Political Economic Digest Series 4 Samriddhi, The Prosperity Foundation
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Political Economic Digest Series 4 Samriddhi, The Prosperity Foundation
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Political Economic Digest Series 4 Samriddhi, The Prosperity Foundation
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Political Economic Digest Series 4 Samriddhi, The Prosperity Foundation
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Political Economic Digest Series 4 Samriddhi, The Prosperity Foundation
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Nepal in the Economic Freedom Report 2010
The “...
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Legal structures and property rights, is the se...
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Questions to think about:
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Economic Freedom. Political economic digest series - 4

In this series, we’ll be discussing about economic freedom and its role in the economic progress of a society. Among the three kinds of freedom-political, civil and economic, economic freedom is considered the most important freedom required for prosperity and it is one of the most ignored one in our context.
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Economic Freedom. Political economic digest series - 4

  • 1. Political Economic Digest Series 4 Samriddhi, The Prosperity Foundation 1 Political Economic Digest Series 4 Dear Political Economic Digest Series participant, Welcome to the fourth series of the Political Economic Digest. In the last series we discussed about private property rights. We discussed why secure private property rights were crucial for economic growth and development. We learned that lack of secured property rights is one of leading causes in keeping poor people poor. In this series, we’ll be discussing about economic freedom and its role in the economic progress of a society. Among the three kinds of freedom-political, civil and economic, economic freedom is considered the most important freedom required for prosperity and it is one of the most ignored one in our context. Economic Freedom is defined as: “The situation where people of a country are free: to trade with others, compete in markets, buy what they want, earn a living in a job they choose, keep what they earn, own things privately and securely.” The first reading is an introduction to economic freedom and its importance compiled by Samriddhi, The Prosperity Foundation. It describes what is economic freedom and its components. It also contains an introduction to, “Economic Freedom of the World Report” and the history behind its creation. The second reading is an article entitled “Nepal in the economic freedom report of 2011” where the author has explained the poor performance of Nepal in the various components of economic freedom and what Nepal could do to improve its performance. Happy reading! If you are interested to further explore this issue, we have lots of texts and visuals on the subject at Political Economic Resource Center of Samriddhi. Feel free to drop by! Note: Scroll below to find the readings!
