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Population dynamics of tinfoil barb, barbonymus schwanenfeldii (bleeker, 1853) in pedu reservoir, kedah

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Transcripts - Population dynamics of tinfoil barb, barbonymus schwanenfeldii (bleeker, 1853) in pedu reservoir, kedah

  • 1. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)Vol 2, No.5, 2012 Population Dynamics of Tinfoil Barb, Barbonymus schwanenfeldii (Bleeker, 1853) in Pedu Reservoir, KedahMansor Mat Isa1, 2* Amir-Shahruddin Md-Shah1 Shahrul-Anuar Mohd-Sah1 Nadieya Baharudin1 Muhammad-Adlan Abdul-Halim1 1. School of Biological Sciences, University of Science Malaysia, Minden, 11800, Penang, MALAYSIA 2. Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies, University of Science Malaysia, 11060, Teluk Bahang, Penang, MALAYSIA *Email of the corresponding author: drmansor@usm.myAbstractThe physico-chemical and biological parameters, species composition and population dynamic of dominant fishspecies were conducted in Pedu Reservoir in Kedah. The reservoir is considered safe from human activities, althoughthe level of ammonia concentration (3.84 ± 2.65 mg/L) was exceeded the class recommended in Malaysia. 82.94% offish families were contributed by Cyprinidae, 11.04% of Notopteridae, 3.01% of Bagridae and 2.51% for others.Twenty-four fish species were recorded in the reservoir and were dominated by Barbonymus schwanenfeldii (38.9%),followed by Oxygaster anomalura (12.4%) and Notopterus notopterus (11.0%). The length-weight relationships of B.schwanenfeldii was an isometric (b = 2.992) form with Kn ranging between 0.75 and 1.01. This fish could attain L∞= 30.95 cm at growth rate of K = 0.66 yr-1, given the growth performance index (Ø’) of 2.801 that was representedfrom two cohorts occurred in August and February, respectively. The cohorts were strongly correlated to rainfalldistribution in the area. The total mortality coefficient (Z) was 2.01 and natural mortality coefficient (M) was 1.37yr-1 given the fishing mortality coefficient (F) and exploitation rate (E) was at 0.64 and 0.32 yr-1, respectively. Theexploitation rate of 0.32 yr-1 was lower than the 75% of B’/R (E 0.1 = 0.41) or optimum Y’/R (Emax = 0.53)indicating the yield per recruit of B. schwanenfeldii could be increased slightly by increasing the E.Keywords: Barbonymus schwanenfeldii, length frequency, population parameters, management, Pedu Reservoir;Kedah1. IntroductionTinfoil barb or Barbonymus schwanenfeldii is classified under the family of Cyprinidae, locally known as “LampamSungai”. This species is also synonymus to Barbus schwanenfeldii or Puntius schwanenfeldii (FishBase,www.fishbase.org). This species is distributed widely, particularly in Asia; Mekong River and Chao Phraya, Borneoand Sumatra and found in all rivers and lakes of the Peninsular Malaysia (Mohsin & Ambak 1983, Rainboth 1996)and man-made lake (Taki 1978, Ali & Lee 1995). McConnell (2004) suggested that cyprinids distribution largelyreflects faunal exchanges early in the Pleistocene. Zulkafli et al. (1999) noted that this species dominated in the openwater of Kenyir Lake (in Terengganu) as compared to Semenyih Reservoir (in Selangor) which was distributed morein the riverine systems. B. schwanenfeldii is a freshwater fish inhibits lakes and rivers at pH range between 6.5and 7.0, in tropical areas at temperature 20.4 – 33.7ºC (Christensen 1992). Average size were between 10 and 25cm and weights about 200 – 600 g. The fish is possible to reach a maximum size of 30 centimeters and weights morethan 1.0 kg (Christensen 2007). They are fast breeding fish; two times in 15 months. According to Steven et al.(1999), females greater than 160 g had mature or rematuring ovaries whiles males of all sizes had mature testesthroughout the year. The spawners are known to shed their eggs in the upstream of rivers. The young’s will remain inthe rivers until they become fingerlings before migrates to other parts of the lake. Most fish tend to colonize the riverswhile some move to the open water of the lake to colonize (Mohsin & Ambak 1983, Ali & Lee 1995). The diet of thefish consists of filamentous algae, insects and debris (Rainboth 1996, Fartimi 2008). The fish has an economicimportance, dominantly landed by fishermen from lakes, reservoir and river systems. They are readily accepted bylocals due to its tasty meat. Market price ranges from RM4.00 to RM6.00 per kg and has potential for aquacultureespecially in ponds, lakes or aquariums. 55
