery of Gardens Artist Fritz Haeg has helped 15 families turn their lawn into a work of art. Reunited After 163 Years A newfound ancient turtle bone matches up with a specimen from 1849. Block That Meteorite Early warnings could keep us safe. Soylent on Rye It’s a synthesized food that does not depend on agriculture. Sugar Solution Fructose plus water can make tissues transparent for a clear view of organs. 18 136 137 4 6 8 10 16 Editor’s Note Letters Survival Guide VISIONS NG Connect The Moment Found On the Cover Jade the hedgehog was nearly 11 months old (and 16½ ounces) when she was photographed. South Carolinian Brandon Harley uses her as a breeder in his pet business. Photo by Vincent J. Musi Your Shot DIGITAL EDITIONS April 4 NEXT Contributions to the National Geographic Society are tax deductible under Section 501(c)(3) of the U.S. tax code. Copyright © 2014 National Geographic Society All rights reserved. National Geographic and Yellow Border: Registered Trademarks ® Marcas Registradas. National Geographic assumes no responsibility for unsolicited materials. Printed in U.S.A. Subscriptions For subscriptions, gift memberships, or changes of address, contact Customer Service at ngmservice.com or call 1-800-NGS-LINE (647-5463). Outside the U.S. and Canada please call +1-813-979-6845. Please recycle. PRINTED ON 100% PEFC-CERTIFIED PAPER National Geographic is available on the iPad, the Kindle Fire, and the iPhone. Deer in the Home Lights Video Dillie the blind deer tours her domestic digs. Cosmic Dawn Interactive Experience the expansion of the universe.
  • 8. dyson.com/DC59 Sucks up as much dust as a conventional vacuum.* Without the hassle of a cord. Dyson digital motor V6. A more powerful motor spins up to 110,000 rpm to generate constant suction. 2 Tier Radial™ cyclones. 15 cyclones, arranged across two tiers, work in parallel to increase airflow and capture fine dust. The latest motorized cleaner head. Carbon fiber filaments and nylon bristle strips work together to remove fine dust from hard floors and ground-in dirt from carpets. *To prove this our engineers test for pick up performance across carpets (ASTM F608), hard floors (ASTM F2607) and hard floors with crevices (IEC 60312-1 5.2). To mimic actual use, they load machines with dust before testing (IEC 60312-1 5.9).
  • 9.  EDITOR’S NOTE PHOTO: VINCENT J. MUSI The Bear in the Backyard About 15 years ago I had an assignment to photo- graph wild dogs in Botswana’s Okavango Delta. A pack had hunted down an impala and dragged the carcass near my Land Rover. I crawled under the vehicle so I would be as inconspicuous as possible while photographing the scene, but an adult male trotted over to me, sniffed my face, and started tugging at my leg. I stayed absolutely still, heart racing, hardly breathing. It was an intimate encounter with one of Africa’s most endangered carnivores but was completely on the animal’s terms, not mine. Turning a wild animal—a lion, a lemur, a bear— into a pet creates a different dynamic. The relationship exists on the terms of the human owner, and I question the wisdom of that for both sides. In this month’s story on exotic pets, writer Lauren Slater and photographer Vince Musi take us into living rooms and backyards shared with animals whose natural habitats lie far from the suburbs. Undoubtedly, their owners feel an attachment no less profound than what you or I feel for the domestic dogs and cats in our lives. “All my life people have let me down,” a woman who keeps three kangaroos told Slater. “My animals never have.” It’s said that the morality of a nation can be judged by the way it treats its animals. But treat- ment is not just a matter of providing food, shelter, and care. It’s whether the animal in question ought to be a pet at all. Boo Boo lived in John Matus’s Ohio backyard for nine years before her relocation to a Colorado sanctuary in 2013. “I miss her a lot,” says Matus, who raised her from a cub.
  • 10. © 2014. PRUDENTIAL FINANCIAL, INC., NEWARK, NJ, USA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 0256203-00001-00 RETIREMENT | INVESTMENTS | INSURANCE Recently we conducted an intriguing experiment. We asked 200 people to think about how much money they’ll need in retirement, then had them stretch out a length of ribbon representing that amount to see how long it might last. What we learned is that most of us significantly underestimate how much we’ll need. The fact is, with people living longer, retirement could last up to 30 years or more. How can you make sure the money is there for you, year after year? Talk to your financial professional about our guaranteed retirement income solutions that can help provide annual income for each year of retirement from Day One. TALK TO YOUR FINANCIAL ADVISOR OR VISIT BRINGYOURCHALLENGES.COM WE ASKED PEOPLE HOW MUCH MONEY THEY WOULD NEED TO RETIRE. THEN SHOWED HOW LONG IT MIGHT LAST.
  • 11. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE EDITOR IN CHIEF Chris Johns CREATIVE DIRECTOR Bill Marr EXECUTIVE EDITORS Dennis R. Dimick (Environment), Susan Goldberg (Text), Matt Mansfield (Digital Content), Jamie Shreeve (Science) DIRECTORS OF PHOTOGRAPHY Keith Jenkins, Sarah Leen MANAGING EDITOR David Brindley TEXT DEPUTY DIRECTOR: Marc Silver. STORY DEVELOPMENT EDITOR: Barbara Paulsen ARTICLES EDITOR: Oliver Payne. SENIOR EDITORS: Robert Kunzig (Environment), Jane Vessels (Graphics). SENIOR EDITOR AT LARGE: Victoria Pope. EDITOR AT LARGE: Cathy Newman. FEATURES EDITORS: Peter Gwin (Expeditions), Glenn Oeland. EDITOR MISSION PROJECTS: Hannah Bloch ASSOCIATE EDITOR: Jeremy Berlin. SENIOR WRITERS: Tom O’Neill, Rachel Hartigan Shea, A. R. Williams. ADMINISTRATION: Nicholas Mott; Katia Andreassi, Ashleigh N. DeLuca CONTRIBUTING WRITERS: Caroline Alexander, Don Belt, Joel K. Bourne, Jr., Chip Brown, Robert Draper, Cynthia Gorney, Peter Hessler, Jennifer S. 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  • 12. As we all know you’re only young ONCE. If you do the math, that means about 6,570 days from the time you’re born until you’re considered an adult. So help the young people in your life do as much fun, cool stuff as they can while they’re still KIDS. These two amazing books are packed with hundreds of creative ideas on how kids can best spend their oh-so precious leisure time. Forstarters… Learn how to take a great photo Build a fort Canoe, kayak, or float down a river The sky’s the limit… Explore a national park Make a telescope Build a solar oven AVAILABLE WHEREVER BOOKS ARE SOLD Like us on Facebook: Nat Geo Books
  • 13. EMAIL comments to ngsforum@ngm.com; for subscription help, ngsline@customersvc.com. TWITTER @NatGeoMag WRITE National Geographic Magazine, PO Box 98199, Washington, DC 20090-8199. Letters may be edited for clarity and length.  national geographic april  LETTERS December 2013 On my wall I have a Buckminster Fuller Dymaxion map of the world. Many times I have gazed into it, fantasizing about (someone) taking the walk from the southern tip of Africa to the southern tip of South America. Given the right weather conditions, even the small gap between Cape Dezhneva in Russia and Cape Prince of Wales in Alaska could perhaps be crossed. I’m really looking forward to finally taking that walk, albeit from the comfort of my armchair, thanks to the next seven years of what I’m sure will be adventurous reporting from Paul Salopek. GEOFF SYKES Eagle Rock, California Our Greatest Journey FEEDBACK Readers sent in word of suspected cougar sightings around the U.S. Paul Salopek has the eye of an artist, the insight of a philoso- pher, and the candor of a poet. What better way to understand what it means to be human than to walk among us? MARTIN LEIF Roswell, New Mexico From the first time I sang “It’s a Small World” as a Brownie, I have tried to remember that we are all in this together. I will be interested not only in the geographic journey and the physical wonders this man will see but also in his discovery of the many ways we human beings are alike and connected. Wow. What a ride! LYNNE MILFORD Fort Worth, Texas Tumbleweeds When I was a child growing up on the northern edge of the San Fernando Valley, tumbleweeds were playthings. We chased them when the Santa Ana winds blew and watched them jump down our dirt road and pile up against the fences. When the wind stopped, we built forts and houses out of them in the field next door. At Christmas my mother always used three to make a snowman and painted it white. It was the closest we’d get to snow. But my father always yelled at us when we’d pull a tumbleweed over the fence and into our yard. Now I know why. JAN GANDY Palo Cedro, California This article was an eye-opener. Although I’ve lived in the West nearly all my life, I had never learned that tumbleweeds were an invasive species. Kudos to author George Johnson and your magazine for an article that had the perfect blend of history, science, sci-fi thriller, and sardonic wit. MARIE KEEHN Discovery Bay, California Corrections DECEMBER 2013, “ENGLISH BY THE BOOK” The catalog of the history of words referenced on page 60 was begun in 1857, not 1859. ART: KIRSTEN HUNTLEY
  • 14. SYMBICORT is a registered trademark of the AstraZeneca group of companies. ©2014 AstraZeneca. All rights reserved. 2941802 1/14 GO TO MYSYMBICORT.COM OR CALL 1-800-687-3755 TO FIND OUT HOW. *Subject to eligibility rules. Restrictions apply. ASK YOUR DOCTOR ABOUT SYMBICORT. Please see Important Safety Information on the following pages, and discuss with your doctor. YOU MAY GET ONE MONTH OF SYMBICORT FREE* LETTERS First Skiers I already knew the fate of the two bull elk before I finished reading. Any wildlife biologist can tell you that the stress brought on by such an exhausting ordeal doomed the elk even before they were freed. The wolves only made quick work of what were already near-dead beasts. RUFUS BAUR Council, Idaho Ghost Cats I was thoroughly enjoying the article on cougars, until I read the claim that California has “an abundance of deer” and “one of the lowest rates of cougar conflicts with humans.” Though the golf course at Pebble Beach may have an abundance of deer, populations in northeast counties and the Sierra Nevada have been decimated. I live in Shasta County, in the heart of the deer’s winter range, and it is all too easy to find a fresh kill. Livestock depletion must not count as “conflict with humans” either, because we sure have a lot of dead sheep gone to feed cougars. LAWRENCE J. RIVARD Falls River Mills, California Those mountain lions (we still call them mountain lions where I live) crossing the meadow were photographed near my home. The comeback is a heartwarming story to some. But to others it is simply the return of a serious competitor. JEFF VAN FLEET Kalispell, Montana As an active hunter, conservationist, and pragmatist raised in the American West, I was encouraged to read about the rebound of the cougar and the science behind it. Now attention needs to be turned to repatriating and manag- ing another of our long-neglected apex predators: the jaguar. JARED ZAUGG Sandy, Utah