  • 2. Political Economic Digest Series 4 Samriddhi, The Prosperity Foundation 2 cfly{s{s :jtGqtfM Ps kl/ro ljifo k|j]z ;+;f/ dWoo'uLg cGwsf/sf] ;doaf6 cl3 a9b} hfFbf qmdzM k"g{hfu/0fsf] qmd k|f/De eof] . o;;Fu} ;'wfl/Fb} uPsf] pTkfbgk4lt / To;n] lgDTofPsf] c;Lldt pTkfgsf sf/0f ;+;f/e/ g} Jofkf/sf] lj:tf/ / :yfgLo 3/]n' tyf ;fgf kl/0ffdsf] pTkfbgdf x|f; cfpg] qmd k|f/De eof] . /fHo k|ToIf ¿kdf ;+nUg eP/ ul/g] of] Jofkf/sf] qmd afl0fHojfbsf gfdn] k|Voft 5 . afl0fHojfbL k|0ffnLdf gfkmfd"vL k|j[lQ k|d'v /xg] ;Gbe{df pTkfbg If]qsf sfdbf/x¿sf] Hofnfb/ sd /xg' / >dsf] zf]if0fn] r/d ¿k lng' c:jefljs lyPg . o; ;dodf pTkfbg If]qsf sfdbf/x¿sf] a9bf] c;Gtf]ifsf sf/0f ;fdflhs ;+/rgf g} kl/jt{g x'g] cj:yfsf] k[i7e"ld tof/ eO/x]sf] lyof] . To;} ;dodf b]lvPsf sDo'lg:6 ljrf/s sfn{ dfS;{n] /fHosf] s]Gb|Lo Joj:yfaf6 lgodg x'g]u/L ;fd"lxs pTkfbg / ljt/0fsf] cfly{s Joj:yf;DaGwL ax; cf/De u/fP . oxL cfwf/df ;+;f/ g} ;dfhjfb / pbf/jfb u/L b'O{ cfly{s Joj:yfsf] kIfw/tfdf w|'aLs[t x'gk'Uof] . t/ ;dfhjfbL cfly{s Joj:yf cfkmgf] k/LIf0fsf] 5f]6f] cjlwd} cfkmg} cfGtl/s ;d:ofdf cNdlng k'Uof] . tTsflng ;dosf] ?;df o; Jo:yfsf] k|yd k|of]u cf/De ePsf] Ps ztfAbL glaTb} ;f]leot ;ª3sf ¿kdf :yfkgf ePsf] /l;og ;ª3 cfly{s ¿kdf ktg / ef}uf]lns ¿kdf lj36g x'g k'Uof] . ;fDojfbn] NofPsf] cfly{s Joj:yfn] hgtfsf cfly{s cfsf+Iffsf ;fy} hLjg:t/ psf:g g;s]kl5 / ;f]leot ;ª3sf] ktgn] ubf{ cfly{s Joj:yfsf] ljsNksf ¿kdf ;+;f/el/ g}] ;Defljt cGo cfly{s Joj:yfx¿af/] cWoog, cg';Gwfg / vf]hL ug]{ sfo{n] b|'t ult kfof] . x'gt klxn]b]lv g} o;/L ;fd'lxstf / /fHosf] :jfldTjdf /x]sf] kF'hLn] cfly{s pGgtL Nofpg ;Sb}g eGg]x¿ w]/} g} lyP . o; wf/sf ljrf/sx¿df cli6«og ljrf/wf/fsf cy{zf:qLx¿ k|d'v dflgG5g . k|m8l/s P= xfPsn] o'/f]kdf bf];|f] ljZjo'4kZrft xfjL ePsf] ;dfhjfbL lrGtgnfO{ nlIft u/]/ æbf;Tjsf] af6f]Æ -b /f]8 6' ;km{8d_ gfds lstfa k|sfzg u/], h;n] ljZje/ rrf{ kfpg ;kmn klg eof] . ut bzsdf dfq gf]a]n k'/:sf/af6 ;Ddflgt ldN6g lk|m8Dofg h:tf cy{zf:qLx¿n] klg ljsNksf] vf]hL ub{} cfly{s If]qdf lgs} k|of]ux¿ u/] . ldN6g lk|m8Dofgsf] ;kmn k/LIf0fn] t Nofl6g cd]l/sfdf /x]sf] lrnL eGg] b]znfO{ ljsf;f]Gd'v b]zaf6 ljsl;t b]ztkm{ g} pGd'v u/fof] . o;/L gofF cfly{s Joj:yfaf/]df k/LIf0f ug{] lgs} d'n"sx¿n] cfly{s If]qdf lgs} ;kmntf klg xfl;n u/] . o4lk, ;g !(#) sf] bzsdf pbfPsf n8{ lsG;n] ljsf; u/]sf] cy{tGqdf ;/sf/L x:tIf]k;DaGwL gLltn] klg ;do;dodf cfkmgf] pkl:ylt hgfpFb} cfPsf] 5 . ljif]z ¿kdf ;g @))& b]lv k|f/De ePsf] ljZj cfly{s dGbLn] ubf{ clxn]sf] cfly{s gLltsf] nx/ k'gM lsG;tkm{ kmls{/x]sf] cj:yf ljBdfg 5 . w]/}n] jt{dfgsf] ljZj cfly{s dGbLnfO{ ahf/ Joj:yfsf] c;kmntf eGg ?rfP . t/, hh{ 8ANo'= a'; cd]l/sfsf] /fi6«klt ePkl5 pgn] NofPsf gLltx¿tkm{ ;fob} s;}sf] Wofg uof] < o;/L /fhgLlts cy{zf:qdf ;do ;dodf p7g] ax; k|fo M ;a} cfly{s :jtGqtf;Fu ufFl;Psf x'G5g . p;f]eP k|Zg p75 – cfly{s :jtGqtf eg]sf] s] xf] t < cfly{s :jtGqtf eg]sf] s] xf] < ;dfhjfbL cy{Joj:yf jf pbf/jfbL cy{Joj:yfdWo] s'g cfly{s Joj:yf pko'Qm x'G5 eGg] s'/fdf ljZj g} b'O{ w|'jdf ljeflht / ljjfbdf cNdlnO/x]sf] cj:yf ljBdfg lyof] . t/ ;f]leot ;ª3sf] lj36g / ;dfhjfbL cy{Joj:yfn] ;j{;fwf/0fsf] hLjgofkgnfO{ ;/n / ;xh agfpg g;ls/x]sf] cj:yfdf ljsf;sf] ultnfO{ cufl8 a9fpgsf nflu pbf/ cy{Joj:yfsf] ckl/xfo{tfnfO{ x|boªud ub}{ cfly{s :jtGqtfsf cjwf/0ffnfO{ cufl8 a9fOPsf] xf] . s'g} klg b]zn] cfkmgf] cfly{s Joj:yfdf pkef]Qmfsf] 5gf}6sf], j:t'ljlgdo / Jofkf/sf ;fy} JolQmdfly tyf ;DklQdflysf] sfg"gL Joj:yf s;/L ;+/lrt u/]sf] 5 eGg] s'/fsf cfwf/df cfly{s
