Sustainable DevelopmentSustainable Development
Strategies in Agriculture andStrategies in Agriculture and
Rural Developmen...
Outline of this PresentationOutline of this Presentation
 Why is Agriculture so Important for Poverty Reduction and Susta...
Agriculture, Poverty and RuralAgriculture, Poverty and Rural
DevelopmentDevelopment
Why is sustainable agriculture so importantWhy is sustainable agriculture so important
forfor
developing countries and the...
Poverty is disproportionatelyPoverty is disproportionately
ruralrural
Burkina
Uganda
Mauritani
Tanzania
Mozambiq
Niger
Zam...
Sustainable DevelopmentSustainable Development
Principles (What?)Principles (What?)
 Economic sustainability: sustainable...
 Correct the over-exploitation or inappropriate use ofCorrect the over-exploitation or inappropriate use of
resources by ...
Principles for EffectivePrinciples for Effective
Public InterventionsPublic Interventions
 Socially profitable and non-di...
Five NRM Elements of SustainabilityFive NRM Elements of Sustainability
for Rural Developmentfor Rural Development
 Reduci...
Reducing land degradation
 Increase productivity on the “best” landIncrease productivity on the “best” land
 Diversify a...
Example of Successful NRM Project:Example of Successful NRM Project:
Eastern Anatolia Watershed (I)Eastern Anatolia Waters...
Improving water management
Elements of Water ResourcesElements of Water Resources
Management: Multiple objectives,Management: Multiple objectives,
mu...
The poor generally settle on the most
fragile land with meager and/or highly
variable water resources
Irrigation has been successful in lifting manyIrrigation has been successful in lifting many
rural poor out of poverty…tri...
Managing Water Sustainably: the DublinManaging Water Sustainably: the Dublin
Principles in operationPrinciples in operatio...
Challenges in water managementChallenges in water management
 Small stocks of water infrastructure in developingSmall sto...
Making Forestry more SustainableMaking Forestry more Sustainable
Forests are especially important toForests are especially important to
the poor…the poor…
 1.6 billion rural people are d...
…… and to the global economy…and to the global economy…
Production of wood and manufactured forest products contribute mor...
…… and the environmentand the environment
Forest destruction is responsible for globalForest destruction is responsible fo...
3 Pillars of Sustainable Forestry3 Pillars of Sustainable Forestry
 Harnessing the potential ofHarnessing the potential o...
Fighting PovertyFighting Poverty
 Supporting policy, institutional and legal frameworksSupporting policy, institutional a...
Making forestry sustainableMaking forestry sustainable
 Supporting the development of policies andSupporting the developm...
Improving governance requiresImproving governance requires
 Institutional reforms/buildingInstitutional reforms/building
...
Institutional reformsInstitutional reforms
 Establish clear property rightsEstablish clear property rights
 Establish we...
Examples of institutional reformsExamples of institutional reforms
 PhilippinesPhilippines: Multisectoral Forest Protecti...
Protecting local and global valuesProtecting local and global values
 Build markets for international public goods such a...
Effective certification requiresEffective certification requires
 compliance with relevant laws;compliance with relevant ...
Sustainable FisheriesSustainable Fisheries
Why are fisheries so important toWhy are fisheries so important to
developing countries?developing countries?
Trade and in...
And important for poverty reductionAnd important for poverty reduction
 A Source of Livelihoods &
Income for 30 million p...
Key elements in sustainable fisheriesKey elements in sustainable fisheries
strategy: (1) Governancestrategy: (1) Governanc...
Key elements in sustainable fisheriesKey elements in sustainable fisheries
strategy: (2) Fisheries managementstrategy: (2)...
Global WarmingGlobal Warming
Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF)Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF)
Recognizing that global warming will have the greatestRecognizing t...
Bank’s BioCarbon Fund ($53 million worth of projects in FY05)Bank’s BioCarbon Fund ($53 million worth of projects in FY05)...
The Role of Trade in AgricultureThe Role of Trade in Agriculture
and Rural Developmentand Rural Development
The Role of TradeThe Role of Trade
 Agriculture (including fisheries and forestryAgriculture (including fisheries and for...
But developing countries’ share of agriculturalBut developing countries’ share of agricultural
exports to rich countries h...