  • 15. IT’S MISUNDERSTOOD. ASTHMA DOESN’T COME AND GO. Inflammation, the root cause of asthma, is always there, making you more vulnerable to triggers. So, while it’s important to avoid triggers, it’s also important to treat this inflammation. SYMBICORT helps reduce that underlying inflammation, which can mean improved lung function, and better breathing all day and night, when taken twice daily. Once your asthma is well controlled with SYMBICORT, your doctor may switch you to a long-term asthma control medicine such as an inhaled corticosteroid. Ask your doctor about SYMBICORT. YOU THINK ASTHMA “COMES AND GOES” THINK AGAIN. IF For patients 12 years and older whose asthma is not well controlled on a long-term asthma medicine or whose disease severity warrants FREE PRESCRIPTION OFFER* Call 1-800-687-3755 or visit MySymbicort.com/save *Subject to eligibility rules. Restrictions apply. For more information, call 1-866-SYMBICORT or go to MySymbicort.com If you’re without prescription coverage and can’t afford your medication, AstraZeneca may be able to help. For more information, please visit www.astrazeneca-us.com Important Safety Information About SYMBICORT SYMBICORT contains formoterol, a long-acting beta2 -adrenergic agonist (LABA). LABA medicines such as formoterol increase the risk of death from asthma problems. It is not known whether budesonide, the other medicine in SYMBICORT, reduces the risk of death from asthma problems seen with formoterol. • Call your health care provider if breathing problems worsen over time while using SYMBICORT. You may need different treatment • Get emergency medical care if: o Breathing problems worsen quickly, and o You use your rescue inhaler medicine, but it does not relieve your breathing problems SYMBICORT should be used only if your health care provider decides that your asthma is not well controlled with a long-term asthma control medicine, such as an inhaled corticosteroid, or that your asthma is severe enough to begin treatment with SYMBICORT. If you are taking SYMBICORT, see your health care provider if your asthma does not improve or gets worse. It is important that your health care provider assess your asthma control on a regular basis. Your doctor will decide if it is possible for you to stop taking SYMBICORT and start taking a long-term asthma control medicine without loss of asthma control. Children and adolescents who take LABA medicines may have an increased risk of being hospitalized for asthma problems. SYMBICORT does not replace rescue inhalers for sudden symptoms. Be sure to tell your health care provider about all your health conditions, including heart conditions or high blood pressure, and all medicines you may be taking. Some patients taking SYMBICORT may experience increased blood pressure, heart rate, or change in heart rhythm. Do not use SYMBICORT more often than prescribed. While taking SYMBICORT, never use another medicine containing a LABA for any reason. Ask your health care provider or pharmacist if any of your other medicines are LABA medicines. SYMBICORT can cause serious side effects, including: • Pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract infections. People with COPD may have a higher chance of pneumonia. Call your doctor if you notice any of the following symptoms: change in amount or color of mucus, fever, chills, increased cough, or increased breathing problems • Serious allergic reactions including rash, hives, swelling of the face, mouth and tongue, and breathing problems • Immune system effect and a higher chance of infection. Tell your health care provider if you think you are exposed to infections such as chicken pox or measles, or if you have any signs of infection such as fever, pain, body aches, chills, feeling tired, nausea, or vomiting • Adrenal insufficiency. This can happen when you stop taking oral corticosteroid medicines and start inhaled corticosteroid medicine • Using too much of a LABA medicine may cause chest pain, increase in blood pressure, fast and irregular heartbeat, headache, tremor, or nervousness • Increased wheezing right after taking SYMBICORT. Always have a rescue inhaler with you to treat sudden wheezing • Eye problems including glaucoma and cataracts. You should have regular eye exams while using SYMBICORT • Lower bone mineral density can happen in people who have a high chance for low bone mineral density (osteoporosis) • Slowed growth in children. A child’s growth should be checked regularly while using SYMBICORT • Swelling of blood vessels (signs include a feeling of pins and needles or numbness of arms or legs, flu like symptoms, rash, pain or swelling of the sinuses), decrease in blood potassium and increase in blood sugar levels Common side effects in patients with asthma include nose and throat irritation, headache, upper respiratory tract infection, sore throat, sinusitis, stomach discomfort, flu, back pain, nasal congestion, vomiting, and thrush in the mouth and throat. Approved Uses for SYMBICORT SYMBICORT 80/4.5 and 160/4.5 are medicines for the treatment of asthma for people 12 years and older whose doctor has determined that their asthma is not well controlled with a long-term asthma control medicine such as an inhaled corticosteroid or whose asthma is severe enough to begin treatment with SYMBICORT. SYMBICORT is not a treatment for sudden asthma symptoms. Please see full Prescribing Information and Medication Guide and discuss with your doctor. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit www.fda.gov/medwatch or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
  • 16. Please read this summary carefully and then ask your doctor about SYMBICORT. No advertisement can provide all the information needed to determine if a drug is right for you or take the place of careful discussions with your health care provider. Only your health care provider has the training to weigh the risks and benefits of a prescription drug. WHAT IS THE MOST IMPORTANT INFORMATION I SHOULD KNOW ABOUT SYMBICORT? People with asthma who take long-acting beta2 -agonist (LABA) medicines, such as formoterol (one of the medicines in SYMBICORT), have an increased risk of death from asthma problems. It is not known whether budesonide, the other medicine in SYMBICORT, reduces the risk of death from asthma problems seen with formoterol. SYMBICORT should be used only if your health care provider decides that your asthma is not well controlled with a long-term asthma control medicine, such as an inhaled corticosteroid, or that your asthma is severe enough to begin treatment with SYMBICORT. Talk with your health care provider about this risk and the benefits of treating your asthma with SYMBICORT. If you are taking SYMBICORT, see your health care provider if your asthma does not improve or gets worse. It is important that your health care provider assess your asthma control on a regular basis.Your doctor will decide if it is possible for you to stop taking SYMBICORT and start taking a long-term asthma control medicine without loss of asthma control. Get emergency medical care if: breathing problems worsen quickly, and you use your rescue inhaler medicine, but it does not relieve your breathing problems. Children and adolescents who take LABA medicines may be at increased risk of being hospitalized for asthma problems. WHAT IS SYMBICORT? SYMBICORT is an inhaled prescription medicine used for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It contains two medicines: Budesonide (the same medicine found in Pulmicort Flexhaler™ , an inhaled corticosteroid). Inhaled corticosteroids help to decrease inflammation in the lungs. Inflammation in the lungs can lead to asthma symptoms Formoterol (the same medicine found in Foradil® Aerolizer® ). LABA medicines are used in patients with COPD and asthma to help the muscles in the airways of your lungs stay relaxed to prevent asthma symptoms, such as wheezing and shortness of breath.These symptoms can happen when the muscles in the airways tighten.This makes it hard to breathe, which, in severe cases, can cause breathing to stop completely if not treated right away SYMBICORT is used for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as follows: Asthma SYMBICORT is used to control symptoms of asthma and prevent symptoms such as wheezing in adults and children ages 12 and older. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease COPD is a chronic lung disease that includes chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or both. SYMBICORT 160/4.5 mcg is used long term, two times each day, to help improve lung function for better breathing in adults with COPD. WHO SHOULD NOT USE SYMBICORT? Do not use SYMBICORT to treat sudden severe symptoms of asthma or COPD or if you are allergic to any of the ingredients in SYMBICORT. WHAT SHOULD I TELL MY HEALTH CARE PROVIDER BEFORE USING SYMBICORT? Tell your health care provider about all of your health conditions, including if you: have heart problems have high blood pressure have seizures have thyroid problems have diabetes have liver problems have osteoporosis have an immune system problem have eye problems such as increased pressure in the eye, glaucoma, or cataracts are allergic to any medicines are exposed to chicken pox or measles are pregnant or planning to become pregnant. It is not known if SYMBICORT may harm your unborn baby are breast-feeding. Budesonide, one of the active ingredients in SYMBICORT, passes into breast milk.You and your health care provider should decide if you will take SYMBICORT while breast-feeding Tell your health care provider about all the medicines you take including prescription and nonprescription medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. SYMBICORT and certain other medicines may interact with each other and can cause serious side effects. Know all the medicines you take. Keep a list and show it to your health care provider and pharmacist each time you get a new medicine. HOW DO I USE SYMBICORT? Do not use SYMBICORT unless your health care provider has taught you and you understand everything.Ask your health care provider or pharmacist if you have any questions. Use SYMBICORT exactly as prescribed. Do not use SYMBICORT more often than prescribed. SYMBICORT comes in two strengths