Developing Country Studies www.iiste.orgISSN...
Developing Country Studies www.iiste.orgISSN ...
Developing Country Studies www.iiste.orgISSN ...
Developing Country Studies www.iiste.orgISSN...
Developing Country Studies www.iiste.org...
Developing Country Studies www.iiste.orgISS...
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Developing Country Studies www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-607X...
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Political sacramental and leadership non performance in africa the synergy版

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  • 1. Developing Country Studies www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-607X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0565 (Online) 0565Vol 2, No.7, 2012Political Sacramental and Leadership Non Performance in Africa: cramental The Synergy Dr. Frank-Collins N. Okafor Senior Lecturer, Department of Political Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. Email: Fcollins67@yahoo.comAbstractOver the years, African leaders have been publicly identified with some actions suggestive of mysticinvolvements in leadership. While some have claimed and played god, others carry themselves as specialcreatures on salvafic mission. Thus, often times, various objects serve as political sacramental manifestation oftheir links to the esoteric which instill pauperizing psychosomatic fears in the minds of the citizenry. Althoughthese acts boost the courage of the holder and superficially fortify his grip on power, they estrange and mysti mystifyleadership just as they serve as forerunners to non performance. From the noble and ancient throne of HaileSalesie to the brutal legacies of Bokassa and Mobutu, etc, the situation has been the same to the detriment of thecontinent. This paper therefore, examines critically, the role of this miasmic situation in the pauperization and e,impoverishment of Africans by their leaders. It identifies the relationship between this situation and badgovernance and argues within the conceptual benefits of myths and experiences in leadership, the impact of thesituation in terms of the linkage between the two realities in the leadership styles in the continent. It concludesthat so long as leadership continues to be mystified in Africa that democracy and its dividen remain a mirage dividendsand opts for a simple, demystified effective leadership in democratic Africa.Keywords: Political Sacramental, Leadership, Mythology, Non Performance, Symbols.1 IntroductionLeadership, like other professions has it own peculiarities. In this peculiar oddness lies the desire to make and peculiarities.create a niche as it sits in control and judgment of the affairs of men. This desire to be different has often servedas inspiration to generate unique postures, disposition, pattern, symbols or insignia that distinguish it from others insigniain the same world of political peculiarities. Some of these may also be mythically, cryptically or spirituallyrooted but in the eyes of the ordinary, are mere colourful paraphernalia of leadership. The essence of symbols in political leadership is legendry and represents most often, an outward lsrepresentation of the leader’s inner intention. They go with the expression, aspiration and the dreams of theoriginator or holder. They could be seen as political sacramental representing outward sign of inward disposition resenting(grace) of the holder. Political sacramental may come in the forms of special regalia, images, symbols, signs ormyths that are strictly peculiar to individual leader and which, in some cases, may also be occult To the Bahá’í occultic.faith: A symbol is opaque until it is understood. For the one to whom the symbol makes inspirational sense, the symbol is translucent, at once a way of looking at present reality, and at the same time affording a glimpse of the potential future, of a possible collective scenario, of the ideal, real (and) the translucent shadows of the spiritual world. These symbols take on a life of their own in the inner world of spiritual consciousness ( (Buck, 1998). In the light of the above, an occultic magical symbol is an ‘image which hides an inner meaning. Thus,meaning is usually cunningly hidden behind a form’ (Goodman, 1989). Occultists the world over believe that,once a symbol is created, it acquires power of its own and more powers is generated when symbols are createdwithout the profane (uninitiated) knowing about it. A symbol or set of symbols possesses inherent power oncethey are created. Therefore occultist doctrine teaches that these symbols would act as a powerful electric electric-gridonce they were set in place or injected into political leadership. Therefore, as they come in different forms,political sacramental also come with varied meanings depending on the personal or collective intentions of theuser or users. Few examples are relevant he here: The Star of David which is the interlaced triangles variously used by Jewish leaders before it was lateradopted as national symbol by the Jewish state of Israel represents the inseparable unity of spirit and matter. Onetriangle points down, toward the physical world, and the other points up, toward the spiritual world. The hexagram eshape formed by their intersection is the union of spirit and matter. In Ghana, t two-Headed Crocodile is a unity Headedsymbol. In it, two headed crocodile fights itself over food that goes to a common stomach. One head is at the top ofthe image, and the other is at the far left. The shared stomach is the center of the image. This symbol stresses the 53