But that’s anotherBut that’s another
l-l-l-o-o-o-n-n-n-gl-l-l-o-o-o-n-n-n-g
storystory
ThanksThanks
of 41

Nash session2 e

Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Nash session2 e

  • 1. Sustainable DevelopmentSustainable Development Strategies in Agriculture andStrategies in Agriculture and Rural DevelopmentRural Development WTO Symposium on Trade and SustainableWTO Symposium on Trade and Sustainable DevelopmentDevelopment 10- 11 October, 200510- 11 October, 2005 John NashJohn Nash Agriculture & Rural Development Dept / Trade DeptAgriculture & Rural Development Dept / Trade Dept The World BankThe World Bank
  • 2. Outline of this PresentationOutline of this Presentation  Why is Agriculture so Important for Poverty Reduction and SustainableWhy is Agriculture so Important for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Rural Development?Rural Development?  General Principles for Sustainable DevelopmentGeneral Principles for Sustainable Development  What are objectives?What are objectives?  How to best accomplish them?How to best accomplish them?  Principles for effective public interventionsPrinciples for effective public interventions  Five Dimensions of Sustainable NRM & DevelopmentFive Dimensions of Sustainable NRM & Development  Reducing land degradation  Improving water management  Sustainable forestry  Sustainable fisheries  Incorporating global warming into development planning  The Role of Trade in Agriculture and Rural DevelopmentThe Role of Trade in Agriculture and Rural Development
  • 3. Agriculture, Poverty and RuralAgriculture, Poverty and Rural DevelopmentDevelopment
  • 4. Why is sustainable agriculture so importantWhy is sustainable agriculture so important forfor developing countries and the rural poor?developing countries and the rural poor?  63 percent63 percent of population liveof population live in rural areasin rural areas  73 percent73 percent of poor live inof poor live in rural areasrural areas  Agriculture and agro-Agriculture and agro- processing account forprocessing account for 30-6030-60 percentpercent of GDP inof GDP in developing countries, and andeveloping countries, and an even larger share ofeven larger share of employmentemployment  Even with rapidEven with rapid urbanization,urbanization, more than 50%more than 50% of the poor will be in ruralof the poor will be in rural areas by 2035, and dependareas by 2035, and depend significantly on agriculturesignificantly on agriculture
  • 5. Poverty is disproportionatelyPoverty is disproportionately ruralrural Burkina Uganda Mauritani Tanzania Mozambiq Niger Zambia Gambia Ethiopia Ghana Malawi Cambodia Vietnam Mongolia Kygyz Georgia Honduras Nicaragu Yemen Nepal SriLanka Rural 51 46 68 50 71 66 80 61 47 34 67 40 57 33 70 10 51 69 45 44 27 Urban 17 16 25 24 62 52 56 48 37 27 55 21 26 39 49 12 57 31 31 23 15 Difference 34 30 43 26 9 14 24 13 10 7 12 19 31 -6 21 -2 -6 38 14 21 12 Poverty Rates Poverty Rates from PRSPs
  • 6. Sustainable DevelopmentSustainable Development Principles (What?)Principles (What?)  Economic sustainability: sustainableEconomic sustainability: sustainable livelihoods andlivelihoods and improved well-being through growth andimproved well-being through growth and povertypoverty reductionreduction  Environmental sustainability: Target agricultural land,Environmental sustainability: Target agricultural land, forests, water resources, protected areas, and biodiversity,forests, water resources, protected areas, and biodiversity, so that opportunities and options of future generations areso that opportunities and options of future generations are not degradednot degraded  Fiscal and institutional sustainability: must be realisticFiscal and institutional sustainability: must be realistic about cost and institutional requirements of instrumentsabout cost and institutional requirements of instruments  May require tradeoffsMay require tradeoffs
  • 7.  Correct the over-exploitation or inappropriate use ofCorrect the over-exploitation or inappropriate use of resources by ensuring that all environmental services areresources by ensuring that all environmental services are correctly valued (internalize the externalities)correctly valued (internalize the externalities)  Establish projects and policies on appropriate levels --Establish projects and policies on appropriate levels -- community, watershed, national, regional, global – generallycommunity, watershed, national, regional, global – generally with corresponding implementation/ financingwith corresponding implementation/ financing mechanismsmechanisms  Incorporate institutional development and new technologiesIncorporate institutional development and new technologies  Reduce risks and vulnerabilities of farming communitiesReduce risks and vulnerabilities of farming communities  Diversify cropping systems for economic and environmental resilienceDiversify cropping systems for economic and environmental resilience  Weather forecasting to aid planting date and management decisions.Weather forecasting to aid planting date and management decisions.  Weather and price crop insurance.Weather and price crop insurance. Sustainable DevelopmentSustainable Development Principles (How?)Principles (How?)