  • 3. Political Economic Digest Series 4 Samriddhi, The Prosperity Foundation 3 :jtGqtfsf] dfqf lgwf{l/t x'G5 . o; cy{df cfly{s :jtGqtf eGgfn] s'g} klg b]zsf] cy{Joj:yfcGtu{t pTkfbg, ljt/0f / pkef]udfly ;j{;fwf/0fsf] ;xh kx'FrnfO{ a'emg ;lsG5 . olb s'g} b]zdf j}olQms 5gf}6sf] k"0f{ :jtGqtfsf] k|Tofe"lt, /fHon] geP/ k"0f{¿kdf ahf/cy{tGqåf/f lgwf{l/t ljt/0f tyf ljlgdosf] Joj:yf, pTkfbg tyf pkef]usf nflu :jtGq ¿kdf ahf/k|j]z / alx{udgsf] :jtGqtf / JolQmsf] hLpm / wgsf] ;'/Iffsf] sfg"gL k|Tofe"tLsf] Joj:yf 5 eg] To; b]zdf pRr:t/sf] cfly{s :jtGqtf 5 eGg] a'lemG5 . nf]stflGqs k4ltsf] ljsf;sf nflu of] clgjfo{ zt{ klg xf] . cfly{s :jtGqtfn] hgtfnfO{ of]hgfa4 cy{tGqdf ;/sf/dfly e/ kg]{ cj:yfaf6 d'lQm lbG5 ;fy} o;n] hgtfnfO{ /fhg}lts tyf cfly{s 5gf}6df :jtGqtf klg k|bfg ub{5 . ;fdfGotof pRr:t/sf] cfly{s :jtGqtf ePsf b]zdf a:g] JolQmx¿ ;d[l4, JolQmut :jtGqtf / nfdf] cfo'af6 nfeflGjt ePsf] kfOG5 . pRr:t/sf] cfly{s :jtGqtf ePsf b]zx¿sf] k|ltJolQm cfo tyf j[l4b/ klg pRr:t/sf] ePsf] kfOG5 . k|foM pRr:t/sf] cfly{s :jtGqtf ePsf b]zx¿sf hgtfsf] ;/b/ cfo' cGo b]zx¿sf t'ngfdf @) jif{n] a9L 5 . To;} ul/ a9L cfly{s :jtGqtf ePsf b]zdf a:g] JolQmx¿ a9L ;Gt'i6 hLjg latfpg] u/]sf] klg kfOPsf] 5 . cfly{s If]qdf nufOg] yf]/} lgoGq0f, s/sf] Go"gtd b/ tyf eG;f/b/sf] Go"gtf h:tf cfly{s :jtGqtfsf ;Lldt If]qdf ul/g] ;'wf/n] klg e|i6frf/ 36fpg ;xof]u k'¥ofpFb5 . Sofg8fdf /x]sf] k|m]h/ k|lti7fgn] ljut b'O{ bzsb]lv cg]s b]zx¿df cfly{s :jtGqtfnfO{ kl/eflift / dfkg ug]{ p2]Zon] ljleGg uf]i7Lx¿sf] Pp6f l;nl;nf g} ;~rfng ul//x]sf] 5 . ;g !(&% b]lv @)!) ;Dd u/]/ ljZjsf] cfly{s :jtGqtf k|ltj]bg k|sflzt ePsf] #% aif{kl5 klg o;sf] p2]Zo cem} Ho"sf To" /x]sf] 5— cfly{s :jtGqtfsf] dfkg ;l6s, ;dfj]zL / ;f]2]Zod"ns 5 < of] cg';Gwfg k|ltj]bg xfn aflif{s ¿kdf ljZjel/sf &) eGbf a9L b]zx¿af6 k|sflzt x'Fb} cfO/x]sf] 5 . cfly{s :jtGqtfsf cGt{lgi7 tTjx¿: • j}olQms 5gf}6 • ahf/Joj:yfåf/f lgb]{lzt :jtGq ljlgdo • ahf/df k|j]z ug]{ / k|lt:kwf{ ug]{ :jtGqtf • JolQmut ;'/Iff tyf j}olQms ;DklQdfly cx:tIf]ksf] sfg"gL Joj:yf pko{'Qm rf/j6f dxTjk"0f{ tTjx¿nfO{ cfTd;ft ub}{ /fli6«o ;+:yfx¿ / /fli6«o gLlt tyf cfly{s :jtGqtfaLrsf] ;Gt'ng dfkgsf nflu ljZj cfly{s :jtGqtf ;"rsfªs lgdf{0f ul/Psf] xf] . cfly{s :jtGqtfnfO{ kfFr ljleGg If]qdf dfkg ul/G5 M !_ ;/sf/sf] cfsf/, @_ sfg"gL ;+/rgf tyf ;Dklt;DaGwL clwsf/sf] ;'/Iff, #_ c;n d'b|f dflysf] kx'Fr $_ cGt/f{li6«o Jofkf/ ug]{ :jtGqtf / %_ shf{, >d / Jofkf/dflysf] lgodg . cfly{s :jtGqtf ;"rsfªssf] dflyNnf] txdf /xgsf nflu s'g} klg b]zn] j}olQms ;DklQdflysf] clwsf/sf] ;'lglZrtf, l:y/ cfly{s jftfj/0f / ljlwsf] zf;gJoj:yfsf] sfof{Gjogdf ljz]if Wofg lbg'k5{ . o;sf cltl/Qm s/sf] b/ sd /fVg', cfGtl/s tyf afXo Jofkf/df cj/f]w ug]{ tTjx¿sf] lg/fs/0f ug'{ tyf ;/sf/n] ;~rfng ug]{ of]hgfa4 cy{Joj:yfeGbf ljk/Lt k"0f{¿kdf ahf/df cfwfl/t ljt/0f tyf k"g{ljt/0fsf] cy{Joj:yfdf rNg' cfly{s :jtGqtfsf] ;"rsfªsdf dflyNnf] txdf /xgsf nflu cfjZos kb{5 . ;g !(*) b]lv @))* sf aLrdf cfly{s :jtGqtfsf nflu 7"nf] nx/ rln/x]sf] 5 . cg]sf}+ cWoogx¿n] cfly{s :jtGqtf gePsf b]zx¿eGbf cfly{s ¿kdf k"0f{ :jtGqtf /x]sf b]zx¿sf] b|'t ultdf ljsf; / k|ltJolQm cfodf j[l4 eO/x]sf] b]vfPsf 5g . To;}u/L cfly{s :jtGqtfsf] kl/jt{g / k|ltJolQm cfosf] j[l4aLrdf ;sf/fTds ;DaGw klg 5 . o;afx]s, ha k|ltJolQm cfodf j[l4 x'G5, ta ljZjdf g} ul/aLsf] dfqf klg 36b5 . of] cj:yf ;DalGwt b]zx¿n] cfly{s :jtGqtfsf] pRrtd cj:yflt/sf] ofqfdf cfkm"nfO{ s'g xb;Dd nUb5g eGg] s'/fdf cfwfl/t x'G5 .