  • 2. Developing Country Studies www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-607X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0565 (Online) 0565Vol 2, No.7, 2012oneness of humanity in spite of cultural diversity. It also emphasizes the need for unity in the family or state. K forNkonsonkonson is an African symbol that represents the chain of humanity in life and death, sharing one blood. Itstands for unity, responsibility, and interdependence (Conley, 2004) etc. It is an explicable fact that the ideabehind the use of these is to communicate and maintain, in one way or the other, an overriding influence andcontrol on the beholder who is often carried away by the opulent generosity of collective sense of belongingwhich, according to Hackman and Johnson (in Vickrey, 1998), is possible because communication is based on Johnsonthe transfer of symbols. This transfer allows for creation of meaning within individuals. Thus, Vickrey (1998)concludes that viewing leadership as communication and perceiving the currency of its realm to be symbolic rrencyinteraction have important ramifications for leaders and those people they seek to lead. African leaders understood this and had used them even in the pure traditional era. King Njoya, for example,elevated and amplified his leadership. The royal imagery incorporates varied power symbols such as spiders anddouble edged snakes (Wadworth, n,d). Those of Shaka Zulu are still evergreen. Contemporary leaders usemythical leadership symbols for one political reason or the other. The names come as the symbols are varied: other.Emperor Haile Salesie had ‘the Lion of Judah’ as a significant leadership insignia of his invincibility and power.Idi Amin Dada of Uganda used a mythical swagger stick, a kilt and tartan forage cap while Nigeri Ironsi had a Nigeria’sCrocodile swagger. The story is the same for Mobutu Sese Seku of Zaire (now Democratic Republic of Congo),Jean-Bede Bokassa of Central Africa Republic, Milton Obote of Uganda, kamuzu Banda of Malawi, and Omar BedeAl-Bashir of Sudan etc. It is interesting to note that at times this leadership political sacramental do not originate from theleadership itself but the led. Out of their collective awe for the leaders, people could come up with onemystic-related story or the other about them. For example, Dr Nnamdi Azikiwe, former President of Nigeria was related Forat a time said to be immortal and invincible which did not exclude the power to appear and disappear at will. Hehad the power of advance knowledge too with which he escaped persistent attempts by the colonialists to killhim. He was also credited as the custodian of the proverbial key to the River Niger. However, it should be statedthat not all symbols used by political leaders could be regarded as political sacramental but those used forpolitical supposes. The problematic does not lie in the use of these sacramental by African leaders (which sometimes arebeautiful to behold) but the role they have played in one way or the other in the impoverishment andunderdevelopment of Africa. This is because some of these leaders adopted this strategy following their desire to becausecreate some myths around their leaderships as well as instill spiritual and physical fears in the minds of thepeople, after all, ‘Leadership (indeed) is persuasion (Hogan et al 1994). And how does one seek to persuade - to 94).influence others without resorting to coercion or, say, extrasensory perception? There is but one way to do so:symbolic interaction (Vickrey, 1998). 2. African Leaders and Political SacramentalWhile it could be said that the use of mythology and symbols is not new within the circle of African traditionalleadership, one can boldly add that their use in contemporary times runs short of their significance in ancientdays. For example, Shaka Zulu, the great warrior and leader of the Zulu kingdom always had spiritualists around warriorhim. He had great and wide-spread myth about his military exploits made possible to a great extent by his spreadmythically intimidating traditional regalia. The difference today is that while Shaka’s was aimed at perpetual Shaka’sintimidation of his enemies and visitors, contemporary political sacramental are instruments of terror, grip andpauperization of innocent people. The experience is both ancient and modern. Haile Selassie was the Emperor ofEthiopia. On November 2nd, 1930: He was crowned King of Kings, Lord of Lords, Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, Elect of God and