  • 2. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)Vol 2, No.5, 2012The dynamics of fish population especially from the lakes is seldom conducted by researchers, despite this informationis vital for the sustainable development and management of the inland capture fisheries of the lake. Methods in fishstock assessment require data input and produces output information (Bagenal 1978, Sparre & Venema 1992) as theresult for management options. Therefore a comprehensive understanding of efficient fisheries management practicesrequires biological information on the life history, growth, mortality and recruitment of fish species (Hoeing andBruber 1990). The information of the important of tinfoil barb, B. schawanenfeldii to inland fisheries management canbe considered scarce. Although Mohd-Shafiq et al. (2012) have attempted to assess the suitability of the freshwaterenvironment using relative condition factor of fish species, however studies very much needed in assessing the fishpopulation in freshwater including reservoirs. Therefore, the present paper is attempts to provide a preliminaryassessment of the population parameters; emphasis on the length-weight relationships, size structure, growth andmortalities and yield and biomass per recruit using the length-frequency data set of the species which were collectedfrom the Pedu Reservoir. This preliminary assessment was also involved observation on environmental parametersduring the study periods.2. Materials and Methods2.1 Study AreaPedu Reservoir, Kedah, lies at Latitude: 6º15’N, Longitude: 100º46’E at the height of 59.0 meters above mean sealevel. This man-made lake is 64.8 km2 in area with maximum water level 97.5 m deep with mean depth is 16 m,surrounded by primary tropical rainforests (Kean & Meng 1996). It is a part of the catchments area for the PeduReservoir in which water is stored to irrigate the paddy fields on the flat plains of Kedah (Fig. 1a).2.2. Sampling Gears and Data CollectionThe physico-chemical and biological parameters were collected from eight sampling stations (Fig. 1b) in PeduReservoir from April to December 2008. Samples of fish species were obtained by using a pair of gillnets withdifferent mesh sizes (2.5, 3.1, 5, 7.5, 8.1, 9.3 cm and 10 cm). The nets were soaked in the river mouth and in thevegetation area of the littoral zone for day (0600 – 1800 hrs) and night (1800 – 0600 hrs) catching. All fishes collectedwere identified using standard taxonomic keys by Mohsin & Ambak (1983), Kotellat et al. (1993), Rainboth (1996)and Ambak et al. (2010). The measurement of the length and weight were made in situ and the samples that needfurther examination were kept in ice and transported to the laboratory.2.2. Data AnalysisLength-weight relationships was estimated using the power equation W = aLb (Le Cren 1951, Ricker 1973, Cinco1982, Froese 2006, King 2007), where W is the total weight of individual B. schwanenfeldii in gram and L is the totallength in cm.The length frequency data set was developed by grouping them into 1.0 cm intervals. The group or cohort wasseparated by using Bhattacharya’s method and the growth coefficient (K) and asymptotic length (L∞) were estimatedusing the FiSAT software (Gayanilo et al. 1997) following to the reference’s manual developed by Gayanilo & Pauly(1997).Pauly & Munro (1984) formula was applied to estimate the growth performance index: Ø’ = Log K + 2 Log L∞, and theBeverton & Holt’s (1956) equation were used to obtain the total mortality coefficient (Z): Z = K*(L∞ – L)/ (Ĺ – L’),where; Ĺ is the mean length of fish above L’, while L’ is the lower limit of the length class of highest frequency.The natural mortality coefficient (M) was calculated using Pauly (1980, 1986); log (M) = –0.0066 – 0.279 log (L∞) +0.6543 log (K) + 0.4634 log (T), where; T is the average temperature in the study area. 56