  • 4. Political Economic Digest Series 4 Samriddhi, The Prosperity Foundation 4 ;+:yfx¿ / gLltx¿n] tadfq cfly{s :jtGqtf;Fu Ps¿ktf sfod /fVg ;Sb5g ha ltgLx¿n] :jtGq ljlgdo, j}olQms ;'/Iff / JolQmut ;DklQsf] k|Tofe"lt ub{5g . cfly{s :jtGqtfsf] cGtlg{lxt dfGotf eg]sf] g} lghL :jfldTj xf] . of] lghL :jfldTjsf sf/0fn] ubf{ g} JolQmn] Psflt/ cfkmgf] ;do / k|ltef s;/L k|of]u ug]{ eGg] 5gf}6sf] clwsf/ k|fKt u/]sf] 5 eg] csf]{tkm{ cGo JolQmx¿sf] ;do, k|ltef / ;|f]tnfO{ sAhf ug{af6 klg p;nfO{ ljd'v u/fPsf] 5 . o;n] ubf{ g} s'g} Ps JolQmnfO{ cGo JolQmsf] ;|f]tdfly sAhf hdfpg jf cGo JolQmnfO{ k|bfg ul/Psf] ;|f]tsf] cfkm"n] klg dfu ug]{ clwsf/af6 al~rt u/fPsf] 5 . cfly{s :jtGqtf;DaGwL cjwf/0ffsf] aLhf/f]k0fsf] ;Gbe{ ;g !(^) k"j{sf] ;dodf cd]l/sfnufot ;+;f/sf clwsf+z :yfgdf cy{zf:qL n8{ hf]g d]gf8{ lsG;sf] j[xt cy{zf:q tyf /fHosf] x:tIf]ksf/L cfly{s gLltsf] k|fwfGotf lyof] . o; cj:yfdf tL gLltlj?4 hfg' eg]sf] cd]l/sfleq w]/} cj;/af6 al~rt x'g' a/fa/ g} lyof] . o:tf] kl/l:ytLaLr klg cd]l/sL cy{zf:qL ldN6g lk|m8Dofgn] ljZjsf] cfly{s ljsf;nfO{ cfly{s :jtGqtf;Fu s;/L hf]8]/ x]g{ ;lsG5 < eGg] ;f]rsf] ljsf; u/] . cy{zf:qL ldN6g lk|m8Dofgn] ;g !(%) sf] bzsaf6 g} dfgj hfltsf] cfly{s pknAwL / cfly{s :jtGqtfaLrsf] ;DaGwaf/] JofVofg lbg k|f/De u/]sf lyP . /fHosf] x:tIf]ksf/L cfly{s gLltsf afah'b pgn] tTsflng ;dodf dxTjk"0f{ dflgPsf / /fHon] cfly{s gLlteGbf k|fyldstfdf /fVg] u/]sf df}lb|s gLltx¿sf] cfnf]rgf ub}{ cfly{s gLltsf] dxTjdfly k|sfz kfg]{ sfo{ ug{ yfn] . ;f]leot u0f/fHosf] h:tf] cjwf/0ffaf6 ljsf;nfO{ cl3 a9fpg ;lsg] ljrf/sf] cfnf]rgf ub}{ cy{zf:qL ldN6g lk|m8Dofgn] /fHosf] cx:tIf]ksf/L cfly{s gLltsf kIfdf sfo{ ul//x] . cfly{s dfldnfdf /fHo hlt a9L lgofds lgsfosf ¿kdf a:b5, b]zsf] cfly{s ljsf;sf] ult klg plQs} b|'t x'G5 eGg] ljrf/ /fVg] cy{zf:qL ldN6g lk|m8Dofgn] o;} ;Gbe{df ;g !(&) df klxnf] k6s k|m]h/ k|lti7fg;Fu ldn]/ cfly{s :jtGqtf dfkg / k|sfzgsf] sfo{ k|f/De u/] . k|f/lDes ;dodf cToGt ;/n /x]sf] o; dfkgsf ;"rsx¿sf] lg/Gt/ ljsf; / lj:tf/ ug]{ sfo{ hf/L g} /Xof] . oxL ;Gbe{df ;g !(*( df cfly{s :jtGqtfsf] dfkg ;l6s, ;dfj]zL / ;f]2]Zod"ns agfpg] p2]Zon] Ps sfo{zfnfsf] cfof]hgf ul/of] . o; sfo{zfnfsf] lg:sif{af6 g} jt{dfg ;dosf] cfly{s :jtGqtf dfks ;"rsx¿sf] lgwf{/0f ul/Psf] xf] . oxfF xfdLn] a'emg'kg]{ s'/f eg]sf] o; cfly{s :jtGqtf dfks ;"rsdf lg/Gt/ / ;dofg's"n kl/jt{g x'Fb} cfO/x]sf] 5 . cfly{s :jtGqtf / nf]stGqaLrsf] leGgtf s] xf] < ;fdfGotof ;j{;fwf/0f hgdfg;n] nf]stGq / cfly{s :jtGqtfnfO{ unt tj/n] k|of]u u/]sf 5g . slxn]sfxLF o:tf] k|of]udf unt a'emfO k|ltlalDat eP tfklg of] s'/f ablgotk"0f{ ¿kn] g} k|rf/df NofOPsf] 5 . cfly{s :jtGqtf / /fhg}lts nf]stGq Ps} s'/f xf]Ogg . jf:tjdf oL b'O{ s'/fx¿ lgtfGt leGg x'g . k|ydtM dfgjLo cGtlqm{ofsf ;Gbe{df klg oL b'O{ s'/faLrdf leGgtf klxNofpg ;lsG5 . ;fdfGotof, hxfF nf]stGq /fhg}lts lg0f{olgdf{0fsf] ;Gbe{;Fu hf]l8G5 eg] cfly{s :jtGqtf ljlgdo / ahf/sf] cGtlqm{of;Fu ;DalGwt x'G5 . ha ao:s gful/sx¿ /fhg}lts u'6pku'6 lgdf{0fdf :jtGq x'g], k|ltlglwsf] rog ug]{ h:tf s'/fdf :jtGq x'G5g eg] / v'nf tyf wfFwnL/lxt dtbfgsf dfWodaf6 /fhgLlts lgsf; lg:sg] cj:yfdf dfq nf]stGqsf] ;xL k|of]u x'G5 . t/ cfly{s :jtGqtf pTkfbs ;fdYo{, j:t' tyf ;]jfsf] ljlgdo, ahf/sf] k|lt:kwf{ / cfkmgf] >dsf] plrt k|ltkmn lgwf{/0f ug]{ sfo{ 5gf}6sf] :jtGqtf;Fu ;DalGwt /xG5 . nf]stflGqs tl/sfaf6 g} ePklg olb pko'{Qm s'/fx¿df s'g} lsl;dsf] /fhg}lts lg0f{o u/]/ o; k|lqmofnfO{ cj/f]w ul/G5 eg] Tof] sfo{ cfly{s :jtGqtfsf] dfGotf;Fu d]n vfFb}g . s'g} klg /fHo cfkm}df nf]stflGqs eP tfklg To;n] cfkmgf b]zsf hgtfx¿sf] cfly{s :jtGqtfdf cg]s cj/f]w / k|ltaGwx¿ sfod /fVg' ;Dej 5 . ;g !(^) b]lv !(() aLrsf] ef/tLo / Oh/fonL cg'ejn] o; s'/fnfO{ k'li6 ub{5g . To:t}u/L