Power of the Trinity in the eyes of the 72 nations of this world bowing down to His Imperial Majesty. Rastas hold that Selassie was a direct descendant of the Israelite Tribe of Judah through the lineage of King David and Solomon, and that he was also the Lion of Judah mentioned in the Book of Revelation. In heeding to the above assertions, the emperor adopted the lion as his leadership sacramental and was said leadershipto have lived with a live one in his palace as a physical manifestation of his spiritual link to the tribe of David,dynasty of Solomon and his invincibility. Thus, Selassie was revered to the point of worship by the people. Hewas god to the Rastafarians. His name was not mentioned with impunity. It was said that at the time of hisoverthrow, the live lion disappeared with him and has never returned. If Salesie’s case was expository, the caseof the Leopard King of Zaire (now Democratic Republic of Congo), Mobutu Sese Seku, is captivating. Mobutu, w‘Actor and Director of his destiny’ espoused an ideology he named authenticite based on the notion of thesuperiority of ‘authentic’ African traditions in which he portrayed himself as a traditional chief (Mobutuism).Along with his trademark, leopard skin cap, Mobutu always used a wooden walking stick and a carved eagle, a 54
  • 3. Developing Country Studies www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-607X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0565 (Online) 0565Vol 2, No.7, 2012symbol of power that allegedly took the strength of eight normal men to carry (Thismeansnothing, 2002). The (Thismeansnothing‘Rock Emperor’ deified himself and played god. According to his former Information Minister, Sakombi ck .Inongo: I took the picture of Mobutu and put it in the clouds and before every TV news broadcast, Mobutu emerged from the clouds like god. Children thought he was god since he came out of the clouds (Inongo, in Thierry, n.d ). His claim to a god became manifest when he banned the use of Christian and European names and westernattires in his country and changed his name from Joseph Desire Mobutu to Mobutu Sese Seku Kuku Ngbendu wa SeseZabanga. As god, he cherished songs and praises as he went about doing political good. His ‘godness’ was alsopublicly sung. While sitting on gold plated wooden throne with his legs on a spread Leopard skin, Mobutu gold-platedlistened with smiles as people called him a creator. He never objected. Mobutu also established a massive les .personality cult and assumed such titles as "Messiah," "Father of the Nation," "Second Hero," "Mulopwe"("emperor" or "god-king"), etc. Images of him were everywhere, pronouns referring to Him in government press king"),releases were capitalized; his mother was compared to the Virgin Mary and he to Jesus ( (Latimer, 2006). It wastotal madness. Jean-Bede Bokassa of Central African Republic was another revealing case in leadershi Bede leadershipmystification. He saw himself as demi god, married seventeen wives, converted back and forth from Islam to demi-god,Christianity, and had an extra-long military jacket tailored to accommodate all the various medals he awarded longhimself. That was not enough. To the astonishment of even his most dedicated sycophants, he decided to declarehimself “Emperor Bokassa I,” and changed the name of his landlocked nation to the Central African Empire tosuit his new title. He had himself crowned Emperor on December 4, 1977 in a spectacle that cost about a third ofthe nation’s gross national product. Hundreds of mango trees that had lined Bangui’s wide avenues were cutdown to better accommodate the imperial procession, and a good portion of the capital’s population wascompelled to march behind a train of white horses imported from Belgium, pulling an antique Coach decorated edwith golden eagles. Inside the Coach was the new Emperor Bokassa, almost lost within a 32 pound coronation robe with 2 32-poundmillion tiny pearls and crystal beads sewn into the fabric. Atop his head was a crown that cost $2 million, with a sdoorknob-sized 138-carat diamond as centerpiece. It was an appropriate symbol, for diamonds had helped keep carathim in power (Zoellnerjeeps, 2006). The flamboyant but tyrannical Idi Amin Dada of Uganda represents asymbolic leadership in absolute negativity. By most accounts, an illiterate and gluttonous buffoon, Amin hadbecome the subject of many bizarre rumours and myths. There were stories of cannibalism, of feeding thecorpses of his victims to crocodiles, of keeping severed heads in a freezer at his home and bringing them out on foccasions for "talks" - most or all of which are unsubstantiated, but not necessarily untrue (Moreorless, 2007).He was addressed to as ‘His Excellency, President for Life, Field Marshall al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin Dada’(Wikipedia, 2009). He went further by: declaring himself Emperor of Uganda and awarded himself the VC (Victorious Cross) and CBE (Conqueror of the British Empire). He also styled himself “the last king of Scotland”. He wore a kilt “the and tartan