for asthma: 80/4.5 mcg and 160/4.5 mcg.Your health care provider will prescribe the strength that is best for you. SYMBICORT 160/4.5 mcg is the approved dosage for COPD. SYMBICORT should be taken every day as 2 puffs in the morning and 2 puffs in the evening. Rinse your mouth with water and spit the water out after each dose (2 puffs) of SYMBICORT.This will help lessen the chance of getting a fungus infection (thrush) in the mouth and throat. Do not spray SYMBICORT in your eyes. If you accidentally get SYMBICORT in your eyes, rinse your eyes with water. If redness or irritation persists, call your health care provider. Do not change or stop any medicines used to control or treat your breathing problems.Your health care provider will change your medicines as needed While you are using SYMBICORT 2 times each day, do not use other medicines that contain a long-acting beta2 -agonist (LABA) for any reason. Ask your health care provider or pharmacist if any of your other medicines are LABA medicines. SYMBICORT does not relieve sudden symptoms. Always have a rescue inhaler medicine with you to treat sudden symptoms. If you do not have a rescue inhaler, call your health care provider to have one prescribed for you. Call your health care provider or get medical care right away if: your breathing problems worsen with SYMBICORT you need to use your rescue inhaler medicine more often than usual your rescue inhaler does not work as well for you at relieving symptoms you need to use 4 or more inhalations of your rescue inhaler medicine for 2 or more days in a row you use one whole canister of your rescue inhaler medicine in 8 weeks’ time your peak flow meter results decrease.Your health care provider will tell you the numbers that are right for you your symptoms do not improve after using SYMBICORT regularly for 1 week WHAT MEDICATIONS SHOULD I NOT TAKE WHEN USING SYMBICORT? While you are using SYMBICORT, do not use other medicines that contain a long-acting beta2 -agonist (LABA) for any reason, such as: Serevent® Diskus® (salmeterol xinafoate inhalation powder) Advair Diskus® or Advair® HFA (fluticasone propionate and salmeterol) Formoterol-containing products such as Foradil Aerolizer, Brovana® , or Perforomist® WHAT ARE THE POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS WITH SYMBICORT? SYMBICORT can cause serious side effects. Increased risk of pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract infections if you have COPD. Call your health care provider if you notice any of these symptoms: increase in mucus production, change in mucus color, fever, chills, increased cough, increased breathing problems Serious allergic reactions including rash; hives; swelling of the face, mouth and tongue; and breathing problems. Call your health care provider or get emergency care if you get any of these symptoms Immune system effects and a higher chance for infections Adrenal insufficiency–a condition in which the adrenal glands do not make enough steroid hormones Cardiovascular and central nervous system effects of LABAs, such as chest pain, increased blood pressure, fast or irregular heartbeat, tremor, or nervousness Increased wheezing right after taking SYMBICORT Eye problems, including glaucoma and cataracts.You should have regular eye exams while using SYMBICORT Osteoporosis. People at risk for increased bone loss may have a greater risk with SYMBICORT Slowed growth in children.As a result, growth should be carefully monitored Swelling of your blood vessels.This can happen in people with asthma Decreases in blood potassium levels and increases in blood sugar levels WHAT ARE COMMON SIDE EFFECTS OF SYMBICORT? Patients with Asthma Sore throat, headache, upper respiratory tract infection, thrush in the mouth and throat Patients with COPD Thrush in the mouth and throat These are not all the side effects with SYMBICORT.Ask your health care provider or pharmacist for more information. NOTE:This summary provides important information about SYMBICORT. For more information, please ask your doctor or health care provider. SYMBICORT is a registered trademark of the AstraZeneca group of companies. Other brands mentioned are trademarks of their respective owners and are not trademarks of the AstraZeneca group of companies. The makers of these brands are not affiliated with and do not endorse AstraZeneca or its products. © 2010 AstraZeneca LP. All rights reserved. Manufactured for: AstraZeneca LP, Wilmington, DE 19850 By: AstraZeneca AB, Dunkerque, France Product of France Rev 11/11 1504903 Visit www.MySymbicort.com Or, call 1-866-SYMBICORT I M P O R T A N T I N F O R M A T I O N A B O U T S Y M B I C O R T
  • 17. By including National Geographic in your will, trust, or beneficiary designation, you can pass on your love of exploration, science, and conservation to future generations. These gifts cost you nothing now and allow you to change your beneficiaries at any time. Name _______________________________________ Address _____________________________________ ____________________________________________ Phone _______________________________________ Email _______________________________________ Mail to National Geographic Society c/o Nancy Rehman Office of Planned Giving 1145 17th Street N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036-4688 Please send me information about easy ways to leave a legacy of exploration and conservation. I have included National Geographicg p n my will, trust, or beneficiary designation. I would like to speak to someone about making a gift. Please call me. You may also contact Nancy Rehman at (800) 226-4438, plannedgiftinfo@ngs.org, or www.ngs.gift-planning.org/GIFTbequest The National Geographic Society is a 501(c)(3) organization. Our federal tax ID number is 53-0193519. COPYRIGHT © 2014 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY SUSAN MCCONNELL, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC YOUR SHOT 14PGFC04B LEAVE A LEGACY OF LOVE.
  • 18.  national geographic april  SURVIVAL GUIDE ART: ISTVAN BANYAI. PHOTO: LAWRENCE BOYE, UNIVERSITY OF UTAH Nalini Nadkarni National Geographic Grantee EXPERTISE Forest Ecologist LOCATION Costa Rica Caught Up I’ve studied the plants and animals that live in forest canopies for 30 years. It’s like climbing mountains—there’s always some danger in moving up and down a tree. When you climb day after day, though, sometimes for months on end, you forget that you’re up more than a hundred feet. Eating a sandwich and an apple up there can seem like having a picnic on the ground. I used to wear my long hair in two braids that I kept tied up behind my head to keep them out of the way. One day I forgot to tie them back. I noticed a tugging on my rappelling gear a few feet down. Within seconds the rope was so taut that my chin was pressed against it. There is a metal clip called a whale’s tail that the rope loops through to create friction to help you control your slide. My braid was caught in it— and it was getting tighter and more painful. I tried pulling myself up, tried yanking my braid out. It was futile. After five minutes I thought, I’m going to have to cut this thing off. I had always identified myself as someone with long hair. My father was from India, and hair is a source of beauty and honor there. Somehow my ancestral motivation wasn’t quite as strong when I was strung up. Holding myself up with one hand, I reached into my pocket and pulled out a penknife and starting sawing. When the last hairs were cut, my weight went back into the harness and my braid dropped to the ground. I made my way back to the forest floor and snatched it up. We had a museum of odd things we’d found in the canopy. I put my braid on display as a reminder that every moment—like this one, 150 feet above the forest floor—you have to be fully aware.
  • 19. Your watch shouldn’t cost more than your car. It should look and feel like a power tool and not a piece of bling. Wearing it shouldn’t make you think twice about swinging a hammer or changing a tire. A real man’s timepiece needs to be ready for anything. But that’s just my opinion. If you agree, maybe you’re ready for the Stauer Centurion Hybrid. Use your Exclusive Promotional Code below and I’ll send it to you today for ONLY $59. This is a LOT of machine for not a lot of money. The Stauer Centurion Hybrid sports a heavy-duty alloy body, chromed and detailed with a rotating bezel that allows you to track direction. The luminous hour and minute hands mean you can keep working into the night. And the dual digital displays give this watch a hybrid ability. The LCD windows displays the time, day and date, includes a stopwatch function, and features a bright green electro- luminescent backlight. We previously offered the Centurion for $199, but with the exclusive promotional code it’s yours for ONLY $59! No matter what, this watch can keep up. Thanks to the Stauer 30- day Money Back Guarantee, you’ve got time to prove it. If you’re not totally satisfied, return it for a full refund of the purchase price. You also get a 2-year replacement guarantee on both movements. But I have a feeling the only problem you’ll have is deciding whether to keep the Stauer Centurion on your dresser or tucked inside your toolbox. 14101 Southcross Drive W., Dept. CNW215-03 Burnsville, Minnesota 55337 www.stauer.com “I work in the surveying and construction industry... This is my work horse watch and I am proud to wear it.” — C.S. from Fort Worth, TX How to Tell Time Like a Man Our digital-analog hybrid has two sides... tough and tougher. Get it now for an unbelievable $59! Stauer® Smart Luxuries—Surprising Prices™ Stauer Centurion Hybrid Watch Promotional Code Price Only $59 or two payments of $2950 + SP Order now to take advantage of this fantastic low price. 1-800-333-2057 Your Insider Promotional Code: CNW215-03 Please use this code when you order to receive your discount. TAKE 70% OFF INSTANTLY! When you use your Promotional Code Rating of A+
  • 20. VISIONS  national geographic april 
  • 21. Bosnia and Herzegovina In Mostar a competitive diver holds torches as he jumps from the Old Bridge into the Neretva River. The 78-foot-tall limestone span—com- pleted in 1566, destroyed by war in 1993, reopened in 2004—is a World Heritage site. PHOTO: DADO RUVIC, REUTERS
  • 22. Spain During the Descent of the Angel festival in Peñafiel, seven-year-old Pablo Leal Requejo “flies down” to remove the Virgin Mary’s veil of mourning. The Easter celebration may have evolved from medi- eval plays. It draws about 2,500 people each year. PHOTO: DANIEL OCHOA DE OLZA, AP IMAGES
  • 23. O Order prints of select National Geographic photos online at NationalGeographicArt.com.
