Journal of Environment and Earth Science www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)Vol. 3, No.5, 2013161P...
Journal of Environment and Earth Science www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)Vol. 3, No.5, 2013162i...
Journal of Environment and Earth Science www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)Vol. 3, No.5, 2013163n...
Journal of Environment and Earth Science www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)Vol. 3, No.5, 2013164r...
Journal of Environment and Earth Science www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)Vol. 3, No.5, 2013165R...
Journal of Environment and Earth Science www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)Vol. 3, No.5, 2013166l...
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Pollution studies on ground water contamination water

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  • 1. Journal of Environment and Earth Science www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)Vol. 3, No.5, 2013161Pollution Studies on Ground Water Contamination: WaterQuality of Abeokuta, Ogun State, South West NigeriaAdebola. A. Adekunle, (Corresponding author)Department of Civil Engineering,Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, NigeriaE-mail: O. BadejoDepartment of Civil Engineering,Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, NigeriaE-mail: day_badejo@yahoo.comAbiola O. OyerindeDepartment of Civil Engineering,Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Nigeria.E-Mail abbybless_2007@yahoo.comAbstractChanges in water levels in wells reflect changes in recharge to, and discharge from an aquifer. Generallygroundwater is rain water or water from surface water bodies, like rivers, lakes or streams that permeate into thesoil and bedrock and is stored underground in the pores spaces between soil particles. Groundwater pollutionoccurs when hazardous substances come into contact and dissolve in the water in the soil or on the surface.Groundwater is generally less susceptible to contamination and pollution when compared to surface water,naturally impurities in rainwater or surface water which replenishes groundwater systems, get removed whileinfiltrating through soil strata.In Nigeria, groundwater is used intensively for irrigation and domestic purposes, a variety of land andwater-based human activities are causing pollution of this precious resource. Its over-exploitation is causingaquifer contamination in certain instances, while in certain others its unscientific development with insufficientknowledge of groundwater flow dynamic and geo-hydro-chemical processes has led to its mineralization.Adequate supply of safe and portable fresh water is an inevitable factor for socio economic development.Although the recent global attention focuses on how the current and foreseeable water crisis and associatedconsequences would be addressed, quite a lot of factors such as low level of education, insufficient budgetaryfunding, inefficient government policies, drought are increasingly contributing to the pollution of domesticwater in Nigeria.Keywords: Nigeria, Groundwater, Pollution, soil strata, Quality1.0 IntroductionGroundwater is widely distributed under the ground and it is replenish able resource unlike other resources of theearth. Groundwater includes all water found beneath the earth’s surface. It is part of the earth’s naturalhydrological cycle. It is the body of water derived primarily from percolation and contained in pore spaces of apermeable rock. Groundwater is an economic resource and more than 85% of the public water for consumption
  • 2. Journal of Environment and Earth Science www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)Vol. 3, No.5, 2013162is obtained from groundwater. It is often used for industry, commerce, agriculture and most importantly fordrinking.Ayoade (2003) described hydrogeology as the scientific study of groundwater with emphasis on the geology andits occurrence, movement and chemical characteristics of groundwater. He reported that all groundwater can besaid to originate as atmospheric or surface water and principal sources of natural recharge of groundwater arefalling precipitation that eventually percolates, and seepage from the stream flow in channels, lakes andreservoirs.The quality of water is of vital importance whether for industrial or domestic purposes. For water to be ofconsumable quality, it must attain a certain degree of purity. Often, the raw water used for domestic purposes isvulnerable to contamination due to the human influence resulting in pollution.According to Davis and Royer, 1966, drinking water standard are based on two main criteria namely; thepresence of objectionable taste, odour and colour; and the presence of substances with adverse physiologicaleffects. However, mineral enrichment from underlying rocks can change the chemistry of water, making itunsuitable for consumption (Ako, 1990).Water can also be a source of serious environmental and health problems if the design and development of suchwater supply system is not coupled and tied with appropriate sanitation measures. According to Oloke (1997),drinking water can act as a passive means of