forage cap, symbols of a love affair with Scotland that began when Willie Cochrane, Pipe Major of the King’s African Rifles, taught Amin to play the bagpipes (Judd, 2003). He was also popularly referred to as Big Daddy, a.k.a Butcher of Africa, Conqueror of the British Empire,Lord of All the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea’. Determined to make Uganda "a blackmans country",Amin in 1972, expelled the countrys 40,000 40,000-80,000 Indians and Pakistanis in the closing months of the year,reportedly after receiving a message from God during a dream (Moreorless, 2007). Amin’s swagger stick and thekilt and tartan forage cap became a rallying point in Kampala as children and the old tried imitatin him in their imitatingattires and behaviors. He was regarded as a national hero and true Pan-Africanist. As Idi Amin went about .re-enslaving his own people, his leadership sacramental and 300 pounds body became ‘symbols of nationalism enslavingand Uganda’s liberation’. ‘The God of Guinea’, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo represents another study in heleadership mythology and symbol usage. Obiang, as he was popularly called, was a man of contradictions, withfeelings about him completely mixed. He was an enigma who refused to accept the dignity and kingship of God acceptexcept his. Through his political manipulations of calmness and soft spokenness he sold and forced his dreams soft-spokennessof becoming god to his people and succeeded eventually. In July 2003 the state radio station announced thatObiang was: the God of Equatorial Guinea" and that he now enjoyed the right to "decide to kill without having to give anyone an account and without going to hell". Despite his reputation as a brutal leader that rules with an iron hand, he is very soft soft-spoken and not prone to public displays of anger; he is extremely ken in control of his person and patient. His mode of dressing is typically very businesslike and professional for official matter… (www.dictatorofthemonth.com) 55
  • 4. Developing Country Studies www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-607X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0565 (Online) 0565Vol 2, No.7, 2012 The Life President of Malawi, Ngwazi Dr. Hastings Kamuzu Banda was also part of the African leaders thatmystified leadership while lording it over his own people. The title of Ngwazi means ‘Great Lion or Conqueror’and created a peculiar image by his English English-style three-piece suits, matching handkerchiefs and fly piece fly-whisk.Within Malawi, views on him ranged from a cult like devotion to fear. His government according to Wikipedia cult-like(2007) was rigidly authoritarian, even by African standards of the time. Banda was the subject of a very time.pervasive cult of personality. Every business building was required to have an official picture of Banda hangingon the wall, and no poster, clock or picture could be higher than his picture. Before every movie, a video ofBanda waving to the people was shown while the anthem played. When Banda visited a city, a contingent ofwomen was expected to greet him at the airport and dance for him. A special cloth, bearing the president’spicture, was the required attire for those performances. The case of the young Yahya Jammeh of the Gambia is thosenot different. He was also accused of the use of voodoo in leadership with which he is able to control his subjects.He dresses in immaculate Wollof attires, claims to be a messenger of Allah and goes around with his Quran and AllahRosary. Jammeh, in his usual claim to some divine powers boasted that he has cure for AIDS with the miracleconcoction of green paste, bitter drink and bananas. An incident in one of his outings is worth reporting: From the pockets of his billowing white robe, Gambia’s President pulls out a plastic container, rom closes his eyes in prayer and rubs a green herbal paste onto the rib cage of the patient — a concoction he claims is a cure for AIDS. He then orders the thin man to swallow a bitter yellow drink, followed by two bananas (MSNBC, 2007). Jammeh sponsors the Futampaf which is a cultural cum spiritual ceremony in the country. In 2008 forexample, he attended and was the one that ‘anointed the Chief Priest of the ceremony, performed the important ceremony,ceremony of praying for and pouring libation (water) on the Chief Priest and the initiates "to appease theancestral spirits and protect the initiates’ (Halake, 2008). According to Chris (2011), the case of late MyanmarGaddafi of Libya is also a very serious one. In his 42 years in power he was so used to ‘swanky Louis Vuittonsunglasses’. Like many potentates, Gaddafi was fond of ostentatious ornamentation. Gaddafi’s grandioserazzle-dazzle was used to awe and impress his own population and convince foreign powers of his dominance dazzle populationover that same population. When in vibrantly-coloured traditional dress, he affected the well off Man of the People image coloured well-off beloved of all dictators who prefer not to look at their real oppressive