NANOPARTICLES FOR MAGNETIC
RESONANCE IMAGING
INTRODUCTION
Nanotechnology emerged as a
multidisciplinary research.
understanding and manipulating materials by
con...
 Nanotechnologies are joined by intense
development of imaging modalities to assist
with disease detection.
 Molecula...
NANOPARTICLES IN MOLECULAR IMAGING
Many applications aimed at diagnosis or treatment of
cancer.
 Various types of nan...
Metallic nanoparticles possess immense
potential as X-ray contrast imaging agents
owing to their potent X-ray absorption...
GOLD NANOPARTICLES IN BIOMEDICAL
IMAGING (COMPUTER TOMOGRAPHY)
Hainfeld demonstrated
the use of gold
nanoparticles as ...
Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) was
selectively targeted with gold nanorods with
conjugated UM-A9 antibodies.
Methodology...
3. Antibody-coated gold rods were then mixed
with the cancer cell suspension.
(incubated for 1.5hour)
4. washed and red...
7. Non-targeted nanorods, non-cancerous cells
(normal fibroblast cells) and other cancerous
cells (melanoma) showed an a...
QUANTUM DOTS IN BIOMEDICAL IMAGING
Quantum dots are
increasingly used as
fluorophores for in
vivofluorescence imaging....
Gao recently developed a QD-based contrast
agent for brain imaging.
The agent was based on surface
modification of QDs ...
IRON OXIDE NANOPARTICLES IN BIOMEDICAL
IMAGING (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING)
MRI is based on the behavior,
alignment and...
MRI has been used extensively to study the
migration of cells (cellular trafficking) with
magnetic nanoparticle probes. ...
Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles used for
ultrasensitive molecular imaging .
Engineered nanoparticles that possess high...
CARBON NANOTUBES FOR BIOMEDICAL
IMAGING
Applications of CNTs in
biomedical imaging have
recently emerged and are
rapi...
Surface functionalized
CNTs (f-CNTs) can form
supramolecular
complexes with
biological
macromolecules and
substrates...
DENDRIMERS IN BIOMEDICAL IMAGING
Dendrimers are well-defined,
highly branched
molecules that are
synthesized with prec...
Magnevist is a commonly used contrast
agent for MRI, although rapid clearance and
nonspecificity hinders its utility.
M...
MISCELLANEOUS NANOPARTICLES EMERGING
IN MOLECULAR IMAGING
Polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles
Calcium phosphate nanop...
THANK YOU
BY
REENA ESTHER. B
14MBT109
M.PHILL (BIOTECHNOLOGY)
ST.JOSEPHS’ COLLEGE
TRICHY.
of 20

Nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging

Nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Science      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging

  • 1. NANOPARTICLES FOR MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
  • 2. INTRODUCTION Nanotechnology emerged as a multidisciplinary research. understanding and manipulating materials by converging concepts from engineering, chemistry, biology, medicine and others. National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), nanoparticles have a diameter ranging from 1 to 100 nm naturally occurring nanoparticles such as viruses.
  • 3.  Nanotechnologies are joined by intense development of imaging modalities to assist with disease detection.  Molecular imaging refers to the development of molecular probes for the visualization of the cellular function, characterization and the measurement of molecular processes in living organisms at the cellular and molecular level without perturbing them .  The use of engineered Nanoparticles in biological investigations has increased exponentially in the last 5 years for a variety of reasons.
  • 4. NANOPARTICLES IN MOLECULAR IMAGING Many applications aimed at diagnosis or treatment of cancer.  Various types of nanoparticle are now under investigation  Solid Lipid Nanoparticles,  Liposome,  Micelles,  Nanotubes,  Metallic Nanoparticles.  Quantum dots,  Dendrimers,  Polymeric Nanoparticles and Iodinated Nanoparticles.
  • 5. Metallic nanoparticles possess immense potential as X-ray contrast imaging agents owing to their potent X-ray absorption and low toxicity profiles observed over short durations in animals. Gold nanoparticles have gained significant attention owing to the potential biocompatibility, relatively low short-term toxicity, and high absorption coefficient and physical density compared with iodine. Therefore, there is a significant demand for the synthesis of these types of nanoparticles.
  • 6. GOLD NANOPARTICLES IN BIOMEDICAL IMAGING (COMPUTER TOMOGRAPHY) Hainfeld demonstrated the use of gold nanoparticles as an X-ray CT contrast agent to detect tumors in mice . Popovtzer , however, demonstrated the use of gold nanoparticles as target-specific agents to detect head and neck cancer.
  • 7. Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) was selectively targeted with gold nanorods with conjugated UM-A9 antibodies. Methodology 1. Gold nanorods were synthesized by the method of Nikoobakht and El-Sayed. 2. UM-A9 antibody was conjugated to polyacrylic acid (PAA) adsorbed to the gold nanorods.
  • 8. 3. Antibody-coated gold rods were then mixed with the cancer cell suspension. (incubated for 1.5hour) 4. washed and redispersed. 5. CT scans were obtained using a clinical CT. 6. The A9-antibody-coated gold nanorods targeted the SCC cells and showed an increased attenuation coefficient (ΔHU; 168 – 170)
  • 9. 7. Non-targeted nanorods, non-cancerous cells (normal fibroblast cells) and other cancerous cells (melanoma) showed an attenuation coefficient (ΔHU; 28 – 32) [Note: The increased X-ray attenuation in targeted SCC cells compared with normal cells substantiates the basic premise for the development of molecular X-ray CT imaging agents]
  • 10. QUANTUM DOTS IN BIOMEDICAL IMAGING Quantum dots are increasingly used as fluorophores for in vivofluorescence imaging. Gao recently described the development of multifunctional nanoparticle probes based on QDs for in vivoimaging of human prostate cancer in mice.
  • 11. Gao recently developed a QD-based contrast agent for brain imaging. The agent was based on surface modification of QDs using poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid), which was then functionalized with wheat germ agglutinin. The QD-based imaging agent was delivered to the brain by means of intranasal administration. The QDs accumulated in the brain for > 4 h and were cleared 8 h after administration.
  • 12. IRON OXIDE NANOPARTICLES IN BIOMEDICAL IMAGING (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING) MRI is based on the behavior, alignment and interaction of protons in the presence of an applied magnetic field Several nanoparticles have been developed to improve contrast in MRI imaging. A significant benefit associated with iron oxide nanoparticles is their biocompatibility, and ready detection at moderate concentrations.
  • 13. MRI has been used extensively to study the migration of cells (cellular trafficking) with magnetic nanoparticle probes. Xie synthesized ultra-small iron oxide nanoparticles (USPION) for specific targeting to integrin αvβ3-rich tumor cells. Huh and co-workers developed well-defined iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with Herceptin to image breast cancers by MRI. Herceptin binds specifically to the HER2/neu receptor, which is over expressed in some breast cancer cells.
  • 14. Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles used for ultrasensitive molecular imaging . Engineered nanoparticles that possess high and tunable magnetism offer improved sensitivity and lower dosing compared with conventional iron oxide contrast agents. SPIONs have a high saturation magnetization and loss of magnetization in the absence of magnetic field, and these nanoparticles are perceived to be relatively less toxic than optical imaging agents.
  • 15. CARBON NANOTUBES FOR BIOMEDICAL IMAGING Applications of CNTs in biomedical imaging have recently emerged and are rapidly expanding. A few bioimaging applications using CNTs have been developed for cancer cell destruction, detection and dynamic imaging.
  • 16. Surface functionalized CNTs (f-CNTs) can form supramolecular complexes with biological macromolecules and substrates based on electrostatic interactions.
  • 17. DENDRIMERS IN BIOMEDICAL IMAGING Dendrimers are well-defined, highly branched molecules that are synthesized with precise structural control and low polydispersity. Tunable variation in size, the availability of a large number of reactive sites, and interior void space make dendrimers promising particulate systems for biomedical applications .
  • 18. Magnevist is a commonly used contrast agent for MRI, although rapid clearance and nonspecificity hinders its utility. MRI studies revealed that the PAMAM-G5-FA dendrimer binds specifically to xenograft tumors established with human epithelial cancer cells that over expressed folate receptor. Significant signal enhancement was observed in tumors when compared with non-targeted PAMAM-G5
  • 19. MISCELLANEOUS NANOPARTICLES EMERGING IN MOLECULAR IMAGING Polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles Calcium phosphate nanoparticles Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles Lipid-based nanoparticles
  • 20. THANK YOU BY REENA ESTHER. B 14MBT109 M.PHILL (BIOTECHNOLOGY) ST.JOSEPHS’ COLLEGE TRICHY.

Related Documents