transporting nutrients into the body system. However, the objectivesor primary concern in providing potable water are freedom from harmful micro-organisms and freedom fromundesirable or harmful chemicals. Therefore, both the physiochemical and bacteriological assessment of potablewater is of paramount importance and monitoring must be given the highest priority. Groundwater pollution ismainly due to the process of industrialisation and urbanisation that has progressively developed over timewithout any regard for environmental consequences (Longe & Balogun 2010)Southwestern Nigeria is underlain primarily by the basement complex rocks of pre-Cambrian age comprisinggneisses, migmatites and schists. When fresh, such rocks have practically no porosity or permeability due to theinterlocking crystal structure. The groundwater potential in crystalline rock terrains depends, therefore, onpost-emplacement processes such as tectonism and weathering which could lead to the development ofsecondary porosity and permeability.Houston (1995) reported that the bedrock over much of Africa is of Precambrian formations, which aredominated by relatively impermeable crystalline rocks such as granites, schist, gneiss and quartzite. It was oftennecessary to drill 60 - 80 m deep, with wells often yielding less than 2 m3/day (Dijon, 1981). Selby (1985)reported that rocks often break down quickly, producing a zone of weathered materials of saprolite or laterite andthe surface soils are often underlain by red-brown silty clay, which does not function as a goodaquifer.Development of the regolith components is by wells and shallow boreholes, which are liable to be drilledby lightweight percussion rigs. Viable aquifer wholly within the fractured bedrock are of occurrence because ofthe typically low strativity of fracture systems that is less than < 1%. In order to be effective, development ofbedrock components requires interaction with storage available in overlying adjacent saturated regolith or othersuitable formations such as alluvium.A large number of people are dependent on the groundwater resource in the weathered regolith for basic waterrequirements and abstraction is largely through large diameter wells using a bucket tied to the end of a rope forwithdrawing water. The rope-and-bucket arrangement is now being replaced in several households withcentrifugal pumps resulting in larger quantities of groundwater withdrawal.1.1 Hydrogeology of Abeokuta Ogun StateIn Abeokuta, as in many areas underlain by the basement complex rocks, the populace depend largely on thesurface water, which is supplied by the water corporations from the River Ogun. This source of water supply is
  • 3. Journal of Environment and Earth Science www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)Vol. 3, No.5, 2013163not sufficient and therefore does not meet the demand of the populace. This surface water, which is the majorsource of water consumption in Abeokuta, has a very low output especially during the dry season when theevaporation rate is high (and precipitation is lower than annual average). Normally, most sachet water industriesdepend on the water from the state water corporations this has increased the problem of water scarcity becausethe demand for the water becomes greater than the supply especially during dry season. Again, people use handdug wells, but this poses problem during dry season because the required depth would not be reached due to theterrain and the cost of drilling borehole is very high.For these reasons, groundwater should have been an alternative source of water but there is a great problemabout locating high productive aquifers in different parts of Abeokuta. Abeokuta lies within the BasementComplex rocks. These rocks are of Precambrian age to early Palaeozoic age and they extend from thenorth-eastern part of the Ogun state (which Abeokuta belongs) running southwest ward and dipping towards thecoast (Ako, 1979). The basement complex metamorphic rocks are characterized by various folds, structures ofvarious degree of complexity, faults, foliation and many more. These structural features have a predominantNorth-South or North-North-East-South-South-West orientation which is particularly strong within the low grademetamorphic. The common metamorphic rocks encountered are gneiss, schist, quartzite and amphiboles.The individual rock has various hydro-geologic characteristics. Abeokuta belongs to the stable plate which wasnot subjected to intense tectonics in the past.Therefore, the underground faulting system is minimal and this hascontributed to the problem of underground water occurrence in this area.The northern side of Abeokuta like Lafenwa side is characterised by pegmatite underlain by granite and thereforehas good hydro-geological history. The southern part (made up of granitic gneiss) enters into the transition zonewith the sedimentary basin and is characterised by fairly satisfactory hydro-geological history. The western partis characterised by granitic gneiss which is less porous and various quartzite intrusions (Key, 1992).This area ishighly problematic and it is prone to low yield groundwater supply.The terrain of Abeokuta is characterized by two types of