  • 5. Political Economic Digest Series 4 Samriddhi, The Prosperity Foundation 5 ;Lldt nf]stflGqs clwsf/ ePsf] b]zdf klg hgtfx¿n] cfly{s :jtGqtfsf] e/k'/ pkof]u ug{ kfO/x]sf] pbfx/0f xfdL xªsªaf6 kfpg ;Sb5f}F . bf];|f]df, cfwf/e"t ¿kd} /fh}lts nf]stGqeGbf cfly{s ¿kdf k"0f{ :jtGq lqmofsnfk lgtfGt leGg x'G5 . kf/:kfl/s ;Demf}tf / nfen] g} cfly{s ¿kdf :jtGq lqmofsnfknfO{ cfwf/ k|bfg ub{5 . o; k|lqmofdf låkIfLo ;Demf}tf geOsg s'g} klg k|sf/sf] ljlgdo x'g} ;Sb}g . t/ /fhg}lts nf]stflGqs k|lqmofdf eg] ax'dt kIfsf] Psflwsf/ /xg] ub{5 . o; k|lqmofdf ax'dt kIfn] lg0f{o ug]{ / cNkdt kIf To;df clgjfo{ ;xdt x'g'kg]{ afWofTds cj:yf /xG5 . kf/:kfl/s ;Demf}tf / ax'dtsf] zf;gsf] k|lqmofdf cfly{s ultljlw cfwf/sf ¿kdf /x] tfklg oL b'O{ k|lqmofaLr 7"nf] leGgtf /x]sf] x'G5 . kf/:kfl/s ;Demf}tfsf] k|lqmofdf qm]tf / ljqm]tf b'a} kIf nfe÷kmfObfsf] cj:yfdf /x]/ cfly{s sf/f]af/ ;DkGg ePsf] x'G5 . t/ /fhg}lts k|lqmofdf o;eGbf ljk/Lt cj:yf /xG5 . nf]stflGqs tj/df g} eP klg /fhg}lts ¿kdf ha s'g} of]hgf sfof{Gjogdf nluG5, Tof] of]hgfaf6 s'g} nfe geP tfklg cNkdtdf /x]sfx¿n] klg To; of]hgfsf nflu cfjZos kg]{ /sd hf]xf] ug]{ ;Gbe{df s/ ltg'{kg]{ x'G5 . of] /fhg}lts k|lqmofdf nfe / gf]S;fgL Joxf]g'{kg]{ ul/ b'O{ ;d"xsf] cl:tTj lgdf{0f x'G5 . ;fy} nfedf /xg] ;d"xsf] gfkmf gf]S;fgL Jof]xf]g]{ ;d"xsf] gf]S;fgLsf] /sdeGbf a9L x'G5 eGg] s'/fsf] klg s'g} lglZrGttf x'Fb}g . xfn;Ddsf] cj:yfnfO{ x]bf{, ;fdfGotofM gf]S;fgLdf kg]{ ;d"xdfly nflbPsf] s/sf] t'ngfdf gfkmfdf /xg] ;d"xn] k|fKt u/]sf] gfkmfsf] /sd hlxn] klg yf]/} dfq x'g] ub{5 . /fhg}lts k|lqmof hlxn]klg cNksflns b[li6sf]0faf6 lgwf{l/t x'G5 . /fhg}lts k|lqmofdf hlxn] klg bL3{sflng ¿kdf 7"nf] d"No r'sfpg' k/] tfklg sfo{qmdx¿ ;b}j cNksflng / k|rf/d'vL dfq x'G5g . o;sf ;fy} ;/sf/ s'g} Ps kIfnfO{ gf]S;fgLdf kf/]/ csf]{ s'g} kIfnfO{ nfe lbg] sfo{df cToflws ;+nUg eof] eg] o;n] hgtfx¿nfO{ ;|f]tsf] pkof]u pTkfbg sfo{df gu/]/ cGo If]qtkm{ n}hfg k|f]T;fxg ldNb5 . o; sfo{n] lglZrt ¿kdf b]zsf] cfly{s c;IfdtfnfO{ a9fpg ;xof]u k'Ub5 . s'g} klg gLltut k|fjwfgn] lsg hlxNo} ;xL af6f]eGbf xfgLtkm{ 8f]¥ofpFb5 eGg] s'/f /fhg}lts k|lqmofdf /xg] ljz]if :jfy{k|]l/t ;d"xsf] k|efjsf sf/0f x'G5 . r'gfjL k|lqmofaf6 5gf}6 ePsf kbflwsf/Lx¿n] pkef]Qmf / s/bftfx¿sf t'ngfdf hlxNo} klg ;ªul7t ¿kdf /x]sf :jfy{o'Qm ;d"xsf] lxtdf sfo{ ug'{ cfsif{s b]Vb5g . oBlk, To:tf ;d"xaf6 pgLx¿nfO{ k|fKt x'g] nfesf t'ngfdf dtbftfx¿n] Joxf]g'{kg]{ gf]S;fgLsf] dfqf cToflws x'G5 . ;ªul7t ¿kdf /x]sf :jfy{o'Qm ;d"xn] /fhg]tfx¿nfO{ /fhg}lts kl/rfng / cfjZos ;|f]tsf] Joj:yf ldnfpg ;Sg] ;fdYo{ /fVb5g t/ c;ªul7t / :jtGq ¿kdf /x]sf / oyfy{ ;"rgf kfpgaf6 al~rt ;fy} gf]S;fgL Joxf]g'{kg]{ ;d"x o; s'/fdf ;Ifd x'Fb}gg . o;y{ nf]stflGqs /fhg}lts k|lqmofdf cfpFbf] lgjf{rgdf ljho kfpgsf nflu ;f]emf / lgwf{ hgtfsf] :jfy{eGbf s]xL ;Lldt :jfy{o'Qm ;d"xsf lxtdf /fhg]tfx¿n] sfo{ ub{5g . cfk;L ;Demf}tfdf x'g] qmoljqmosf] ahf/d"vL k|lqmofeGbf leGg pTkfbg a9fpg] / hgtfsf] cfosf] dfqf a9fpg] vfnsf s'g} pTkfbgof]hgfsf] lglZrttf /fhg}lts k|lqmofdf x'Fb}g . ;+j}wflgs ;/sf/sf ¿kdf /xg] :j:km"t{ nf]stflGqs k|lqmof cfly{s :jtGqtfsf] ;xdfuL{ -g_x'g klg ;S5 . ;+j}wflgs k|fjwfgx¿sf] Joj:yfn] / ;+/rgfTds k|lqmofsf] lgdf{0faf6 dfq s/bftf tyf pkef]Qmfsf] zf]if0f ug]{ sfo{df ;+nUg /xg] ;Lldt ;d"xsf] lgoGq0f ug{ ;lsG5 . To:t} /fhg}lts k|lqmofnfO{ cfly{s :jtGqtfnfO{ a9fjf lbg] ;fwgsf ¿kdf klg pkof]u ug{ ;lsG5 . JolQmut /fhg}lts :jtGqtf sfod /fVgsf nflu ax';ªVossf] clwsf/ k|of]udf /fhg}lts cj/f]w sfod /fVg'k5{ eGg] wf/0ff ;j{:jLsfo{ h:t} 5 . t;y{ xfdLx¿ :jtGq ¿kdf af]Ng kfpg], k|];:jtGqtf, e]nf x'g kfpg] :jtGqtf / wfld{s :jtGqtf h:tf j}olQms :jtGqtfnfO{ ax';ªVos hgtfsf ;Gbe{af6 x]g{ ;lsFb}g . o:tf] :jtGqtfsf] k|Tofe"ltsf nflu ;+j}wflgs / ;+/rgfTds Joj:yf x'g' clgjfo{ x'G5 . oxL ;Gbe{ cfly{s :jtGqtfsf ;Gbe{df klg pkof]uL x'G5 . s_