  • 24. Russia Lit by a torch, an ice cave in a Kamchatka glacier glows like an entrance to the underworld. The pocked walls and ceiling are layers of compacted snow—more than 20 feet thick—carved by hot springs from the Mutnovsky Volcano. PHOTO: DENIS BUDKOV
  • 25. VISIONS | YOUR SHOT  national geographic April  This page features two photographs: one chosen by our editors and one chosen by our readers via online voting. For more information, go to yourshot.nationalgeographic.com. EDITORS’ CHOICE Klaus Priebe Santa Fe, New Mexico After Priebe saw storms predicted over Utah’s Canyonlands National Park, he hopped in his truck—where he’d also slept four nights—to snap this bolt, using a lightning trigger that detects rapid changes in light intensity. READERS’ CHOICE Juan Carlos Osorio New York, New York Osorio wanted to photograph this solar plane, which was the first to fly at night. He used an eight-second exposure. “This plane runs on no fuel,” he says. “Amazing!” Your Assignment When senior photo editor Sadie Quarrier and photographer Cory Richards launched this assignment for Your Shot members, “Explore Our Changing World,” they looked for images that captured what the eye can’t always register. These two shots did just that. Find more from this assignment online.
  • 26. For 24 years, The Great Courses has brought the world’s foremost educators to millions who want to go deeper into the subjects that matter most. No exams. No homework. Just a world of knowledge available anytime, anywhere. Download or stream to your laptop or PC, or use our free mobile apps for iPad, iPhone, or Android. Nearly 500 courses available at www.thegreatcourses.com. The World Was Never the Same: Events That Changed History Taught by Professor J. Rufus Fears UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA LECTURE TITLES 1. Hammurabi Issues a Code of Law (1750 B.C.) 2. Moses and Monotheism (1220 B.C.) 3. The Enlightenment of the Buddha (526 B.C.) 4. Confucius Instructs a Nation (553–479 B.C.) 5. Solon—Democracy Begins (594 B.C.) 6. Marathon—Democracy Triumphant (490 B.C.) 7. Hippocrates Takes an Oath (430 B.C.) 8. Caesar Crosses the Rubicon (49 B.C.) 9. Jesus—The Trial of a Teacher (A.D. 36) 10. Constantine I Wins a Battle (A.D. 312) 11. Muhammad Moves to Medina—The Hegira (A.D. 622) 12. Bologna Gets a University (1088) 13. Dante Sees Beatrice (1283) 14. Black Death—Pandemics and History (1348) 15. Columbus Finds a New World (1492) 16. Michelangelo Accepts a Commission (1508) 17. Erasmus—A Book Sets Europe Ablaze (1516) 18. Luther’s New Course Changes History (1517) 19. The Defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588) 20. The Battle of Vienna (1683) 21. The Battle of Lexington (1775) 22. General Pickett Leads a Charge (1863) 23. Adam Smith (1776) versus Karl Marx (1867) 24. Charles Darwin Takes an Ocean Voyage (1831) 25. Louis Pasteur Cures a Child (1885) 26. Two Brothers Take a Flight (1903) 27. The Archduke Makes a State Visit (1914) 28. One Night in Petrograd (1917) 29. The Day the Stock Market Crashed (1929) 30. Hitler Becomes Chancellor of Germany (1933) 31. Franklin Roosevelt Becomes President (1933) 32. The Atomic Bomb Is Dropped (1945) 33. Mao Zedong Begins His Long March (1934) 34. John F. Kennedy Is Assassinated (1963) 35. Dr. King Leads a March (1963) 36. September 11, 2001 The World Was Never the Same: Events That Changed History Course no. 3890 | 36 lectures (30 minutes/lecture) LIM ITED TIME OF FER 70% off ORDER BY MAY 24 Experience the 36 Events That Forever Changed History History is made and defined by landmark moments that irrevocably changed human civilization. The World Was Never the Same: Events That Changed History is a captivating course in which Professor J. Rufus Fears—a master historian and captivating storyteller—leads you through 36 of these definitive events in the history of human civilization. You’ll explore moments ranging from the trial of Jesus to the discovery of the New World to the dropping of the first atomic bomb. Professor Fears also makes compelling cases for events you might not have considered, such as the creation of the Hippocratic Oath and the opening of the University of Bologna. More than just learning about the past, with this course you’ll feel as if you’re actually engaging with it. Offer expires 05/24/14 1-800-832-2412 WWW.THEGREATCOURSES.COM/7NG SAVE UP TO $275 DVD NOW $99.95 +$15 Shipping, Processing, and Lifetime Satisfaction Guarantee CD NOW $69.95 +$10 Shipping, Processing, and Lifetime Satisfaction Guarantee Priority Code: 95567
  • 27. NEXT  MONKFISH ARE VORACIOUS PREDATORS. They also happen to be among the most commercially valuable finfish in the northeastern United States. Yet despite the fish’s importance, researchers don’t know cru- cial details about it, including whether it lives in distinct populations. To find out more, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration scientists have set up the Monkfish Egg Veil Sighting Network. Adult monkfish (below) lurk on the ocean bottom, but their eggs—which can emerge a million or more at a time, knitted together in a gauzy veil—float near the water’s surface. People who spot the veils, which may measure up to 40 feet, are encouraged to record their sightings on the network’s website. “The veils are buoyant. They’re built for dispersal,” notes researcher Anne Richards. Tracking them, she says, “will help us understand how monkfish move throughout their lives.” —Rachel Hartigan Shea Protecting monkfish populations may depend on an egg hunt.
  • 28. This veil was photographed at the New England Aquarium in Boston. As the monkfish larvae develop, the veil’s appearance darkens to purple, and it becomes harder to see in the water. PHOTO: WEBB CHAPPELL
  • 29. GRAPHIC: RYAN MORRIS, NGM STAFF SOURCE: INRIX Commuter ScienceBy 8 a.m., rush hour is at full throttle in most cities. Accidents, the cost of fuel, and the quality of public transportation aren’t the only factors that can make the drive to work range from ho-hum to hellish. According to traffic analyst Jim Bak, there’s another thing that can cause commuting lengths to fluctuate: the state of the economy. “When the recession hit in 2008, congestion across the U.S. dropped 30 percent,” he says. Four years later, in 2012, drivers in Italy, France, and Spain also spent less time on the road as unemployment, especially among youth, skyrock- eted in the wake of Europe’s debt crisis. That same year, European Union officials tasked with managing the problem flocked to Brussels, Belgium—causing traffic and commute times in that city to soar. —Catherine Zuckerman NEXT CANADA BELGIUM FRANCE GERMANY ITALY NETHERLANDS SPAIN UNITED KINGDOM UNITED STATES AUSTRIA CANADA AUSTRIA BELGIUM FRANCE GERMANY ITALY NETHERLANDS SPAIN UNITED KINGDOM UNITED STATES PORTUGAL SWITZERLAND BONN SAARBRÜCKEN RUHRGEBIET FREIBURG IM BREISGAU MUNICH KARLSRUHE DÜSSELDORF HAMBURG COLOGNE STUTTGART BO LO G NA PALERM O CATANIA CAG LIARI BRESCIA NAPLES VERONATURIN CREMONAGENOAFLORENCE ROME MILANGRONINGEN EINDHOVEN THEHAGUE AMSTERDAM UTRECHT ROTTERDAM LISBON VALENCIA ZARAGOZA SEVILLE BILBAO BARCELONAMADRIDBERN GENEVAZÜRICHKINGSTON UPON HULL CARDIFFAND VALLEYS GLASGOW LEICESTERSHIRE COVENTRY N.STAFFO RDSHIRE TYNE AND W EAR AVO N AND SO M ERSET PORTSM OUTH-FAREHAM LEEDS-BRADFORD SOUTH YORKSHIRE EDINBURGH BELFAST BIRMINGHAM S. NOTTINGHAMSHIRE MERSEYSIDE MANCHESTER LONDON PHOENIX PITTSBURGH SAN ANTONIO OXNARD RALEIGH SACRAMENTO DETROIT HARTFORD NEW ORLEANSNASHVILLENEW HAVENCHARLOTTEVIRGINIA BEACH ORLANDODENVERBATON ROUGE DALLASMINNEAPOLIS TAM PASAN DIEG O PO RTLAND, O R ATLANTA HO USTO N BALTIM ORE PHILADELPHIA MIAMI CHICAGO BOSTON SANJOSE SEATTLE AUSTIN BRIDGEPORT WASHINGTON,D.C. SANFRANCISCO NEWYORK HONOLULU LOSANGELES CALGARY TORONTO VANCOUVER MONTREAL LINZ GRAZ VIENNA LIÈGE CHARLEROI GHENT ANTWERP BRUSSELS CLERMONT-FERRAND TOURS NANCY CAEN RENNES NANTES STRASBO URG TOULOUSE GRENOBLETOULON BORDEAUX LYON PARISMAGDEBURGAUGSBURG LEIPZIG BERLIN BREMEN KIEL DRESDEN NUREMBERG DARMSTADT BIELEFELD FRANKFURT AM MAIN HANNOVER 80 hours 60 20 40 One workweek lost Average hours spent in traffic per driver, in selected regions (2012)
  • 30. NEXT PHOTOS: CARLOS GONZALEZ; TED DAESCHLER, ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, DREXEL UNIVERSITY (BONE). ART: ÁLVARO VALIÑO (TOP). SOURCE: EARTH POLICY INSTITUTE. NGM ART A Humerus Tale Call it the luckiest break. In 2012 an amateur paleontologist found half a turtle bone in New Jersey’s Monmouth County. When David Parris of the state museum saw it, he was reminded of a leg- bone fragment he’d seen at Philadelphia’s Academy of Natural Sciences, where it was studied back in 1849. The two parts fit together perfectly. Now a complete 21-inch humerus (far left) from a 2,000-plus-pound Creta- ceous sea turtle exists—after more than 160 years. —Jeremy Berlin Growth Period Artist Fritz Haeg’s work is taking root. Over the past decade he’s helped 15 families around the world turn their grass-only lawns into lush, organic gardens that he calls edible estates. Planted in front yards from Tel Aviv, Israel, to the Twin Cities in Minnesota, the plots give nourishment and pleasure. More important, says Haeg, they provide a sharp contrast to surrounding properties—which typically lack biodiversity. Confronting the issue of land use is an idea that resonates with environmental geographer Paul Robbins. Turfgrass lawns are ecologi- cally problematic because they keep other species from thriving. “Nature abhors a monoculture,” says Robbins. “Lawn maintenance is a desperate struggle against nature.” —Catherine Zuckerman Siblings Andrea and Aaron Schoenherr tend their Woodbury, Minne- sota, garden—part of a global art project. For the first time the world’s farmed fish production is larger than its beef production. 10 feet