selves in the mirror. In military garb, he saw himself as a Strong Man, able to exert his will over others. And when in more Western – if eccentric – garb, Gaddafi fancied himself an Independently Minded World Statesman with Independently-Minded pretensions of influencing the Great Powers of the globe (Chris, 2011:1).The list of leaders with political leadership myths cannot be exhausted here.3. Political Sacramental and the Quandary of Leadership Failure In Africa Political Sacramental or Leadership mythology can play significant role in the leadership of a nation.While some of these sacramental may be spiritual, others could be physical. Empirical evidence suggests that theseobjects and the rituals inherent in their acquisition and maintenance have played significant role in th failure of theleadership and underdevelopment of the African continent. Over emphasis becomes irrelevant on the overbearing Over-emphasisopportunities, protection and control they provide the leaders as they engage in the enslavement enterprise andplundering spree of the continent. The excruciating grips of dictatorship and sit-tightism prevalent in Africa cannot hebe divorced from the reality of political sacramental. They instill physical fear in the minds of the people and .disarm them against possible revolts or disobedience. For example, the timely adoption of the Leopard skin by disobedience.Mobutu sent an intimidating message to all and sundry that he had the Leopard’s heart in him, especially at a timehe felt that possible opposition was likely if left unchecked. Hearing one of his compatriots here in reference to him ofis really interesting: The leopard never attacks head on as a rule. It does rely on physical force. At times people are head-on working and the leopard is in the trees. He jumps on you from there. He has a treacherous nat nature. He knows how to manipulate human feeling like a man; he speaks like a man but he is a wild animal, a cat. And that will enable him to stay in power for a long time (Mukende in Thierry, n.d) The meaning of his new name was also symbolic. He was born Joseph Desire Mobutu but changed it to Joseph‘Mobutu Sese Seku Kuku Ngbendu wa Zabanga’ meaning "the all powerful warrior who, because of his all-powerfulendurance and inflexible will to win, goes from conquest to conquest, leaving fire in his wake". He declaredpublicly when confronted with the danger of possible opposition that ‘there is no opposition. We need no nopposition. We are Bantus. We are not a world of opposition’ (Mobutu in Thierry, n.d). The implication of thesesymbolic adoptions is that the people are forced to accept whatever the leader does bearing in mind theconsequences of disagreements. 56
  • 5. Developing Country Studies www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-607X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0565 (Online) 0565Vol 2, No.7, 2012 General Idi Amin’s kilt and tartan forage cap and a swagger stick’s message were very clear: he told hispeople that if he could be the ‘Last King of Scotland and Conqueror of the British Empire’ he was more Conquerorpowerful than pockets of opposition forces in Uganda and he went on to demonstrate it. His nickname of ‘BigDaddy’ and ‘Butcher of Africa’ represented a meticulous balance of terror and compassion. President Banda’simpression in Malawi ranged from a cult like devotion to fear which he consummated with his matching ression cult-likehandkerchief and fly-whisk as a ‘Great Lion or Conqueror’. Those outfits became national regalia. Apart from whiskthe physical fear, these symbols also instill spiritual or esoteric fear in the citizenry. This is based on the strong spiritualreligious bias of Africans. Hence, the adoption of the title ‘King of Kings, Lord of Lords, Conquering Lion ofthe Tribe of Judah, Elect of God and Power of the Trinity’ and host to a live Lion by Haile Selassie and the livebiblical interpretations of those were enough to elicit the needed loyalty. The ‘Lion of Judah’ was the symbolof the Israelite tribe of Judah. In Genesis 49:9, the patriarch Jacob refers to his son as Gur Areyeh ‫,י ְהוּדָ ה רי ֵהאַ גּוּר‬ ְa "Young Lion" when blessing him. In Christian tradition, the Lion of Judah represents Jesus. Many Christianorganizations and ministries use the ‘Lion of Judah’ as their emblem. The phrase appears in the New TestamentBook of revelation 5:5; "And one of the elders saith unto me, weep not: behold, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, :5;the Root of David, hath prevailed to open the book, and to loose the seven seals thereof” (Wikipedia, 2009).Moreover, as god to Rastafarians, his position was readily assured in terms of popular solidarity. When Mobutu readilyplayed god and was publicly called ‘a creator’ to the point of worship, he knew its effects on the people. Thiswas compounded by the image created of Mobutu as god that descended from the clouds as s shown in Zairiantelevision. As god, and to integrate this notion into his hypnotizing process, Mobutu and his followers adoptedsongs that showed him as