  • 6. Political Economic Digest Series 4 Samriddhi, The Prosperity Foundation 6 ljb]zL;Fu ;d]t cfk;L ;Demf}tf u/]/ Jofkf/ ug]{ clwsf/, -v_ cfkmgf] OR5fcg'¿ksf] Jofkf/ jf Joj;fodf ;+nUg x'g] / k|lt:kwf{ ug]{ clwsf/, -u_ cfkm"n] cfh]{sf] s'/f cfkm};Fu /fVg] clwsf/ / -3_ ;/sf/nufot cGo s;}n] klg cfkm"n] cfh{g u/]sf] ;DklQ clwu|x0f ug{ gkfpg] ;'/Iffsf] k|Tofe"lt, h:tf cfly{s :jtGqtfsf cfwf/e"t s'/fx¿df ax'dtLo kIfw/tf lgif]lwt x'g' cfjZos 5 . cGo cfwf/e"t :jtGqtfh:t} cfly{s :jtGqtfsf nflu klg ;+j}wflgs, k|lqmofut / ;+/rgfTds ;'/Iff k|aGw cfjZos kb{5 . ljZjsf] cfly{s :jtGqtf ;"rsfªs ljZjsf] cfly{s :jtGqtf gfKg] ;"rsfªs lgdf{0fsf] k|f/lDes ;dob]lv g} of] tLgj6f ;}4flGts k4ltdf cfwfl/t lyof] . klxnf], p2]Zod"ns efusf ¿kdf ;j]{If0f / d"No cjnf]sgnfO{ lnOPsf] lyof] . oBlk o;sf] ax'cfoflds k|s[ltsf sf/0f / sfg'gL tyf lgofds tTjx¿sf sf/0f o; sfo{df slxn]sfxLF ;j]{If0faf6 k|fKt tYofªs / lj1;d"xsf] ;xof]u klg cfjZos kb{5 . bf];|f]df, cfly{s :jtGqtf ;"rssf] tx lgwf{/0fsf nflu cfjZos kg]{ tYofªssf] pknAwtf ljZj a}+s, cGt/f{li6«o d'b|f sf]z, ljZj cfly{s d~rh:tf afXo ;|f]taf6 k|fKt x'G5 . cGt/f{li6«o ;|f]taf6 tYofªs cg'knAw ePsf] cj:yfdf dfq o; sfo{df /fli6«o ;+:yfx¿sf] tYofªs k|of]u ul/G5 . t];|f]df, kf/blz{tfnfO{ ljz]if k|fyldstfdf /flvG5 . k|ltj]bgdf ;b}j tYofªssf] ;|f]taf/], tYofªs k|zf]wg u/]/ tYo lgdf{0f ug]{ / To;nfO{ lgZsif{ :j¿kdf s;/L kl/jt{g ul/Psf] xf] eGg] af/]sf] ;}4flGts cjwf/0ff klg pNn]v ul/G5 . cfly{s :jtGqtf ;"rssf] lgdf{0fdf k|of]u ul/Psf tYofªssf] k"0f{ hfgsf/L rfxg] JolQmx¿n] www.freethworld.com j]a;fO6 x]g{ ;Sg'x'g]5 . tlnsf !=! df ljZjsf] cfly{s :jtGqtf ;"rsfªssf] ;+/rgfnfO{ b]vfOPsf] 5 . o; ;"rsfªsn] cfly{s :jtGqtf >]0fLsf] dfkg lgDglnlvt kfFr If]qsf cfwf/df ub{5 M– • ;/sf/sf] cfsf/ M ;/sf/L vr{, s/ / pBf]uwGbf • sfg"gL ;+/rgf / ;DklQ;DaGwL clwsf/sf] ;'/Iff • c;n d'b|f dflysf] kx'Fr • cGt/f{li6«o Jofkf/df :jtGqtf • shf{, >d / Jofkf/dflysf] lgodg pko'{Qm kfFr d'Vo If]qcGtu{t o; aif{sf] ;"rsfªsdf @# j6f cGo tTjx¿ ;dflai6 5g . oL @# j6f tTjx¿ klg cfkm}df cg]sg ;xfos tTjx¿sf] d]naf6 ag]sf 5g . ;du|df of] ;"rsfªs s"n $@ j6f rnx¿sf] of]uaf6 ag]sf] 5 . oL k|To]s tTj / To;sf ;xfos tTjx¿nfO{ ) -z"Go_ b]lv !) dfgsf] dfkgqmddf Jojl:yt tl/sfn] /flvG5 . o;n] tYofªs ljt/0fsf] cfGtl/s Joj:yfkgnfO{ ;ªs]t ub{5 . tnsf] tflnsfdf ljZjsf] cfly{s :jtGqtf ;"rsfªscGtu{t /x]sf tTjx¿ / tL tTjx¿cGtu{t /x]sf ;xfos tTjx¿sf] ljj/0f ;+If]kdf lbOPsf] 5 M— tflnsf !=! ljZjsf] cfly{s :jtGqtf ;"rsfªssf If]q, tTjx¿ / ;xfos tTjx¿ != ;/sf/sf] cfsf/ M ;/sf/L vr{,{,{, s/ / pBf]u]uwGbf • s"n pkef]udf ;/sf/L pkef]u vr{sf] k|ltzt • s"n ufx{:y pTkfbgdf /sdfGt/ / ;x'lnotsf] k|ltzt • ;/sf/L pBf]uwGbf / nufgL • ;LdfGt s/sf] pRr b/