  • 31. Prices and availability subject to change without notice. Past performance is not a predictor of future performance. NOTE: GovMint.com® is a private distributor of worldwide government coin and currency issues and privately issued licensed collectibles and is not affiliated with the United States government. Satisfaction assured with our 30-Day Guarantee. Facts and figures deemed accurate as of November 2013. ©2014 GovMint.com. Actual size 38.6 mm 99.9% pure silver PURE LEGAL TENDER SILVER! Everyone wants luck and good fortune in their lives. Some try charms like 4-leaf clovers or rabbit’s feet. But in the quest for good fortune, luck, and protection millions have known a secret for over 600 years. Coins featuring angels have been treasured by generations. Kings, emperors, sea cap- tains, rescue and police heroes have all proclaimed the Angel’s powers of luck and protection. World’s First Brilliant Uncirculated Silver Angel. Now, for the first time ever, GovMint.com is releasing a legal tender one ounce Silver Angel struck in 99.9% pure silver in Brilliant Uncirculated (BU) condition. The coin’s reverse features a dramatically-sculpted image of St. Michael the Archangel battling a fierce dragon—a classic depiction of the triumph of Good over Evil. The obverse of this British legal tender coin features the regal portrait of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. Each 2014 Silver Angel comes with an official government certificate of authenticity, as well as the Silver Angel Collector’s Guide. Put a lucky Silver Angel in your pocket today! For fastest service, call toll-free 24 hours a day 1-888-870-7349 Offer Code SVA183-02 Please mention this code when you call. Watch a video about the legend and lore of the Silver Angel at www.GovMint.com/silverangelcoin - or scan this code with your smart phone. 14101 Southcross Drive W., Dept. SVA183-02 Burnsville, Minnesota 55337 Today’s Your Lucky Day! Just Released: FIRST EVER Lucky Silver Angel Coin 2014 Brilliant Uncirculated Silver Angel 1-4 coins - $27.95 each + s/h 5-9 coins - $27.75 each + s/h 10-19 coins - $27.50 each + s/h 20+ coins - $27.25 each + s/h
  • 32. Earth Venus Mercury Asteroid belt Mars Jupiter Pallas THE ASTEROID BELTTHE MOON AND MARS HygieaCeres Vesta About 50 percent of the belt’s mass is in these four asteroids:Asteroid impacts expel debris, called ejecta. are from the asteroid belt 99.8%99.8% are from Vesta alone 6%6% are ejecta from the moon and Mars 0.2% Where meteorites originate Falling objects Meteorites on Earth NEXT On Deflection Asteroids of the size that caused the meteor explosion over Russia in 2013 may plunge into the atmosphere every 30 years—ten times more often than once thought. Veteran astronaut Tom Jones says that early warning could stop them. Robotic missions could ram an asteroid or hover to exert a gravitational tug. This might shift an asteroid’s velocity enough, he says, “to make it miss its appointment with Earth.” —Eve Conant GRAPHIC: PERISCOPIC. SOURCES: JEFFREY N. GROSSMAN AND MICHAEL E. ZOLENSKY, NASA METEOR These trails of light created by vaporizing particles are also called shooting stars. METEOROID Smaller than asteroids, these tiny chunks of debris orbit the sun, and some fall to Earth. METEORITIC DUST Up to 100 tons of fragments and particles, including remnants from the solar system’s formation, enter Earth’s atmosphere daily. The largest surviving meteorite on Earth is in Namibia. It weighs about 60 tons. The meteor that exploded over Chelyabinsk, Russia, is the largest known object to enter Earth’s atmosphere since 1908. Of its 13,200 tons, 76 percent vaporized above Earth. METEORITE A meteorite is the part of an asteroid or comet that reaches Earth’s surface. The average meteorite weighs about an ounce, equivalent to a large marble.
  • 33. There are class action Settlements involving DRAM, a memory part that is sold by itself or as part of electronic devices such as computers, printers, and video game consoles. The lawsuits claim that the Defendants fixed the price of DRAM causing individuals and businesses to pay more for DRAM and DRAM-containing devices. The Defendants deny that they did anything wrong. Who is included in the Settlements? Individuals and businesses that: Purchased DRAM or a device containing DRAM anywhere in the U.S. between 1998 and 2002, For their own use or for resale. Purchases made directly from a DRAM manufacturer are not included (see the list of manufacturers at www.DRAMclaims.com or by calling 1-800-589-1425). What do the Settlements provide? The combined Settlements total $310 million. The amount of money you will receive depends on the type and quantity of electronic devices you purchased and the total number of claims made. Eligible individuals and businesses are expected to get a minimum $10 payment and perhaps much more. Large purchasers could recover many thousands of dollars. How can I get a payment? Claim online or by mail by August 1, 2014. The simple online Claim Form only takes 3-5 minutes for most individuals. What are my rights? Even if you do nothing you will be bound by the Court’s decisions. If you want to keep your right to sue the Defendants yourself, you must exclude yourself from the Settlement Class by May 5, 2014. If you stay in the Settlement Class, you may object to the Settlements by May 5, 2014. The Court will hold a hearing on June 25, 2014 at 9:00 a.m. to consider whether to approve the Settlements and a request for attorneys’ fees up to 25% of the Settlement Fund, plus reimbursement of costs and expenses. You or your own lawyer may appear and speak at the hearing at your own expense. For More Information: 1-800-589-1425 www.DRAMclaims.com Text: “DRAM” to 96000 (You may receive notifications via text. Message Data rates may apply.)
  • 34. Chemistry Casanova Reinvents the Emerald San Fransisco CA…It is 1937. You never saw a genius more in love. She loved him back, but how could he surprise her and stun her without breaking the bank? He knew she loved that glittering green necklace in the jewelry store window. But he also knew that he could never afford a natural emerald on a chemist's salary. So he made his own. A few years later, he brought 100 carats along on his honey- moon in New York City. But when the couple visited a Fifth Avenue jeweler for a professional opinion, the manager called thecops.Heassumedthegemswerestolenbecausetheylooked too good to be true. His beautiful wife just smiled knowingly. Own a piece of emerald history. We have spent the last few years refining this complex process and the results are stunning.The spectacular lab-created stone at the heart of our Scienza® Marquesa Pendant is a vivid ¾ carat marquise-cut green beauty cradled in gleaming .925 sterling silver and surrounded by the fire of our exclusive DiamondAura® rounds. Perfect from the start. The process begins with the seed of a natural emerald. In strictly controlled conditions, using intense heat of over 1800 degrees celsius, that seed takes over seven months to grow into a larger rough emerald. Chemically, the scientific stones grown in a lab are identical to mined emerald. They are just as hard and an incredibly rich, intense green. Your satisfaction is guaranteed. Bring it home and see for yourself. If the brilliance of our Scienza Emerald fails to impress, simply send it back within 30 days for a full refund of your purchase price. But after wearing the world’s smartest gem, you will see first-hand how beauty and brains come together. 89% LESS THAN INDEPENDENTLY APPRAISED VALUE* Rating of A+ 14101 Southcross Drive W., Dept. MEP179-01, Burnsville, Minnesota 55337 www.stauer.com Stauer® Scienza® Marquesa Pendant appraised at $345* Promotional Code Price Only $39+ SP Save $306! Order now to take advantage of this fantastic low price. 1-888-870-9144 Your Promotional Code: MEP179-01 Please use this code when you order to receive your discount. 89% LESS* INSTANTLY! When you use your PROMOTIONAL CODE Pendant enlarged to show luxurious detail. Chain not included. * For more information concerning the appraisal, visit http://www.stauer.com/appraisedvalues.asp.
  • 35. NEXT PHOTOS: MARK THIESSEN, NGM STAFF (LEFT); MENG-TSEN KE AND TAKESHI IMAI, RIKEN. ART: ÁLVARO VALIÑO In the Clear LiquidAsset Rob Rhinehart thinks the future of food isn’t in farms and animal husbandry. When the computer pro- grammer didn’t want to spend the time or money on traditional meals anymore, he created another option “by breaking food down to a molecular level.” After several months of research into what human cells are made of and what they produce, Rhinehart ended up with a thick, bland liquid with a slightly chemical aftertaste he calls “soylent” (above). It has more than 30 ingredients, including calcium carbonate, copper, and selenium. Cost and efficiency aren’t Rhinehart’s only drivers. He hopes soylent might bolster nutrition in food-scarce areas. “Food produced independently of agriculture could be a lot more sustainable,” he says. “And there’d be plenty to go around.” —Johnna Rizzo A hummingbird’s brain makes up 4.2 percent of its body weight, the highest proportion of any bird. A human brain makes up roughly 2 percent of an average person’s body weight. Researchers study the internal structures of bodily organs to understand disease and function. The sur- rounding tissue can get in the way, though. Biologist Takeshi Imai’s team has a fix: Bathe the tissues in a solution of fructose and water, and they turn clear (see mouse embryo, below). Previously scientists used chemicals to achieve transparency, but those work slowly and can sometimes be toxic. They can also change structures and degrade dyes meant to trace nervous systems. Imai’s sugar solution is the first to leave the object of study intact—bringing a more accurate picture into view. —JR
  • 36. JULIETTE, GEORGIA Steam and smoke rise from the cooling towers and chimneys of the Robert W. Scherer power plant, the largest emitter of greenhouse gases in the U.S. It burns 12 million tons of coal a year. ROBB KENDRICK
  • 37.  CAN COAL EVER BE CLEAN? It’s the dirtiest of fossil fuels. We burn eight billion tons of it a year, with growing consequences. The world must face the question: Coal provides 40 percent of the world’s electricity. It produces 39 percent of global CO² emissions. It kills thousands a year in mines, many more with polluted air.