  • 8. Principles for EffectivePrinciples for Effective Public InterventionsPublic Interventions  Socially profitable and non-distortionary withSocially profitable and non-distortionary with respect to underlying long run pricesrespect to underlying long run prices  Pro-poor targeting mechanismsPro-poor targeting mechanisms  Demand-driven: maximize privateDemand-driven: maximize private sector/community involvement in prioritysector/community involvement in priority setting and implementationsetting and implementation  Co-financing by beneficiariesCo-financing by beneficiaries  Exit strategy where appropriateExit strategy where appropriate
  • 9. Five NRM Elements of SustainabilityFive NRM Elements of Sustainability for Rural Developmentfor Rural Development  Reducing land degradation  Improving water management  Sustainable forestry  Sustainable fisheries  Incorporating global warming into development planning
  • 10. Reducing land degradation  Increase productivity on the “best” landIncrease productivity on the “best” land  Diversify agroecosystems to protectDiversify agroecosystems to protect food systems, improve diets, minimizefood systems, improve diets, minimize risks, diversify incomes, and conserverisks, diversify incomes, and conserve agrobiodiversityagrobiodiversity  Rehabilitate productivity and ecosystemRehabilitate productivity and ecosystem functions of degraded lands to enhancefunctions of degraded lands to enhance environmental roles e.g. C sequestrationenvironmental roles e.g. C sequestration – BioCarbon fund.– BioCarbon fund.  Technologies include integratedTechnologies include integrated soil fertility management,soil fertility management, adaptedadapted varieties,varieties, crop rotationcrop rotations,s, conservationconservation tillage, buffer stripstillage, buffer strips,, and organic farmingand organic farming  Strengthen local institutions andStrengthen local institutions and facilitate community-driven land andfacilitate community-driven land and water resource management forwater resource management for managing shocks, stresses, and globalmanaging shocks, stresses, and global trade barrierstrade barriers
  • 11. Example of Successful NRM Project:Example of Successful NRM Project: Eastern Anatolia Watershed (I)Eastern Anatolia Watershed (I)  Control soil erosion andControl soil erosion and stabilize slopes to protectstabilize slopes to protect local communities, towns,local communities, towns, rivers, dams.rivers, dams.  Reintroduce native speciesReintroduce native species (oaks, pines, walnut, wild(oaks, pines, walnut, wild cherry & almond, rose) alongcherry & almond, rose) along contour ridges and terracescontour ridges and terraces for soil and nativefor soil and native biodiversity conservation andbiodiversity conservation and income generation.income generation.
  • 12. Improving water management
  • 13. Elements of Water ResourcesElements of Water Resources Management: Multiple objectives,Management: Multiple objectives, multiple levelsmultiple levels Water Resources Management Water supply & sanitation Irrigation & drainage Energy Environ- mental services Infrastructure forInfrastructure for management of floodsmanagement of floods and droughts,and droughts, multipurpose storage,multipurpose storage, water quality andwater quality and source protectionsource protection InstitutionalInstitutional frameworkframework ManagementManagement instrumentsinstruments Political economy ofPolitical economy of water managementwater management Other uses including industry and navigation
  • 14. The poor generally settle on the most fragile land with meager and/or highly variable water resources
  • 15. Irrigation has been successful in lifting manyIrrigation has been successful in lifting many rural poor out of poverty…trick is to do it in arural poor out of poverty…trick is to do it in a sustainable mannersustainable manner Average income levels & irrigation intensity in India
  • 16. Managing Water Sustainably: the DublinManaging Water Sustainably: the Dublin Principles in operationPrinciples in operation  The “ecological” principleThe “ecological” principle::  Strategies should be holistic (includingStrategies should be holistic (including environment), comprehensive, inter-environment), comprehensive, inter- sectoralsectoral......  The “institutional” principle:  stakeholder participation  subsidiarity (federal, state, municipality, users…)  greater role for private sector, NGOs and women  The “instrument” principle:  greater attention to economic value of alternative uses  greater use of economic instruments (water rights, user charges…)