  • 7. Political Economic Digest Series 4 Samriddhi, The Prosperity Foundation 7 • ;LdfGt cfodfly nfUg] s/sf] pRr b/ • pRr ;LdfGt cfo / cfos/sf] b/ @= sfg"g"gL ;++/rgf / ;DklQ;DaGwL clwsf/sf] ;'/Iff • Gofokflnsfsf] :jtGqtf • lgikIf cbfnt • ;DklQ;DaGwL clwsf/sf] ;'/Iff • sfg"gL zf;g / /fhg}lts k|lqmofdf ;}Go x:tIf]k • sfg"gL k|0ffnLsf] k"0f{tf • ;Demf}tfx¿sf] sfg"gL ;anLs/0f • crn ;DklQsf] laqmLdf lgofds cj/f]w #= c;n d'b'b|f|fdflysf] kx'F'Fr • d'b|f k|;f/ • d'b|f:kmLltsf] dfgs ljrng • ljut s]xL aif{sf] d'b|f:kmLlt • ljb]zL d'b|fo'Qm a}+s vftfdfly kx'Frsf] :jtGqtf $= cGt/f{l{li6«o Jofkf/sf] :jtGqtf • cGt/f{li6«o Jofkf/df s/ Jofkf/dflysf] s/af6 k|fKt /fh:j • a:t'sf] cfoft tyf lgof{t s/ b/sf] dWos • a:t'sf] cfoft tyf lgof{t s/ b/sf] dfgs ljrng • Jofkf/df lgofds afwfx¿ • u}/s/d"ns Jofkf/ cj/f]w • cfoft tyf lgof{tdf lgwf{l/t nfut • cfzfcg"¿ksf] Jofkf/ If]qsf] cfsf/ • sfnf] ahf/sf] ljlgdo b/ • cGt/f{li6«o k"FhLahf/sf] lgoGq0f • j}b]lzs :jfldTj ÷ nufgLdflysf] cj/f]w • k"FhLsf] lgoGq0f %= shf{, >d / Jofkf/sf] lgodg • shf{ ahf/sf] lgodg _ a}+ssf] :jfldTj _ ljb]zL a}+s;Fusf] k|lt:kwf{ _ lghL If]qsf] e/f];f _ Jofhb/df lgoGq0f÷gsf/fTds jf:tljs Jofhb/ • >dahf/sf] lgodg _ Go"gtd Hofnf / lgo'lQmsf] lgodg _ lgo'lQm / lgsfnfsf] Joj:yf _ s]Gb|Ls[t ;fd"lxs ;f}bfafhL sfo{;dosf] lgodg _ sfdbf/sf] lgisf;gdf lglZrt pkbfgsf] Joj:yf _ /fi6«;]jfsf] clgjfo{tf
  • 8. Political Economic Digest Series 4 Samriddhi, The Prosperity Foundation 8 • Jofkf/ lgodg _ d"No lgoGq0f _ k|zf;lgs _ k"jf{jZostfx¿ _ sd{rf/LtGqsf] vr{ _ Jofkf/sf] cf/De _ 3';vf]/L _ Ohfhtdf cj/f]w _ s/sf] k"j{lgwf{l/t d"No
  • 9. Political Economic Digest Series 4 Samriddhi, The Prosperity Foundation 9
  • 10. Political Economic Digest Series 4 Samriddhi, The Prosperity Foundation 10 ljZjsf] cfly{s :jtGqtf ;"rsfªsdf g]kfn ;g @)!) ;Dd cfOk'Ubf k|m]h/ k|lti7fgn] ljZjsf] cfly{sf :jtGqtf k|ltj]bg k|sfzg ug{ k|f/De u/]sf] tL; aif{ k'/f ePsf] 5 . o; k|lti7fgn] ;+;f/sf w]/} b]zx¿sf] cfly{s :jtGqtfsf] dfkg / To;sf] k|ltj]bg k|sfzg ug]{ qmd;Fu} g]kfnsf] cfly{s :jtGqtfsf] dfkg / cGo b]zx¿sf t'ngfdf g]kfnsf] qmd lgwf{/0f ug]{ sfo{ klg k|f/De u¥of] . ljZjsf] cfly{s :jtGqtf dfkg cf/De ePsf] kGw| aif{kl5 dfq g]kfndf klg o; sfo{n] k|j]z kfPsf] lyof] . g]kfndf cfly{s :jtGqtf ljZjsf] cfly{s :jtGqtf ;"rsfªssf] dfkg / k|sfzgsf] qmd;Fu} xfn;Dd g]kfndf cfly{s :jtGqtfsf] tx / ljZje/sf b]zx¿dWo] g]kfnsf] :yfgnfO{ lgDglnlvt tflnsfdf k|:t't ul/Psf] 5M aif{ -O:jL ;gdf_ ;"rsfªs g]kfnsf] :yfg b]zx¿sf] s"n ;+Vof !(&) ) b]lv !) ;Dd – – !(&% – – !(*) %=* #* !)% !(*% %=$ ^! !!! !(() %=# ^@ !!# !((% %=# *$ !@# @))) %=* (% !@# @))! %=& (^ !@# @))@ %=& !)) !@# @))# %=# !!# !@& @))$ %=# !!& !#)
  • 11. Political Economic Digest Series 4 Samriddhi, The Prosperity Foundation 11 @))% %=^ !@# !$! @))^ %=$ !@* !$! @))& %=%* !@( !$! @))* %=%$ !@% !$! l6Kk0fLM k|m]h/ k|lti7fgn] k|sfzg ug]{ ljZjsf] cfly{s :jtGqtf k|ltj]bg b'O{ jif{k5fl8 dfq k|sfzg ul/g] x'gfn] ;g @))( / @)!) sf] hfgsf/L oxfF ;d]6g ;lsPsf] 5}g . ljutsf] tYofªsnfO{ x]bf{ ljZjsf] cfly{s :jtGqtfsf] :t/ lgwf{/0fdf g]kfnsf] :yfgdf s]xL ;'wf/ cfPsf] b]lvG5 . kl5Nnf] b'O{ aif{sf] tYofªssf] k|j[lQ x]bf{ o; aif{ cfly{s :jtGqtf ePsf b]zx¿sf] :yfglgwf{/0fdf g]kfnsf] :yfg ljutsf] t'ngfdf s]xL dfly plSnPsf] 5 . ;g @))& sf] k|ltj]bgdf %=%* cªs;lxt !@(cf}+ :yfgdf /x]sf] g]kfn ;g @))* df cfpFbf cfly{s :jtGqtfsf] dfkg ul/Psf !$! b]zx¿dWo] %=%$ cªs xfl;n ub}{ rf/ :yfg dfly pSnFb} !@%cf}+ :yfgdf /xg ;kmn ePsf] 5 . o4lk, of] :yfg pSng] sf/0f eg] g]kfndf cfly{s :jtGqtfsf] txdf j[l4 ePsf sf/0fn] geP/ cGo b]zx¿df cfly{s :jtGqtfsf] txdf cfPsf] sdL / To;n] ubf{ tL b]]zx¿n] kfpg] cÍdf ePsf] x|f;n] ubf{ g} xf] . g]kfnsf] cfly{s :jtGqtf ;"rsfªs ;g @))& sf] %=^* cªsaf6 36]/ %=%$ cªs x'g cfPsf] 5 . g]kfn cem} klg ljZjdf cfly{s :jtGqtf cToGt sd ePsf] d'n'sdf g} ulgG5 .