landforms; sparsely distributed low hills and knolls ofgranite, other rocks of the basement complex and nearly flat topography. The rugged rock-strewn relief isprominent towards the north, in the central and south-eastern parts of the city. The city is drained by two majorrivers, Ogun and Oyan and many small streams. Some of these streams take their source from local rocky hillswhile some are distributaries to the two major rivers.Two main climatic conditions exist, the rainy season lasting for between seven and eight months between Apriland October with an interruption in August, and the dry season; running through November till February. Annualrainfall of about 963mm and the temperature is usually between 260C and 280C. The town has becomeincreasingly cosmopolitan as a result of its elevation in status to state capital in 1976 (Olabisi, Awonusi &Adebayo, 2007). This has continued to place increasing stress on the existing infrastructural facilities in the town.1.2Water quality monitoring in NigeriaThe basis of water quality monitoring is to obtain information which will be useful in management of waterresources in the country. It would prove useful in management, control and investigation of pollution cases,Classification of water resources, Collection of baseline data, Water quality surveillance and Forecasting waterquality. In Nigeria most of the portable water used for both domestic and industrial purposes is channelled fromrivers and groundwater. There is no integrated river/ground water quality monitoring scheme in Nigeria.2.0 ResultTable 1 shows the result of the analysis of water quality parameters obtained from shallow wells withinAbeokuta. The results show that they are colourless, odourless and tasteless which make the well wateracceptable to the consumers. It also reveled that the temperature ranges between 30 oC and 41.3 oC.The chemical parameters of the samples are also presented in Table 1. From the table, the conductivity values
  • 4. Journal of Environment and Earth Science www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)Vol. 3, No.5, 2013164range from 657 to 812 us/cm. These values are below WHO highest desirable level of 900 us/cm, the chloridecontent in the water samples ranged from 61 – 79 mg/l. The result of chloride contents were below the WHOstandard of 250 mg/l. The results of the chloride ranges from 120 - 171 mg/l and this are far above the maximumdesirable level of 100 mg/l.The range of values of the results of zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) are 0.63 to0.70 mg/l, 0.05 to 0.24 mg/l, 0.02 to 0.03 mg/l, 53.10 to 94 mg/l, 7 to 74 mg/l, 0.0003 to 0.001 mg/l, and 0.001to 0.003 mg/l respectively. The corresponding WHO standard values are 3.0 mg/l, 0.01 mg/l, 0.03 mg/l, 500 mg/l,75 mg/l, 2 mg/l and 0.003 mg/l respectively. The results show that the lead (Pb), cadmium (Ca) and iron (Fe)contents of the samples are mostly above the required WHO standards. Moreover, the result indicate thatsamples from lined wells indicate lower values compared with those from unlined wells in some cases. In othercases, this was not the case. This suggests that the effects of lining of the wells could not be seriouslyascertained.The presence of lead (Pb), cadmium (Ca) and iron (Fe) in quantities more than the WHO standard was anindication of toxicity level in the groundwater and therefore poses serious health risk. The presence of totalcoliform bacteria indicates microbial pollution of the well water. Since it is unlikely that bacterial contaminationcome from the underground, it suggests that the contamination was due to human activities. In addition, theeffect of lining the well was not felt in all case. Though the effect was significant in some cases, it was not insome other cases. This calls for further investigation along this line. On the long run, it can be concluded that thewater from the well sources are quite unfit for consumption and using it may lead to health problems. Though,the health impact may not be suddenly felt, the gradual accumulation of the identified toxic materials problemmay lead to undesirable health problems on the long run.3.0 ConclusionIn the light of the outcomes of this work, it is recommended that there should be a monitoring and control on thelocation and functioning of dumpsites to avoid pollution of the groundwater. The health departments of LocalGovernment Authorities needs to improve on their effectiveness in the monitoring and control efforts. Dumpsitesshould be located at remote areas far from residential locations. Besides, people need to be educated by the localhealth officials on the effects of dumpsites on their health and there should be a follow-up to ensure that theresidents heed the advice.Moreover, government policies on waste disposal and management should be enacted and strictly enforced.These policies should ensure that dumpsites are cited far away from residential areas and wastes are sorted andtreated before disposal. The possibility of re-designing waste dumps to incorporate clay or plastic lining (toprevent percolation of leachates) can also be exploited. Alternatively, the use of these wastes as biomass forenergy provision can also be considered.