such: Mobutu O yee! Mobutu loves only work; Mobutu the most powerful; Mobutu is the strongest; Mobutu is the saviour; Mobutu is the redresser; Mobutu the creator...It was so real to the extent that the creator of that programme regretted it all at the fall of Mobutu in 1997: The concentration of power, the praise, the story, the popularity, the media, all in the service of one all man. I didn’t know I was wrong at the time. The Congo then was like a village. Wherever he went, he wanted people to sing and dance for him (Sakombi Inongo, Mobutu’s former Information Minster in Thierry, n.d). If Mobutu was mad, President Jammeh is insane. ‘The lunacy of Yahya Jammeh has no boundaries. Theman is delusional and running the Gambia into the ground in the process. What kind of a prank is this foolpulling on Gambians? He will run to any dingy institution to get a title. Obviously been called doctor has gotten title.to his head. He is literally practicing some kind of voodoo on patients admitted at the Royal Victoria Hospital’(Ceesay, 2007). Solidarity is sealed and guaranteed whenever and wherever a recognized political sacramental is eesay,displayed, especially when the reason for the adoption of such is understood by all and sundry. Banda’shandkerchiefs and fly-whisk were everywhere in Malawi and the message was very clear: symbols of therevolution which must be guarded and protected. And when the revolution turned to unprecedented brutality, all protected.was still accepted in the ‘same spirit’, and it kept the people grudgingly committed to the struggle. Moreover,Political sacramental can help leaders in the mobilization of the citizenry toward the accomplishment of a purpose citizenryas they remind them about their leaders and the tasks ahead. The efficacy of these was well understood by theleadership as they compete in the quest for popularly recognized political symbols. A juxtaposition o the way ofpolitical sacramental had been used by African leaders and the help they render to them as they wreck havoc on thecontinent is better observed than imagined. It is unimaginable that someone who claimed god could unleash thekind of terror which Satan could not even do against his opponents. No doubt, political sacramental plays a hypnotizing role in the underdevelopment of the continent. It watersthe ground for the leaders to declare fait accompli on the people. Thus, upon his claim to divine c connection,Jean-Bede Bokassa of Central African Republic stooped so low to decree in 1972 that all the nation’s Bedeschoolchildren should wear uniforms and the only uniform producer in Bangui happened to be one of his wives. uniforms—andPoor children (there were almost no other variety of child in Bangui) couldn’t afford the expense and one day, agroup of them threw rocks at the Emperor’s Limousine in protest. An enraged Bokassa rounded upapproximately one hundred children, innocent and guilty alike, and had them murdered. Bokassa killed many of murdered.them himself, and kept their remains in a refrigerator in his palace. In the same larder he kept the corpses ofsome of the political enemies he had liquidated, and snacked on their brains and hearts. Bokassa also claimedthat he had surreptitiously fed human flesh to an unwitting President Giscard d’Estaing during several of theirbanquets together. The testimony of the palace chef at a 1986 trial was damning (Zoellnerjeeps, 2006). In spite of Idi Amin’s Pan-Africanist posture that attracted him the Chairmanship of the then OAU, he had Africanist thatthe stories of cannibalism, of feeding the corpses of his victims to crocodiles, of keeping severed heads in afreezer at his home and bringing them out on occasions for "talks" most or all of which are unsubstantiated, but "talks"-not necessarily untrue. He was reputed to have murdered between 100,000 and 500, 000 of the rival tribes and 57
  • 6. Developing Country Studies www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-607X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0565 (Online) 0565Vol 2, No.7, 2012Obote supporters. In some cases entire villages were wiped out and corpses thrown into the Nile (About.com,2007). Théoneste Bagosora, a.k.a Colonel Death or Rwandas ‘ ste ‘Milosevic killed over 500,000 Tutsis andthousands of moderate Hutus during the Rwandan genocide of 1994(The International Criminal Tribunal for genocideRwanda estimates "some 800,000 Rwandans were killed”. Other sources estimate that between 800,000 and onemillion were killed). The logic is that any ‘god King’ that excels in the killing of his own people cannot be said ‘god-King’to be Godly no matter the faith. The most disturbing about the killings was the way most of them were perfected and the courage theperpetrators had in bragging and telling the world they did so. Freezing human flesh and feeding on them isinhuman. The method of killings is also disturbing. They question the nature of African leaders over the years as nhuman.well as raise the need for psychological examination as part of criteria for leadership aspiration in the continent.Amin’s