  • 12. Political Economic Digest Series 4 Samriddhi, The Prosperity Foundation 12 Nepal in the Economic Freedom Report 2010 The “Economic Freedom of the World 2010 Annual Report” released by Fraser Institute, a leading think tank of Canada, portrays a miserable picture of economic freedom in Nepal. Nepal with a score of 5.34 ranks 125th out of the 141 countries where the study was undertaken. Nepal continues to be one of the least economically free countries in the world and is among the very few countries whose degree of economic freedom has actually decreased in the last 30 years despite the fact that majority of the world in the same period was moving towards more economic freedom. The dismal portrayal shouldn’t come as a surprise to us as we are quite aware of the situation of our economy which is really at its knees. Our hopes of a prosperous future are bleaker than ever. Being in the after math of a decade long civil war combined with growing political instability and insecurity, increasing impunity and corruption, power crisis and government intervention continue to torment our economy. The pathetic state of our economy is related to the low degree of economic freedom in the country. Economic freedom which is described as the situation where the people of a country are free to trade with others, compete in the markets, buy what they want, earn a living in a job they choose, keep what they earn, own things privately and securely is considered the primary factor deciding whether a country gets prosperous or not. Higher degree of economic freedom has been found to result in higher level of economic growth, lower corruption, higher life expectancy, higher living standard and higher income of the poorest 10 percent. This year’s report also includes a study relating higher degree of economic freedom to lower unemployment and homicide rates. Though Nepalese enjoy a considerable amount of civil and political freedom, our economic freedom continues to be severely curtailed due to defunct policies. The situation is the outcome of the fact that though countless fights of freedom were fought in the past 60 years with new agendas every time, economic freedom was never an agenda of those movements and until and unless the fight for economic freedom is fought, our dreams of prosperity will remain as elusive as ever. Among the five major components of economic freedom , Nepal scores 6.20 out of 10 in size of the government, 3.51 in legal structures and property rights, 6.36 in the access to sound money, 5 in freedom to trade internationally and 6.16 in regulation of credit, labor and business. Size of the government refers to the portion of the economy that’s covered by government spending. When government role in the economy increases relative to the role of individuals, households and businesses, government decision-making is substituted for personal choice and the economic freedom is curtailed. Nepal could improve its score by privatizing or shutting down the state run enterprises like Janakpur Cigarette Industry, Dairy Development Corporation, Nepal Airlines, Nepal Oil Corporation which are doing more harm than good. As private sector is fully capable of handling these sectors, there is no sense in continuing these enterprises incurring ever increasing losses every year. The government should also work towards decreasing tax rates as high tax rates prevent people from keeping what they earn.
  • 13. Political Economic Digest Series 4 Samriddhi, The Prosperity Foundation 13 Legal structures and property rights, is the sector Nepal has been performing worst in. Nepal could improve its situation by making court procedures faster and more efficient, removing political influence during appointment of judges and setting up separate commercial courts for business related cases. Scrapping anti-property rights laws like land ceiling laws, eminent domain without compensation that promoted insecurity among people and discourages them to own properties legally should also be scrapped. State shouldn’t continue to tolerate criminal activities like extortion, theft and kidnappings. Controlling inflation is a primary factor in increasing access to sound money. The government should also adhere to fiscal discipline by controlling the high rates of monetary growth which stands at 9.32 percent currently. Nepal still remains among the few countries whose citizens can’t own foreign currencies. Freeing the central bank from political influence can be a major step towards promoting fiscal discipline. Nepal’s average tariff rate for international trade stands at a whooping 12.7 percent which has to be reduced to promote free trade. As free trade is now universally considered to promote economic growth and raise living standards of people across the globe, there is no reason on why Nepal should keep following protectionist policies and impoverishing the populace. Another factor that’s severely curtailing Nepal’s economic freedom is the policies that are hostile to foreign investment. Nepal’s score in allowing foreign investment is 3.87 out of 10 which is very unfortunate when our neighboring countries are clamoring for more foreign investment. Foreign ownership and investment should be allowed and encouraged as it promotes technological innovation and capital accumulation which are critical for economic growth. According to World Bank’s “Doing Business Report”, an entrepreneur in Nepal, on an average, should go through 7 steps, spend 31 days and 53.6 percent of per capita income to start a business which is incredibly costly as in economically free countries the same job can be done within a couple of days with lesser cost. There are even examples of countries like Rwanda which in an effort to create business friendly environment have brought down the time needed to register a business to a single day. Besides these, Nepal could reduce the hiring and minimum wage regulations. Nepal remains among the few countries where firing an employee is next to impossible. Such trends drive up the cost of doing business and make enterprises inefficient. Reducing the regulations for hiring and firing the employees can help to make Nepalese enterprises more efficient. These small steps could embark Nepal on the path of economic freedom along which various countries like Hong Kong, Singapore, Estonia, Botswana, New Zealand, and India have travelled to achieve prosperity. At a time as this when every Nepalese is wondering if a miracle is the only thing that could save us now, economic freedom could be the answer to our prayers. Economic Freedom of the World 2010 Annual Report can be a reality check for us and the small steps mentioned here in the article can gradually lead Nepal into being an economically free nation. -Surath Giri www.surathgiri.com
  • 14. Political Economic Digest Series 4 Samriddhi, The Prosperity Foundation 14 Questions to think about: Do you agree that economic freedom is essential for the development of any country? Had you heard about “Economic Freedom” before? If not, do you think people ought to hear more about it? How could we do that? Nepal performs the worst in freedom from corruption, investment freedom and labor freedom among the components of economic freedom. Nepal is considered one among the countries that have the highest level of corruption, lowest foreign investment, and where firing an inefficient, incompetent worker is next to impossible? Do you agree with it? What can be done to improve the scenario? Despite many revolutions and people’s movements, Nepal’e economy continues to perform poorly. One of the reasons may be not having economic agedas in the revolutions (only political agendas). What do you think? India started growing rapidly after it liberalized its economy during early 1990s and China after it liberalized its economy during late 1970s and early 1980s. Both contries continues to liberalize further and make more economic reforms. Our politicians, however, still eulogize the virtues of central planning and there is a hostile attitude towards liberalization of our economy. Why are our leaders or so called intellectuals not learning from these countries at all?