  • 38. POCA, WEST VIRGINIA The Poca High School “Dots” practice near an American Electric Power coal-fired plant that powers nearly two million homes. Scrubbers clean some of the sulfur and mercury— but not the carbon—from the smoke. ROBB KENDRICK
  • 39. Just look at West Virginia, where whole Appa- lachian peaks have been knocked into valleys to get at the coal underneath and streams run orange with acidic water. Or look at downtown Beijing, where the air these days is often thicker than in an airport smoking lounge. Air pollu- tion in China, much of it from burning coal, is blamed for more than a million premature deaths a year. That’s on top of the thousands who die in mining accidents, in China and elsewhere. These problems aren’t new. In the late th century, when coal from Wales and Northum- berland was lighting the first fires of the indus- trial revolution in Britain, the English writer John Evelyn was already complaining about the “stink and darknesse” of the smoke that wreathed London. Three centuries later, in December , a thick layer of coal-laden smog descended on London and lingered for a long weekend, pro- voking an epidemic of respiratory ailments that killed as many as , people in the ensuing months. American cities endured their own traumas. On an October weekend in , in the small Pennsylvania town of Donora, spectators at a high school football game realized they could see neither players nor ball: Smog from a nearby coal-fired zinc smelter was obscuring the field. In Michelle Nijhuis has won multiple awards for her writing about the environment. Robb Kendrick’s last piece, in April , was on reviving extinct species. Environmentalists say that clean coal is Part one | The invisible carbon By Michelle Nijhuis  national geographic april 
  • 40. coal  the days that followed,  people died, and , people—nearly half the town—were sickened. Coal, to use the economists’ euphemism, is fraught with “externalities”—the heavy costs it imposes on society. It’s the dirtiest, most lethal energy source we have. But by most measures it’s also the cheapest, and we depend on it. So the big question today isn’t whether coal can ever be “clean.” It can’t. It’s whether coal can ever be clean enough—to prevent not only local disas- ters but also a radical change in global climate. Last June, on a hot and muggy day in Wash- ington, D.C., President Barack Obama gave the climate speech that the American coal and electric power industries had dreaded—and en- vironmentalists had hoped for—since his first inauguration, in . Speaking in his shirt- sleeves and pausing occasionally to mop his brow, Obama announced that by June  the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) would draft new rules that would “put an end to the limitless dumping of carbon pollution from our power plants.” The rules would be issued under the Clean Air Act, a law inspired in part by the disaster in Donora. That law has already been used to dramatically reduce the emission of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and soot par- ticles from American power plants. But carbon dioxide, the main cause of global warming, is a problem on an entirely different scale. In  the world emitted a record . billion metric tons of carbon dioxide from fossil fuels. Coal was the largest contributor. Cheap natural gas has lately reduced the demand for coal in the U.S., but everywhere else, especially in China, demand is surging. During the next two decades several hundred million people worldwide will get electricity for the first time, and if current trends continue, most will use power produced by coal. Even the most aggressive push for alter- native energy sources and conservation could not replace coal—at least not right away. How fast the Arctic melts, how high the seas rise, how hot the heat waves get—all these ele- ments of our uncertain future depend on what the world does with its coal, and in particular on what the U.S. and China do. Will we continue to burn it and dump the carbon into the air un- abated? Or will we find a way to capture carbon, as we do sulfur and nitrogen from fossil fuels, and store it underground? “We need to push as hard as we can for re- newable energy and energy efficiency, and on reducing carbon emissions from coal,” says Stan- ford University researcher Sally Benson, who specializes in carbon storage. “We’re going to need lots of ‘ands’—this isn’t a time to be focus- ing on ‘ors.’” The carbon problem is just too big. American Electric Power’s Mountaineer Plant, on the Ohio River in New Haven, West Virginia, inhales a million pounds of Appalachian a myth. Of course it is:
  • 41. C hina U.S. India Russia G erm any South Africa Japan Poland South Korea Australia 2011 3.8 billion tons 2000 1.5 billion tons 2000 141 million tons 2011 131 million tons coal every hour. The coal arrives fresh from the ground, on barges or on a conveyor belt from a mine across the road. Once inside the plant, the golf-ball-size lumps are ground into dust as fine as face powder, then blown into the firebox of one of the largest boilers in the world—a steel box that could easily swallow the Statue of Lib- erty. The plant’s three steam-powered turbines, painted blue with white stars, supply electric- ity round the clock to . million customers in seven states. Those customers pay about a dime per kilowatt-hour, or roughly $ a month, to power the refrigerators, washers, dryers, flat screens, and smartphones, to say nothing of the lights, of an average household. And as Charlie Powell, Mountaineer’s plant manager, often said, even environmentalists like to keep the lights on. The customers pay not a cent, however, nor does American Electric Power (AEP), for the privilege of spewing six to seven million met- ric tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere every year from Mountaineer’s thousand-foot- high stack. And that’s the problem. Carbon is dumped without limit because in most places it costs nothing to do so and because there is, as yet, no law against it in the U.S. But in  it looked as if there might soon be a law; the House of Representatives had already passed a bill that summer. AEP, to its credit, decided to get ahead of it. That October, Mountaineer began a pioneer- ing experiment in carbon capture. Powell over- saw it. His father had worked for three decades at a coal-fired power plant in Virginia; Powell himself had spent his career at Mountaineer. The job was simple, he said: “We burn coal, make steam, and run turbines.” During the ex- periment, though, it got a bit more complicated. AEP attached a chemical plant to the back of its power plant. It chilled about . percent of Mountaineer’s smoke and diverted it through Increase Decrease Top ten coal-consuming nations, 2011 Change in consumption since 2000 Coal use per capita, 2011 Average daily consump- tion of coal per person worldwide World Coal Consumption AN APPETITE FOR ENERGY Though coal burning has plateaued in countries like the U.S., it has soared in rap- idly industrializing countries like China and India, which manufacture many of the West’s consumer products. World coal consumption rose by 54 percent from 2000 to 2011. ALL CHARTS: JOHN TOMANIO AND ALEXANDER STEGMAIER, NGM STAFF SOURCE: U.S. ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION 6.4lbs
  • 42. coal  a solution of ammonium carbonate, which ab- sorbed the CO2. The CO2 was then drastically compressed and injected into a porous sand- stone formation more than a mile below the banks of the Ohio. The system worked. Over the next two years AEP captured and stored more than , met- ric tons of pure carbon dioxide. The CO2 is still underground, not in the atmosphere. It was only a quarter of one percent of the gas coming out the stack, but that was supposed to be just the beginning. AEP planned to scale up the proj- ect to capture a quarter of the plant’s emissions, or . million tons of CO2 a year. The company had agreed to invest $ million, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) had agreed to match that. But the deal depended on AEP being able to recoup its investment. And after climate change legislation collapsed in the Senate, state utility regulators told the company that it could not charge its customers for a technology not yet required by law. In the spring of  AEP ended the project. The maze of pipes and pumps and tanks was dismantled. Though small, the Mountaineer system had been the world’s first to capture and store carbon dioxide directly from a coal-fired electric plant, and it had attracted hundreds of curious visitors from around the world, includ- ing China and India. “The process did work, and we educated a lot of people,” said Powell. “But geez-oh-whiz—it’s going to take another breakthrough to make it worth our while.” A regulatory breakthrough above all—such as the one Obama promised last summer—but techni- cal ones would help too. Capturing carbon dioxide and storing or “sequestering” it underground in porous rock formations sounds to its critics like a techno- fix fantasy. But DOE has spent some $. bil- lion over the past three decades researching and testing the technology. And for more than four decades the oil industry has been injecting compressed carbon dioxide into depleted oil fields, using it to coax trapped oil to the sur- face. On the Canadian Great Plains this practice has been turned into one of the world’s largest underground carbon-storage operations. Since  more than  million metric tons Capturing CO2 sounds to its critics like a techno-fix fantasy. of carbon dioxide have been captured from a North Dakota plant that turns coal into synthet- ic natural gas, then piped  miles north into Saskatchewan. There the Canadian petroleum company Cenovus Energy pushes the CO2 deep into the Weyburn and Midale fields, a sprawling oil patch that had its heyday in the s. Two to three barrels of oil are dissolved out of the reservoir rock by each ton of CO2, which is then reinjected into the reservoir for storage. There it sits, nearly a mile underground, trapped under impermeable layers of shale and salt. For how long? Some natural deposits of carbon dioxide have been in place for millions of years— in fact the CO2 in some has been mined and sold to oil companies. But large and sudden releases of CO2 can be lethal to people and animals, par- ticularly when the gas collects and concentrates in a confined space. So far no major leaks have been documented at Weyburn, which is being monitored by the International Energy Agency, Average daily consumption of coal per person in the U.S. Average daily consumption of coal per person in Australia—one of the world’s highest figures18lbs 33lbs
  • 43. or at any of the handful of other large storage sites around the world. Scientists consider the risk of a catastrophic leak to be extremely low. They worry more about smaller, chronic leaks that would defeat the purpose of the enterprise. Geophysicists Mark Zoback and Steven Gore- lick of Stanford University argue that at sites where the rock is brittle and faulted—most sites, in their view—the injection of carbon dioxide might trigger small earthquakes that, even if otherwise harmless, might crack the overlying shale and allow CO2 to leak. Zoback and Gore- lick consider carbon storage “an extremely ex- pensive and risky strategy.” But even they agree that carbon can be stored effectively at some sites—such as the Sleipner gas field in the North Sea, where for the past  years the Norwegian oil company Statoil has been injecting about a million tons of CO2 a year into a brine-saturated sandstone layer half a mile below the seabed. That formation has so much room that all that CO2 emitted by fossil fuels, 2011 of global fossil fuel CO2 comes from burning natural gas, mostly for heat and electricity. Venting CO2 from a smokestack is usually free, like littering. Capturing and storing CO2 underground would cost up to a quarter of a power plant’s energy—and a lot of money. It won’t become the norm unless governments make it happen. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) DISPOSING OF WASTE CO2 ART: ÁLVARO VALIÑO SOURCES: HOWARD HERZOG, MIT; U.S. ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION Capture CO2 is separated from other stack gases and com- pressed into a liquid-like state. This is the most costly step in CCS. The four steps of capturing and storing carbon dioxide Transport Fluid CO2 is moved to a storage reser- voir. Pipelines are the most efficient carrier, but trucks, trains, and ships can do the job. Injection CO2 is injected deep underground into a porous formation— an old oil field, say, or a saline aquifer— under a cap rock that deters leaks. Monitoring The reservoir must be watched in perpetuity for leaks. Even slow ones could defeat the purpose of prevent- ing climate change. 21% Underground formations could hold 1,000 years’ worth of emissions.