victims were either shot or bludgeoned to death. Many condemned men were forced to smash the skullsof fellow prisoners with sledgehammers. Describing the sound of such execution, Moore said it was “a curiousnoise, as of an egg being broken” (Moore in Judd, 2003). Emotional attachments to political sacramental and leadership myths remain a tension dousing instrumentand apostles of silence as the leaders exploit and sap the resources and wealth of the continent. Many religions, ifnot all, frown at personal grudges and organized complaints against the leadership, and Africans (being so organizedreligious), adhere to this. Thus, when corruption, Run Down the State Syndrome and state terrorism wereinflicted on the continent, the people watched hand akimbo and seemingly accepted them wi the Christian hand-akimbo withfinality of ‘Amen’. They went on primitive accumulation spree and before people could understand what washappening around them, nothing was left for them: it is believed that Banda accumulated at least US$320 millionin personal assets. Mobutu had about $4bn in secret Swiss account in addition to several villas in Europe boughtat Zaire’s expense (Bubramanian, 1997); with his standing order of transferring $15m each day to his Swissaccount, Abacha of Nigeria, in spite of his political s sacramental-dark-sunglasses had a personal fortune of sunglassesbetween $3-$5bn(African Banker, April 2009); Eyadema of Togo stole over $2.8bn(Acqaah , $2.8bn(Acqaah-Gaisie, 2005) andBabangida of Nigeria could not explain the whereabouts of over $12billion oil windfall during his r regime. Thelist can go on and on just as the mayhem they unleashed on helpless Africans remains uncountable. It is a pity that at every point in any discourse on Africa’s underdevelopment, the West is still accused as itsoriginator and the perpetual cause even when the continent had been offered ample opportunities to make eamends. Some of the African states have been ruled by Africans more than the years of colonialism. To this end,Adusei laments that: The incompetence and lack of visionary leadership in Africa is seen in Gabon where Omar Bongo in has been in power for 42 years; has received billions of dollars from oil and yet his 1.4 million people live in poverty. In Libya, Gaddafi has been in power for 39(42 by the time he died) years, has received several billions of dollars and his people are poor. Denis Sassou Nguesso and Eduardo dos ral Santos each has ruled for 30 years yet their people are poor. Obiang Nguema has 28 years to his credit yet the 600,000 people in his country live in abject poverty despite receiving billions of dollars despite in oil revenue. Mugabe, Blaise Campore, Hosni Mubarak, Yoweri Museveni, Omar Al Bashir all have ruled for more than two decades yet their people are poor (Adusei, 2009, n.d).The situation is so pathetic and a reflection of the lack of mission and vision that have formed the signature tuneof leadership in Africa.Conclusion In the light of the above, a critical comparison of the evils of colonialism and post independence Africanleadership is suggestive that the evils of the former could be exonerated on grounds that colonialism and the thecolonialists exploited Africa for the collective gains of their home countries and people, while African exploitersin the gig and pranks of leadership, do so for the selfish interest of themselves and their families to the detriment themselvesof the collectivity. Europe developed, thanks to the abundant resources and manpower it generated from Africabut Africa under-develops due to the gains of its exploited abundant resources that end up in personal pockets; it developsfails to develop due to the conspiracy of its leaderahip in making sure that nothing works; it fails because thepeople on their part, are not so willing to liberate themselves even at the critical point of decision making. No doubt, Africa is a continent of the future but this realization rests only on the condition that things mustbe put in the right perspectives. Thus, necessary machinery must be put in place to address its leadershipproblem. Evidence show that there are enough resources in Africa but the problem lies in their utilization for thegeneral good. To this end, political leadership should no longer be mystified and symbolized to the point ofhypnotization, fear and worship. The claim to divine will and call to service must be down-played so thateveryone becomes accountable to the system that empowers him or her. It should be stated that the inevitability of psychological test run on prospective national political leadership test-runcannot be overemphasized and should be made compulsory election requirement in Africa. This is to weed out compulsory 58