  • 17. Challenges in water managementChallenges in water management  Small stocks of water infrastructure in developingSmall stocks of water infrastructure in developing countries compared to those in climatically similarcountries compared to those in climatically similar industrial countriesindustrial countries  Simultaneous need for institutional solutions/ reformsSimultaneous need for institutional solutions/ reforms  Pricing for fiscal sustainability and to encouragePricing for fiscal sustainability and to encourage conservation (agriculture uses about 70% of water,conservation (agriculture uses about 70% of water, and is very wasteful)and is very wasteful)  Ownership and devolution of managementOwnership and devolution of management responsibilityresponsibility  Urgency in developing an integrated package ofUrgency in developing an integrated package of structural and non-structural tools which respond tostructural and non-structural tools which respond to the imbalances by human demand and hydrologicthe imbalances by human demand and hydrologic patterns accentuated by global changespatterns accentuated by global changes
  • 18. Making Forestry more SustainableMaking Forestry more Sustainable
  • 19. Forests are especially important toForests are especially important to the poor…the poor…  1.6 billion rural people are dependent upon forests to some extent.1.6 billion rural people are dependent upon forests to some extent.  1 billion out of 1.2 billion extremely poor depend on forest resources for part1 billion out of 1.2 billion extremely poor depend on forest resources for part of their livelihoodsof their livelihoods  350 million people are highly dependent on forests.350 million people are highly dependent on forests.  60 million indigenous people are almost wholly dependent on forests.60 million indigenous people are almost wholly dependent on forests. Source: World Bank Forests Strategy and Policy, 2002.Source: World Bank Forests Strategy and Policy, 2002. CountryCountry Forest Dependent PopulationForest Dependent Population IndiaIndia 275 million275 million CongoCongo 62.6 million62.6 million IndonesiaIndonesia 40-70 million40-70 million MyanmarMyanmar 25 million25 million VietnamVietnam 20 million20 million TurkeyTurkey 8 million8 million Source: APFSOS, WP/27Source: APFSOS, WP/27
  • 20. …… and to the global economy…and to the global economy… Production of wood and manufactured forest products contribute moreProduction of wood and manufactured forest products contribute more than US$450 billion to the world market economy.than US$450 billion to the world market economy. The annual value of internationally traded forest products totalsThe annual value of internationally traded forest products totals US$150-200 billion.US$150-200 billion. Globally, forest based industries provide about 47 million full time jobsGlobally, forest based industries provide about 47 million full time jobs..
  • 21. …… and the environmentand the environment Forest destruction is responsible for globalForest destruction is responsible for global biodiversity losses of 2-5% per decade;biodiversity losses of 2-5% per decade; Forest destruction (especially though burning) isForest destruction (especially though burning) is estimated to contribute between 10 and 30% ofestimated to contribute between 10 and 30% of all carbon gas emissions into the atmosphere;all carbon gas emissions into the atmosphere; slowing deforestation and restoring forests areslowing deforestation and restoring forests are important elements of a strategy for slowingimportant elements of a strategy for slowing global carbon emissions.global carbon emissions.
  • 22. 3 Pillars of Sustainable Forestry3 Pillars of Sustainable Forestry  Harnessing the potential ofHarnessing the potential of forests to reduce povertyforests to reduce poverty  Integrating forests intoIntegrating forests into sustainable economicsustainable economic developmentdevelopment  Protecting local andProtecting local and global forest valuesglobal forest values
  • 23. Fighting PovertyFighting Poverty  Supporting policy, institutional and legal frameworksSupporting policy, institutional and legal frameworks for forest development and to ensure rights offor forest development and to ensure rights of forest-dependent peoples;forest-dependent peoples;  Promoting the scaling up of collaborative forestPromoting the scaling up of collaborative forest management;management;  Integrating forest, agro-forestry, and smallIntegrating forest, agro-forestry, and small enterprises into rural development strategies.enterprises into rural development strategies.
  • 24. Making forestry sustainableMaking forestry sustainable  Supporting the development of policies andSupporting the development of policies and projects for sustainable forest management andprojects for sustainable forest management and conservation;conservation;  Building capacity for improved governance;Building capacity for improved governance;  Supporting the containment of illegal activities;Supporting the containment of illegal activities;  Addressing fiscal and trade issues related to forestAddressing fiscal and trade issues related to forest sector and products;sector and products;  Proactively promoting catalytic investments in forestProactively promoting catalytic investments in forest management and conservationmanagement and conservation..