  • 5. Journal of Environment and Earth Science www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)Vol. 3, No.5, 2013165ReferencesAyoade JO (2003). Tropical Hydrology and Water Resources. Macmillan Ltd. p. 276.Davis S.N. and Royer J.M. De-Wiest (1966). Hydrogeology; NewYork, John Wiley and sons pp.459-463.Ako BD (1979). Geophysical prospecting for groundwater in parts of south-western Nigeria. Unpublished PhDThesis. Department of Geology, University of Ife, Ile-Ife, Nigeria p. 371.Oloke, A.I.(1997) .Microbial analysis of hawked water .African Journal of Science, Volume 1, pp.22-42.Longe E.O., Balogun M.R. (2010): Groundwater quality assessment near a municipal landfill, Lagos, Nigeria.Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 2: 39–44.Dijon R (1981). "Groundwater Exploration in Crystalline Rocks in Africa", Proc. Am. Soc. Civil Eng. pp. 11-15.Selby MJ (1985). Earths Changing Surface. Clarendon Press, Oxford. p. 607.WHO (2004). World Health Organization Guidelines for drinking water quality: Recommendations, 3rd ed.Geneva.Key R (1992). "An Introduction to the Crystalline Basement of Africa", in Omorinbola EO (1982). Verificationof some geo-hydrological implications of deep weatherings in basement complex of Nigeria. J. 56(2): 347-368Olabisi, O. E., Awonusi, A. J. and Adebayo, O. J. (2007). Assessment of bacteria pollution of shallow well waterin Abeokuta, South-western Nigeria. Life Science Journal, 5(1), 59-65.Table 1: Physical, Chemical and Microbiology Characteristics Results and WHO Standard.S/No Location 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 141 Ibaja 30 8.6 Odourless812 76 0.06 0.65 0.002 0.03 0.001 44 170 220 3.52 Sokori 32 8.5 Odourless678 75 0.05 0.67 0.001 0,03 0.001 46 167 225 4.53 Omida 1 31 8.4 Odourless667 78 0.07 0.68 0.001 0.03 0.001 45 176 230 4.54 Omida 2 31 8.6 Odourless689 75 0.07 0.66 0.002 0.03 0.001 43 170 230 4.55 Obantoko 30 8.3 Odourless789 77 0.07 0.68 0.001 0,03 0.001 44 169 225 5.06 Car Wash 30 8.5 Odourless678 75 0.10 0.86 0.002 0.03 0.001 47 178 240 5.07 Eleta 1 35 8.6 Odourless655 67 0.14 0.67 0.001 0.03 0.002 45 177 235 4.58 Eleta 2 35 8.6 Odourless687 67 0.14 0.67 0.002 0,03 0.002 45 175 230 4.59 Camp 1 35 8.5 Odourless690 68 0.11 0.65 0.001 0.03 0.003 42 178 230 5.010 Camp 2 31 8.6 Odourless667 68 0.12 0.66 0.002 0.03 0.003 47 176 230 5.511 Sapon 1 31 8.5 Odourless687 61 0.21 0.67 0.001 0,03 0.001 47 167 240 3.012 Sapon 2 30 8.4 Odour 688 61 0.21 0.67 0.002 0.03 0.002 47 168 245 3.0
  • 6. Journal of Environment and Earth Science www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)Vol. 3, No.5, 2013166less13 Sapon 3 30 8.6 Odourless680 62 0.24 0.67 0.001 0.03 0.003 46 167 245 3.514 Iom 1 33 8.5 Odourless676 74 0.20 0.66 0.002 0,03 0.001 46 176 250 5.015 Iom 2 32 8.7 Odourless687 75 0.22 0.66 0.001 0.03 0.001 46 175 250 5.016 Ake 1 32 8.6 Odourless670 79 0.22 0.68 0.001 0.03 0.001 44 176 235 5.517 Ake 2 32 8.5 Odourless676 78 0.21 0.68 0.002 0.03 0.001 43 177 235 5.518 Igeore 1 32 8.5 Odourless668 70 0.24 0.68 0.001 0.02 0.002 47 178 240 6.519 Igeore 2 31 8.4 Odourless676 71 0.24 0.67 0.002 0.02 0.001 46 176 240 6.520 Oke-Itouku33 8.4 Odourless657 78 0.21 0.66 0.001 0.03 0.002 48 179 230 5.021 Oke Ilewo132 8.5 Odourless665 75 0.21 0.67 0.002 0,03 0.001 49 175 230 7.022 Oke Ilewo232 8.4 Odourless687 74 0.21 0.67 0.002 0.03 0.002 49 174 230 7.523 Isale Ake132 8.6 Odourless689 73 0.20 0.67 0.001 0.03 0.003 47 175 245 6.524 Isale Ake231 8.4 Odourless675 73 0.20 0.67 0.002 0,03 0.003 48 176 245 7.035 Adatan 1 31 8.5 Odourless768 73 0.18 0.63 0.001 0.03 0.001 47 170 240 8.026 Adatan 2 30 8.5 Odourless776 76 0.17 0.63 0.002 0.03 0.001 46 172 245 8.027 Asero 1 30 8.7 Odourless787 78 0.16 0.68 0.001 0,03 0.002 46 177 240 8.528 Asero 2 33 8.8 Odourless776 78 0.17 0.70 0.002 0.03 0.001 45 175 240 8.529 Asero 3 33 8.6 Odourless788 77 0.19 0.70 0.001 0.02 0.002 47 175 240 8.530 Agooko 1 37 8.4 Odourless798 75 0.20 0.73 0.001 0.02 0.002 47 176 240 7.01=Temperature (0c), 2= pH, 3= Odour, 4= Conductivity(us/cm). 5= Chloride (mg/L), 6= Lead (mg/L), 7= Zinc(mg/L), 8= Cadmium (mg/L), 9= Iron (mg/L), 10= Copper (mg/L), 11= Nitrate, 12= TDS, 13= Total coliform(MPN), 14= DO

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