  • 7. Developing Country Studies www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-607X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0565 (Online) 0565Vol 2, No.7, 2012psychotics like Idi Amin whose mental balance was widely questioned. There is no way Africans can be entirelyexonerated from the crises that engulf the continent; they are easily deceived and massively hypnotized by littleleadership abracadabra. A simple dance steps by South African Jacob Zuma, for example, goes as far as creatingbandwagon effect even when the people can display better and more acrobatic dance steps. They are easilycarried away by everything not excluding an ordinary white handkerchief. This should be the moment of truth erythingand decision for both the continent’s leaders and the led.ReferencesAcqaah-Gaisie, G. A (2005). ‘Curbing Financial Crime among Third World Countries Elites’, Gaisie, Journal of Money Laundering Control Vol. 8, PP 371-381 urnal Control.Adusei, L. A (2009). ‘Leadership Incompetence: The cause of Africas Woes’ American Leadership Chronicle. Retrieved from www.americanchronicle.com/articles on May 19, 2009. 4:35:34 pmAfrican Banker (2009). ‘Stashing the Loot: How Africa is Being Bled Dry’. African ,Banker April. Banker,Buck, C. (1998). ‘A Symbolic Profile of the Bahá’í Faith’, Journal of Bahá’í ,Studies Vol. 8, number 4 StudiesBubramaniam,C (2007). ‘Zaire don’t Need Mobutu Back, Just His Billions’ retrieved from . www.Indianaexpress.com on 4/5/2009. 4.50pmChris - (2011) ‘Psychology of Clothes Case Study: Gaddafi in Beyond Anomie http://beyondanomie.wordpress.com/2011/02/23/psychology-of-clothes-case-study http://beyondanomie.wordpress.com/2011/02/23/psychology study-gaddafi/. Posted 23/2/2011 and downloaded on 11th November 2011. 3pmCecil, F.F (2006). The Other Dimension of the Charles Taylor Saga: Return of the Stolen Funds’. The Perspective. Retrieved from www.perspective.org./articles on 12/5/2009 2.01pm 12/5/2009.Clusters ,P (2006). ‘Notes on Liberian Economic crisis before the Start of the Civil War’. Liberian Retrieved from www.petercusters.n/file on 15/4/2009 2pm 15/4/2009.Conley, C (2004). Unity Symbols Coloring Book. Retrieved from http://www.oneletterwords.com/unity/toc.html 4/5/2009. 1pmGallery, H. (2005). ‘Africa Remix’. 10 February February-17 April 2005. Retrieved from www.studio-international.co.uk/reports/africa_remix.asp. 13/5/2009 3pm international.co.uk/reports/africa_remix.asp. 13/5/2009.Goodman, F (1989) in Cutting Edge (n.d). ‘Masonic Symbols of Power in their Seat of Power – Washington DC’. Retrieved from www.cuttingedge.org. 13/5/2009. 4pmGredd, E and Trille, R (n.d). ‘The Rough Road to the Gambia’. Retrieved from www.book.goggle.com on 4/5/2009 12.30amHackman and Johnson in Vickrey, J (1998). ‘ ‘Symbolic Leadership: The Symbolic Nature of ship: Leadership’. Retrieved from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/au -24/vickrey.pdf on 13/5/2009. 24/vickrey.pdf 4.20pmHalake, D. (2008). ‘Futampaf 2008: A Living African Cultural Experie Experience’. Daily Obsever Obsever. http://observer.gm/africa/gambia/kanilai/article/2008/Wikipedia http://observer.gm/africa/gambia/kanilai/article/2008/Judd, O (2003). Death of a Dictator: Idi Amin, 19925 19925-2003)’. Retrieved from www.brotherjuddblog.com/arch)ves on 16/5/2009 9.30pm 16/5/2009.Latimer, J ("006). ‘Dictator of the Month: July 2006’. Retrieved from www.dictatorofthemonth.comMoore in Judd, O (2003). ‘Death of a Dictator: Idi AmiN,19925 AmiN,19925-2003)’. Retrieved from www.brotherjuddblog.com/archives on 16/5/2009Moreorle3s (2002). ‘Kilderfile‘. oreorle3s Www. Moreorless.au.com/killer. Retrieved 30/3/2009. 11.30amMSNBC (2007). ‘Gambias President Claims He has Cure for AIDS’ Gambias www.msnbc.msn.com/id/17244005. www.msnbc.msn.com/id/17244005 Updated 4:44 p.m. ET Feb. 20, 2007. Retrieved 31/3/2009. 11amPieth, M (2009). ‘Lawyers Warn against Returning Assets’.Sakombi Inongo in Thierry, M (n.d). ‘Mobutu Rio Du Zaire: Tragedie Africaine’. Centre du ierry, Cinema et de L’audiovisual de la Communanaute Francaise de Belgique la Commission Europeenne(DG viii)Schermer, V.L (2001). ‘The Group Psychotherapist as Contemporary Mystic: A Bionic Ob Object Relations Perspective’. International Journal of group Psychotherapy Vol. 51 Psychotherapy,Thierry, M (n.d) ‘Mobutu Rio Du Zaire: Tragedie Africaine’. Centre du Cinema et de L’audiovisual de la Communanaute Francaise de Belgique la Commission Europeenne(DG viii)The Guardian (2002). ‘The Deal on Abacha Loot’Thismeansnothing (2002). ‘More Facts on Mobutu Sese Seko’. Wadworth (n.d) Gardener’s Art through the Ages’. Retrieved from httpwww.wadsworth.com 13/6 2010. 10amWkipedia (2009) ‘Lion of Judah’. http://en. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lion_of_JudahWikipedia (2009). ‘Hasting Banda: Dictator of the Month June 2007’. Retrieved from Month- 59
  • 8. Developing Country Studies www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-607X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0565 (Online) 0565Vol 2, No.7, 2012 en.wikipedia.org/wiki on 4/4/2009. 9.11amWikipedia (2009). ‘Idi Amin’. en-wikipedia.org/wiki/Idi Amin. Last modified on wikipedia.org/wiki/Idi May 15, 2009. Retrieved on 4/4/2009. 10:32am .Zoellnerjeeps, T (2006). ‘Dying Stars’. Retrieved from http://www.nextreads.com/display on 4/4/2009. 12:02pm 60
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