Pollution control- an instituitional approach through environmental economics and policies
This is about using environmental economics as a tool to control Pollution by various agencies.
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Pollution control- an instituitional approach through environmental economics and policies
(through environmental economics and policies)
Roll No 146
T Y B Sc ( ES)
What is Pollution?
Pollution can be explained as :
The act or process of polluting or the state of being
polluted, especially the contamination of soil, water,
or the atmosphere by the discharge of harmful
--- or simply can be mentioned as---
The discharge of a toxic or contaminating substance
that is likely to have an adverse effect on the natural
environment or life.
•All wastes that cannot be recycled would be outlawed. Here
cost of a pollution free society would be very high
•To live in a society without any pollution control
…………..Real world is somewhere between this…………..
EARTH ACT AS A SINK TO THESE WASTES
•A healthy, clean and serene environment is our most
•An ever deteriorating environmental condition makes
pollution control our priority at any cost.
•Institutions, Government agencies, NGOs and individuals try
their most to achieve the best mechanism to control pollution
Ethical Questions about environment.
1. Does the earth exist for the benefit of humanity?
2. Do humans have any ethical obligation towards other living species?
3. Do we have the right to take all the earth’s resources for our own use?
4. Do we have the right to kill all other species for human needs?
5. Do other species have an intrinsic right to exist?
•Therefore it is necessary to achieve a balance between social
costs and social benefits of reducing pollution.
•But extra waste reduction is much more costly once a
substantial waste reduction has attained.
•Here the role of Environmental Economics come into play
What is Environmental economics-
•Environmental economics is a distinct branch of economics that
acknowledges the value of both the environment and economic
activity and makes choices based on those values.
•The goal is to balance the economic activity and
the environmental impacts by taking into account all the costs and
There are a few methods by which economics can interfere.
1. Assign environmental costs to resources under use.
2. Use price as a tool to avoid waste of resources.
3. Allocation of environmental resources based on true costs and real
4. Resource conservation through environmental management.
To enforce this, and to keep a watch, policies and institutions are set
Regulatory and Incentive based Policies
•Regulatory agencies like E P A (Environmental Protection
Agency) charges for the right to pollute and imposed limits
•Some methods are-
•Emission charges - These are charges established for the right to
emit a pollutant
•Emission standards - There are limits established by the
Government on annual amount and kind of pollutants that can be
released to air or water by producers as well as users of certain
The B U B B L E P O L I C Y
•This policy places a virtual enclosure over the firm to
monitor types of emissions.
•Here , if a firm reduces one pollutant by more than current
standards, then the pollution control standard is considered
Worldwide Pollution Control Association ( WPCA)
•WPCA has assembled a group of people who are experts in
•They have an user advisory board who give this board
direction and assistance.
•Membership to WPCA include sponsored seminars. On
basis of its funding, it operates on global missions.
• It is a global environmental organization consisting of
Green Peace International in Amsterdam and 28 national and
regional offices around the world providing presence in over
•The group has 3 ships, Esperanze, Arctic Sunrise and
Rainbow Warrior III
•They carry out global campaign strategies against
•Personal Responsibility and Non Violence
•No permanent friends and no permanent foes
National Institutions in Pollution Control
Indian Pollution Control Association
•IPCA is a non profit NGO registered under the Societies
Registration Act 1860, Foreign Contribution Registration Act
and entitled with Central Pollution Control Board at national
•It is engaged in creating environmental awareness and
implementing Integrated Solid Waste Management.
•They reach out to both public and private sectors to educate
them about environmental self sustainability and policy
Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)
•Constituted on 22nd September 1974 under section 3 of the Water
(prevention and control of pollution) Act, 1974
•The main function is to promote cleanliness of streams and wells.
•Also assigned with the power and function of the act with passage of
air (prevention and control of pollution) Act.
•CPCB plays its role on both national and state level
•It is the guiding organization in pollution control activities.
•CPCB has delegated its powers and functions to respective
•CPCB and State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs) are
responsible for implementation of legislations relating to
prevention and control of Environmental Pollution.
Pollution Control Research Institute (PCRI)
•The Government of India in collaboration with the United
Nations Development Programme (UNDP) decided in 1984 to
establish a Research Institute dedicated to Industrial pollution
•This institute is sponsored by Bharat Heavy Electricals
•The objectives of PCRI is to assist India in self reliance in
Industrial pollution control technologies with respect to air,
water, noise and solid waste pollution.
Some important initiatives of G P C B
•Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) being implemented to shift 40% of the trips
from Personal transport vehicles to Public Transport
•70 Plants of 96 compost Plants in the Urban local bodies of India are in Gujarat
and are operational.
•3.6 Lac Auto Vehicles switched over to Clean Fuel of CNG/LPG in the last 7
•25000 Hectares of Mangrove Forest have been added in the Postal areas of
Gujarat which will be working as strong Carbon Sink absorbing 50 tons of
Carbon per Hectare.
•Social Forestry in Gujarat has achieved a benchmark of 14 Trees per Hectare.
•Drip Irrigation System (DIS) has been introduced and inter-linking of 21 rivers
of the State for Conservation of water.