  • 25. Improving governance requiresImproving governance requires  Institutional reforms/buildingInstitutional reforms/building  Political accountabilityPolitical accountability  Competitive private sectorCompetitive private sector  Public sector reform (including judiciary andPublic sector reform (including judiciary and police)police)  Civil society participationCivil society participation
  • 26. Institutional reformsInstitutional reforms  Establish clear property rightsEstablish clear property rights  Establish well-defined permanent forest estatesEstablish well-defined permanent forest estates  Reduce distortions to trade in forest productsReduce distortions to trade in forest products  Set the “right” level of forest taxation and rentSet the “right” level of forest taxation and rent capturecapture  Simplify forestry legislation and strengthenSimplify forestry legislation and strengthen implementationimplementation
  • 27. Examples of institutional reformsExamples of institutional reforms  PhilippinesPhilippines: Multisectoral Forest Protection Committees: Multisectoral Forest Protection Committees  CambodiaCambodia: Forest Crime Monitoring Unit: Forest Crime Monitoring Unit  BrazilBrazil: Geo-referenced licensing system and identification: Geo-referenced licensing system and identification of illegal logging from land-use monitoring via satelliteof illegal logging from land-use monitoring via satellite imageryimagery  IndiaIndia: Village Forest Protection Committee (Joint Forest: Village Forest Protection Committee (Joint Forest Management)Management)  BoliviaBolivia: Legislative reforms conferring greater: Legislative reforms conferring greater responsibility to individuals and local communitiesresponsibility to individuals and local communities  EcuadorEcuador: Independent certifiers and outsourcing of: Independent certifiers and outsourcing of supervisory functions of the forest departmentsupervisory functions of the forest department  GhanaGhana: Timber Utilization Contracts: Timber Utilization Contracts
  • 28. Protecting local and global valuesProtecting local and global values  Build markets for international public goods such asBuild markets for international public goods such as carbon;carbon;  Build national markets for environmental services;Build national markets for environmental services;  Strengthen policies and investments inStrengthen policies and investments in conservation and protected areas;conservation and protected areas;  Assure that investments and programs do no directAssure that investments and programs do no direct or indirect harm to the permanent forest estate.or indirect harm to the permanent forest estate.
  • 29. Effective certification requiresEffective certification requires  compliance with relevant laws;compliance with relevant laws;  recognition of and respect for any legally documented orrecognition of and respect for any legally documented or customary land tenure and use rights as well as the rights ofcustomary land tenure and use rights as well as the rights of indigenous peoples and workers;indigenous peoples and workers;  measures to maintain or enhance sound and effective communitymeasures to maintain or enhance sound and effective community relations;relations;  conservation of biological diversity and ecological functions;conservation of biological diversity and ecological functions;  measures to maintain or enhance environmentally sound multiplemeasures to maintain or enhance environmentally sound multiple benefits accruing from the forest;benefits accruing from the forest;  prevention or minimization of the adverse environmental impactsprevention or minimization of the adverse environmental impacts from forest use;from forest use;  effective forest management planning;effective forest management planning;  active monitoring and assessment of relevant forest managementactive monitoring and assessment of relevant forest management areas; andareas; and  the maintenance of critical forest areas and other critical naturalthe maintenance of critical forest areas and other critical natural habitats affected by the operation.habitats affected by the operation.
  • 30. Sustainable FisheriesSustainable Fisheries
  • 31. Why are fisheries so important toWhy are fisheries so important to developing countries?developing countries? Trade and incomeTrade and income generation on national andgeneration on national and global levels :global levels :  Global trade of US$ 55-66 billionGlobal trade of US$ 55-66 billion annually, with 50 per cent of tradeannually, with 50 per cent of trade from developing countriesfrom developing countries  A Major Source of Income and Export for developing countries: at least 13 developing countries where fisheries is more than 5 percent of GDP, e.g. Ghana; Senegal; Namibia;  License fee income.License fee income.
  • 32. And important for poverty reductionAnd important for poverty reduction  A Source of Livelihoods & Income for 30 million poor fishers and their families, employing an additional 150 million people in developing countries in associated sectors, e.g. marketing, boat-building, etc.;  A Critical Source of Food Security for 400 million poor people;  Potential source of alternative employment for rural poor through aquaculture.