  • 44. CO2 hasn’t increased its internal pressure, and there’s been no sign of quakes or leaks. European researchers estimate that a century’s worth of European power plant emissions could be stored under the North Sea. According to the DOE, similar “deep saline aquifers” under the U.S. could hold more than a thousand years’ worth of emissions from American power plants. Other types of rock also have potential as carbon lock- ers. In experiments now under way in Iceland and in the Columbia River Basin of Washington State, for example, small amounts of carbon dioxide are being injected into volcanic basalt. There the gas is expected to react with calcium and magnesium to form a carbonate rock—thus eliminating the risk of gas escaping. The CO2 that Statoil is injecting at Sleipner doesn’t come from burning; it’s an impurity in the natural gas the company pumps from the seabed. Before it can deliver gas to its customers, Statoil has to separate out the CO2, and it used to just vent the stuff into the atmosphere. But in  Norway instituted a carbon tax, which now stands at around $ a metric ton. It costs Statoil only $ a ton to reinject the CO2 below the seafloor. So at Sleipner, carbon storage is much cheaper than carbon dumping, which is why Statoil has invested in the technology. Its natural gas operation remains very profitable. At a coal-fired power plant the situation is different. The CO2 is part of a complex swirl of stack gases, and the power company has no financial incentive to capture it. As the engineers at Mountaineer learned, capture is the most ex- pensive part of any capture-and-storage project. At Mountaineer the CO2 absorption system was the size of a ten-story apartment building and occupied  acres—and that was just to capture a tiny fraction of the plant’s carbon emissions. The absorbent had to be heated to release the CO2, which then had to be highly compressed for storage. These energy-intensive steps create what engineers call a “parasitic load,” one that could eat up as much as  percent of the total energy output of a coal plant that was capturing all its carbon. One way to reduce that costly loss is to gasify the coal before burning it. Gasification can make power generation more efficient and allows the carbon dioxide to be separated more easily and cheaply. A new power plant being built in Kem- per County, Mississippi, which was designed with carbon capture in mind, will gasify its coal. Existing plants, which are generally designed to burn pulverized coal, require a different ap- proach. One idea is to burn the coal in pure oxy- gen instead of air. That produces a simpler flue gas from which it’s easier to pull the CO2. At the DOE’s National Energy Technology Laboratory in Morgantown, West Virginia, researcher Geo Richards is working on an advanced version of this scheme. comes from oil, which is used primarily to make various trans- portation fuels. comes from burning coal—the cheapest and dirtiest fossil fuel, used primarily for electricity. A small beginning for CCS One U.S. power plant, in Missis- sippi, is now being equipped for CCS. It would take a whole new indus- try to make a dent in U.S. emissions. 1.5 billion metric tons Annual CO2 output of all U.S. coal-fired power plants 3.5 million metric tons Annual CO2 capture planned at first U.S. power plant equipped for CCS 35% 44% coal 
  • 45. Five largest emitters since 1850 Cumulative atmospheric carbon added by human activities BILLIONS OF METRIC TONS Fossil fuel consumption and cement production Land-use change due primarily to deforestation and agriculture 1850 1900 1950 2000 2012 1933 100 1967 200 1983 300 1997 400 2008 500 2012 545 U.S. China U.K. Germany Russia* All other nations carbon-capture system is a tiny fraction of the size that would be required at a real power plant. “In this business,” Richards says, “you have to be an optimist.” In West Virginia these days, century-old coal mines are closing as American power plants convert to natural gas. With gas prices in the U.S. near record lows, coal can look like yesterday’s fuel, and investing in advanced coal technology can look misguided at best. The view from Yulin, China, is different. Yulin sits on the eastern edge of Inner Mon- golia’s Ordos Basin,  dusty miles inland from Beijing. Rust-orange sand dunes surround for- ests of new, unoccupied apartment buildings, spill over highway retaining walls, and send clouds of grit through the streets. Yulin and its three million residents are short on rain and shade, hot in summer and very cold in winter. But the region is blessed with mineral resources, “Come and see our new toy,” he says, hunch- ing his shoulders against a bitter Appalachian winter day and walking briskly toward a large white warehouse. Inside, workers are assem- bling a five-story scaffold for an experiment in “chemical looping.” Making pure oxygen from air, Richards explains, is costly in itself—so his process uses a metal such as iron to grab oxygen out of the air and deliver it to the coal fire. In principle, chemical looping could radically cut the cost of capturing carbon. Richards has dedicated more than  years of his career to making carbon capture more efficient, and for him the work is largely its own reward. “I’m one of those geeky people who just like seeing basic physics turned into technology,” he says. But after decades of watching politi- cians and the public tussle over whether climate change is even a problem, he does sometimes wonder if the solution he’s been working on will ever be put to practical use. His experimental CO2 and Climate Change THE TRILLION- TON THRESHOLD To limit global warming since the 19th century to 2°C (3.6°F) and thereby avoid its worst effects, scientists estimate we must limit our cumulative emissions of carbon as CO2 to a trillion metric tons. As of 2012, by burning fossil fuels, making cement, cutting trees, and so on, we had emitted 545 billion tons. We’re on course to pass a trillion by 2040. The rising CO2 threat *U.S.S.R. DATA PRIOR TO 1992 SOURCES: THOMAS BODEN, CARBON DIOXIDE INFORMATION ANALYSIS CENTER/OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY; R. A. HOUGHTON, WOODS HOLE RESEARCH CENTER; EPA 84% Portion of U.S. greenhouse gases emitted by human activity that is CO2
  • 46. including some of the country’s richest deposits of coal. “God is fair,” says Yulin deputy mayor Gao Zhongyin. From here coal looks like the fuel of progress. The sandy plateaus around Yulin are punc- tuated with the tall smokestacks of coal power plants, and enormous coal-processing plants, with dormitories for live-in workforces, sprawl for miles across the desert. New coal plants, their grids of dirt roads decorated with optimistic red- bannered gateways, bustle with young men and women in coveralls. Coal provides about  per- cent of China’s electric power, but it isn’t just for making electricity. Since coal is such a plentiful domestic fuel, it’s also used for making dozens of industrial chemicals and liquid fuels, a role played by petroleum in most other countries. Here coal is a key ingredient in products ranging from plastic to rayon. Coal has also made China first among nations in total carbon dioxide emissions, though the U.S. remains far ahead in emissions per capita. China is not retreating from coal, but it’s more than ever aware of the high costs. “In the past ten years,” says Deborah Seligsohn, an environ- mental policy researcher at the University of California, San Diego, with nearly two decades’ experience in China, “the environment has gone from not on the agenda to near the top of the agenda.” Thanks to public complaints about air quality, official awareness of the risks of climate change, and a desire for energy security and tech- nological advantage, China has invested hun- dreds of billions of dollars in renewable energy. It’s now a top manufacturer of wind turbines and solar panels; enormous solar farms are scattered among the smokestacks around Yulin. But the country is also pushing ultraefficient coal power and simpler, cheaper carbon capture. These efforts are attracting both investment and immigrants from abroad. At state-owned Shenhua Group, the largest coal company in commitment” to improving air quality and re- ducing carbon dioxide emissions: “If you want to make the greatest impact on emissions, you go where the greatest source of those emissions happens to be.” Will Latta, founder of the environmental en- gineering company LP Amina, is an American expat in Beijing who works closely with Chinese power utilities. “China is openly saying, Hey, coal is cheap, we have lots of it, and alternatives will take decades to scale up,” he says. “At the same time they realize it’s not environmentally sustainable. So they’re making large investments to clean it up.” In Tianjin, about  miles from Beijing, China’s first power plant designed from scratch to capture carbon is scheduled to open in . Called GreenGen, it’s eventually supposed to capture  percent of its emissions. Last fall, as world coal consumption and world carbon emissions were headed for new Yesterday’s fuel? In China coal looks like the fuel of progress. the world, its National Institute of Clean-and- Low-Carbon Energy was until recently headed by J. Michael Davis, an American who served as assistant U.S. secretary for conservation and renewable energy under the first President Bush and is a past president of the U.S. Solar Energy Industries Association. Davis says he was drawn to China by the government’s “durable 800,000yrs 108%Minimum time since the CO2 level was as high as it is today Increase in global per capita emissions between 1950 and 2010 coal 