  • 33. Key elements in sustainable fisheriesKey elements in sustainable fisheries strategy: (1) Governancestrategy: (1) Governance  Adoption of the Ecosystem Approach to Fishing;  Introduction of Institutional, Regulatory and Judicial framework;  Specific institutions for fisheries management (including Sector Councils, independent agencies for MCS), with transparent decision making mechanisms and agreed trade offs  Introduction of Property and Use Rights; The allocation of fishing rights to interested fishers: geographical, or quota systems  Introduction of Co-Management Systems Establishing shared governance responsibility for the fisheries between government and local users
  • 34. Key elements in sustainable fisheriesKey elements in sustainable fisheries strategy: (2) Fisheries managementstrategy: (2) Fisheries management  Fishing Capacity Reduction;Fishing Capacity Reduction;  Decommissioning fishing vessels or buying back licenses is the most direct way of tackling overcapacity  Fully Protected Marine Reserves andFully Protected Marine Reserves and Marine Protected areas;Marine Protected areas; - Longer term closure to allow recovery of stocks  Promotion of alternative livelihoods;  Creation of economic alternatives to fishing for small scale fishers and fishing communities  Aquaculture;  Expected to help meet world demand for fish and seafood  Food safety and eco-labeling programs  To enhance added value and fishers income
  • 35. Global WarmingGlobal Warming
  • 36. Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF)Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF) Recognizing that global warming will have the greatestRecognizing that global warming will have the greatest impact on its client countries, on July 20th, 1999 theimpact on its client countries, on July 20th, 1999 the Executive Directors of the World Bank approved theExecutive Directors of the World Bank approved the establishment of the PCF, with the operationalestablishment of the PCF, with the operational objective of mitigating climate change. This aspires toobjective of mitigating climate change. This aspires to promote the Bank's tenet of sustainable development,promote the Bank's tenet of sustainable development, to demonstrate the possibilities of public-privateto demonstrate the possibilities of public-private partnerships, and to offer a 'learning-by-doing'partnerships, and to offer a 'learning-by-doing' opportunity to its stakeholders.opportunity to its stakeholders.
  • 37. Bank’s BioCarbon Fund ($53 million worth of projects in FY05)Bank’s BioCarbon Fund ($53 million worth of projects in FY05) Caribbean 7% South Asia 4% Subsaharan Africa 29% Eastern Europe 12% East Asia 5% Latin America 43% Commercial plantations 11% Avoided deforestation 7% Environmental plantings 38% Sustainable agriculture 1% Agroforestry 21% Silvopastoral 3% Community reforestation 19%
  • 38. The Role of Trade in AgricultureThe Role of Trade in Agriculture and Rural Developmentand Rural Development
  • 39. The Role of TradeThe Role of Trade  Agriculture (including fisheries and forestryAgriculture (including fisheries and forestry products) is a highly tradable sectorproducts) is a highly tradable sector  Trade is the best lever for agricultural growthTrade is the best lever for agricultural growth  Raising incomes mitigates pressure on theRaising incomes mitigates pressure on the environmentenvironment  Not all increases in trade are environmentallyNot all increases in trade are environmentally benign, but….benign, but….  The best solution is generally to target theThe best solution is generally to target the problem directly by adopting appropriateproblem directly by adopting appropriate environmental policies, not to restrict trade,environmental policies, not to restrict trade, and…and…  Trade gives consumers a powerful lever toTrade gives consumers a powerful lever to effectuate change in the supplying country (faireffectuate change in the supplying country (fair trade, certification)trade, certification)
  • 40. But developing countries’ share of agriculturalBut developing countries’ share of agricultural exports to rich countries have stagnated, while South-exports to rich countries have stagnated, while South- South trade has grown, suggesting that trade barriersSouth trade has grown, suggesting that trade barriers need to be lowered….need to be lowered…. 1980/81 1990/91 2000/01 Agriculture Total 35.4 32.2 36.3 To Developing 9.5 8.9 13.4 To Industrialized 25.8 23.3 22.9 Manufacturing Total 19.3 22.7 33.4 To Developing 6.6 7.5 12.3 To Industrialized 12.7 15.2 21.1 Source: COMTRADE
  • 41. But that’s anotherBut that’s another l-l-l-o-o-o-n-n-n-gl-l-l-o-o-o-n-n-n-g storystory ThanksThanks

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