  • 47. records, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) issued its latest report. For the first time it estimated an emissions budget for the planet—the total amount of carbon we can release if we don’t want the temperature rise to exceed  degrees Celsius (. degrees Fahren- heit), a level many scientists consider a threshold of serious harm. The count started in the th plant, for example, would be equivalent to . million people trading in pickups for Priuses. The first American power plant designed to capture carbon is scheduled to open at the end of this year. The Kemper County coal-gasification plant in eastern Mississippi will capture more than half its CO2 emissions and pipe them to nearby oil fields. The project, which is supported in part by a DOE grant, has been plagued with cost overruns and opposition from both envi- ronmentalists and government-spending hawks. But Mississippi Power, a division of Southern Company, has pledged to persist. Company leaders say the plant’s use of lignite, a low-grade coal that’s plentiful in Mississippi, along with a ready market for its CO2, will help offset the heavy cost of pioneering new technology. The technology won’t spread, however, until governments require it, either by imposing a price on carbon or by regulating emissions di- rectly. “Regulation is what carbon capture needs to get going,” says James Dooley, a researcher at DOE’s Pacific Northwest National Labora- tory. If the EPA delivers this year on President Obama’s promise to regulate carbon emissions from both existing and new power plants—and if those rules survive court challenges—then carbon capture will get that long-awaited boost. China, meanwhile, has begun regional experi- ments with a more market-friendly approach— one that was pioneered in the U.S. In the s the EPA used the Clean Air Act to impose a cap on total emissions of sulfur dioxide from power plants, allocating tradable pollution permits to individual polluters. At the time, the power industry predicted disastrous economic consequences. Instead the scheme produced in- novative, progressively cheaper technologies and significantly cleaner air. Rubin says that carbon- capture systems are at much the same stage that sulfur dioxide systems were in the s. Once emissions limits create a market for them, their cost too could fall dramatically. If that happens, coal still wouldn’t be clean— but it would be much cleaner than it is today. And the planet would be cooler than it will be if we keep burning coal the dirty old way. j century, when the industrial revolution spread. The IPCC concluded that we’ve already emitted more than half our carbon budget. On our cur- rent path, we’ll emit the rest in less than  years. Changing that course with carbon capture would take a massive effort. To capture and store just a tenth of the world’s current emissions would require pumping about the same volume of CO2 underground as the volume of oil we’re now extracting. It would take a lot of pipelines and injection wells. But achieving the same re- sult by replacing coal with zero-emission solar panels would require covering an area almost as big as New Jersey (nearly , square miles). The solutions are huge because the problem is— and we need them all. “If we were talking about a problem that could be solved by a  or  percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, we wouldn’t be talking about carbon capture and storage,” says Edward Rubin of Carnegie Mellon University. “But what we’re talking about is reducing global emissions by roughly  percent in the next  or  years.” Carbon capture has the potential to deliver big emissions cuts quickly: Capturing the CO2 from a single thousand-megawatt coal The first U.S. power plant that will capture most of its CO2 is under construction.  national geographic april 
  • 48. Photographs by Robb Kendrick The world gets huge amounts of energy from coal—and puts huge energy into extracting it from the ground. The carbon that ends up in the atmosphere is just a ghostly echo of an industry of monumental scale and impact. QUEENSLAND, AUSTRALIA An automated bucket- wheel excavator loads coal into ships bound for China and India. Australia is second only to Indonesia in coal exports. Part two | The visible impacts
  • 49. It burns nearly half the world’s coal, mostly to support a 13-fold increase in electricity generation since 1980. Demand is still growing. So is public outrage over the filthy air in Chinese cities, which has been linked to 1.2 million deaths a year. CHINA
  • 50. SHUOZHOU, CHINA Amid the withered stalks of last year’s corn, a farmer prepares for spring near a power plant in Shanxi Province. The facility, which supplies electricity to Beijing, 200 miles away, covers local fields, crops, and people with soot.
  • 51. DATONG, CHINA At a coal terminal in Shanxi Province workers pick rocks from low-priced coal as it moves past on a conveyor belt. Often working without masks that would protect them from coal dust, they earn three dollars for an 11-hour shift.
  • 52. The U.S. mines more than a billion tons of coal a year. Once it came mostly from underground mines in the East; now strip mines in the West dominate. Domestic demand has fallen lately, but exports to Europe and Asia have increased.
  • 53. MADISON, WEST VIRGINIA They call it mountaintop removal. For each ton of coal taken from the Hobet 21 mine, 20 cubic yards of mountain are blasted away, then dumped in valleys. Hundreds of square miles of Appalachian ridges have been dismantled that way. PANORAMA COMPOSED OF TWO IMAGES.
  • 54. NORFOLK, VIRGINIA At the Lamberts Point Coal Terminal, railcars loaded with coal line up to fill waiting ships. Some 20 million tons of coal— about 2 percent of U.S. production—move through this terminal each year, most of it from Appalachia.
  • 55. WRIGHT, WYOMING The Black Thunder mine, one of the world’s largest, covers 75 square miles of public and private land. Trucks the size of houses haul more than 90 million tons of coal a year to trains, which carry most of it to eastern power plants.
  • 56. It has 300 million people without electricity and the fifth largest coal reserves in the world. The pressure to produce coal is taking its toll on miners, many of whom work in illegal and enormously dangerous mines.
  • 57. JHARKHAND, INDIA A young boy carries a chunk of coal into the mining camp where he lives. His family will burn the coal to make coke—a cleaner and hotter-burning fuel—which they’ll either sell or use themselves for heating and cooking.
  • 58. JHARKHAND, INDIA Northeastern India has a long history of coal mining, and fires ignited by mining accidents almost a century ago still smolder in deeply buried coal deposits. In this mining camp the air is thick day and night with smoke from coal fires.
  • 59. MEGHALAYA, INDIA A miner (left) works in one of hundreds of coal mines in eastern India that are neither sanctioned nor regulated by government. He lies on his back in low-ceilinged, unsupported passageways, without protective clothing, using a pick and shovel to load his cart. Coal is lifted out of the mine shaft two tons at a time (top) and trucked to a depot (above), where it is sorted by size and quality.
  • 60. MEGHALAYA, INDIA A coal miner climbs a shaky ladder to daylight. A 19th-century mine in the U.S. or Europe might have looked just as hellish; mines there are safer now. But coal’s environmental costs have grown—and become global.
  • 61. of Atolls Tale Two A EUROPA Clutched in the embrace of her partner, a female green turtle glides through indigo seas at Europa atoll, a vital breeding area for this endangered species. One of a pair of tiny French territories tucked between Madagascar and southern Africa provides a mating area for green turtles. The other is home to Galápagos sharks.
  • 62. 
  • 63. BASSAS Galápagos sharks, though named for the islands that furnished Darwin with insights into evolution, are found around tropical oceanic reefs worldwide. Almost all the sharks in the protected lagoon at Bassas da India are Galápagos sharks; the lagoon is thought to be a nursery for the species.
  • 64.  national geographic April  INDIAN OCEANMozambique Channel Île Europa Land: 11.6 sq mi (30 sq km) Lagoon: 18.1 sq mi (47 sq km) Bassas da India Land: 0.08 sq mi (0.2 sq km) Lagoon: 33.5 sq mi (86.8 sq km) FRENCH SOUTHERN AND ANTARCTIC LANDS AFRICAAFRICA MADAGASCAR M OZ AM BIQUE Îles Éparses (Scattered Islands) Tromelin Island Glorioso Islands Île Juan de Nova Réunion (FR.) Mayotte (FR.) French Exclusive Economic Zone 0 mi 250 0 km 250 NGM MAPS picture two boulders dancing. That’s an approximation of green turtle sex: two sumo-size behemoths clipped to each other’s shells, finning languidly through the crystal waters of a coral reef. A reef such as the one that encircles Île Europa, off the southwestern coast of Madagascar, where on average more than 10,000 female green turtles congregate each year to mate, later going ashore to lay their eggs. Green turtles have a reproductive strategy known as “scramble polygamy.” Rather than expend energy defending a territory or engaging in combat, males focus their elephantine effort on finding an unattached female—or attempting to cut in on a mating in progress. Males have large claws on their flippers and tail, and use these to attach themselves to the shell of the female. Other males attempt to knock a successful paramour off his perch, jousting and biting and often wounding both members of the pair. Occasionally a hormone-addled rival will clip on to the shell of the mount- ed male. “This is going absolutely nowhere for male number two,” notes marine biologist Wallace J. Nichols. Nichols has seen stacks of up to four males, each clinging to the turtle in front. “When this sort of thing hap- pens with earthworms in the garden, it’s merely curious,” he observes. “With 400-pound sea turtles, it’s a circus.” Europa’s turtle circus is rarely seen by human eyes. The island is a nature reserve, and its waters are protected. Like its neighbor, Bassas da India, 70-odd miles to the northwest, it is part of the Scattered Islands, five specks of land that ring Madagascar like moons. Remnants of the once mighty French colonial empire, they fly the Tricolor as part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands. French sovereignty, though contested by Madagascar and other states, is strategic. The total land area of the Scattered Islands is a mere 16 square miles, but their collective exclusive economic zone is 15,000 times great- er—an expanse of ocean almost the size of Texas. Crucially for the islands’ AFRICA AREA ENLARGED By Kennedy Warne Photographs by Thomas P. Peschak
  • 65. BASSAS The lagoon is likely a haven for Galápagos sharks in their early years, protecting them from predation by adults of their species before they face the challenges of the open sea.