  • 3. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)Vol 2, No.5, 2012The fishing mortality coefficient (F) was computed as F = Z – M, while the exploitation rate (E) was computed fromthe ratio F/Z (Gulland 1971).Catch curve analysis (Pauly 1984) was used to estimate the length at first capture. While the recruitment patternswere obtained by projecting length frequencies backward onto a one-year time scale that is available in FiSATsoftware (Gayanilo et al. 1997).The relative yield per recruit (Y’/R) and relative biomass per recruit (B’/R) were estimated by using the model ofBeverton & Holt (1966) as modified by Pauly & Soriano (1986). This model is defined by: (Y’/R) = E*U M/K * [1 - (3U/1 + m) + (3U 2 /1 + 2 m) - (U 3 /1 + 3 m)] and (B’/R) = (Y/R)/F,where; the fraction of deaths caused by fishing is m = (1 – E)/ (M/K) = (K/Z) and U = 1 - (Lc /L∞).All of the population parameters were computed using the incorporated FiSAT software package (Gayanilo et al.1997) and the routines of the FiSAT were followed thoroughly as recommended by the FiSAT user’s manual(Gayanilo et al. 1996) and reference’s manual (Gayanilo and Pauly 1997).3. Results3.1. Physicochemical and Biological ParametersThe physicochemical and biological parameters (Table 1) indicated that the Pedu Reservoir was not exceeded the classI of INWQS (DOE 2010), except the level of ammonia concentration (3.84 ± 2.65 mg/L) which was slightly higherthen the standard set by the DOE. The factor that contributed to this result is still unknown and needed further analysis.Based on the Secchi depth (3.45 ± 0.46 m), Pedu Reservoir can be considered mesotrophic lake.A total of 20 species, comprises of 797 individuals had been recorded in the study, where B. schwanenfeldii was thedominant species caught, represented of about 38.9%, followed by 12.4% Oxygaster anomalura, and 11.0% ofNotopterus notopterus (Fig. 2). Cyprinids were the dominant family which represented about 82.94% followed by11.04% of Nototeridae, 3.01% of Bagridae and 2.51% of others (Appendix 1).Based on Shannon-Wiener Diversity, station C recorded the highest Diversity Index; 0.8901, followed by station D(0.8469), E (0.7935), A (0.7301), B (0.6875), F (0.6842), G (0.6294) and H (0.5340) (Table 2). On the other hand,station D recorded the highest Evenness Index (0.8133) where the lowest was at station G (0.5832) (see Table 2). Thehighest species richness has been recorded at station C and G whereas the lowest were recorded at station B and H (seeAppendix 1).3.2. Length-weight RelationshipsA total of 310 B. schwanenfeldii sampled from eight stations in April-December 2008 recorded their total lengths andweights were varied from 6.7 to 28.0 cm and 3 to 258 g, respectively. The length-weight relationship was calculatedfrom transformation of the real data to the linear equation of lnW = lna + blnL, resulted the value of lna = –4.4029 andb = 2.992, and were better fitted at R2 = 0.98. The parabolic form of the length-weight relationships was W = 0.0122 L2.992 (Fig. 3). The value of b is closed to 3 indicated that B. schwanenfeldii was an isometric form of growth in weight.Whereas the Kn value (0.718) recorded in July was lower as compared to Kn values from other months (1.000 - 1.008)were probably associated with the rainfall distributions in the area.3.3. Cohort SeparationCohort separations by using the Bhattacharya’s method indicated that the samples of B. schwanenfeldii collectedfrom the reservoir in April-December were composed of three groups at mean length (TL) 10.78 ± 0.99, 16.31 ± 1.59and 27.5 ± 0.85 cm, respectively. 57
  • 4. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)Vol 2, No.5, 20123.4. Growth ParametersThe mean L∞, Z and K estimated from the length frequency data set of B. schwanenfeldii using the Power-Wetherallplot (FiSAT software pakage) were gave the value of L∞ = 29.12 cm and Z/K = 1.254, respectively (Fig. 4). The valueof L∞ from this routine was then seeded to the ELEFAN-I of the K-scan (Fig. 5) followed by the automatic searchroutine yielded the value of K and L∞ at 0.66 yr-1 and 30.95 cm, respectively. These final values were than fitted to thevon Bertalanffy Growth Function (vBGF) as shown in Fig. 6a representing the first cohort spawned in October and ofthe second cohort spawned in March (Fig. 6b).3.5. Growth Performance IndexGrowth performance index of Pauly & Munro (1984) indicates a method used to compare the growth performance ofvarious stocks by computing the Phi index (Ø’). The results indicated that the Ø’ of B. schwanenfeldii from PeduReservoir was found to be 2.801.3.6. Mortality and Exploitation RatesThe Z, M and F were estimated as 2.01, 1.37 and 0.64 yr-1, respectively (Fig. 7). The E was estimated to be 0.32 yr-1.The values of E were relatively lower than 0.5 indicating a low level of exploitation rates of B. schwanenfeldii fromPedu Reservoir.3.7. Recruitment PatternsThe recruitment patterns of the stocks of B. schwanenfeldii from the Pedu Reservoir suggest that there were twomain pulses of annual recruitment (Fig. 8) with the major cohort appeared in August and the second was observed inFebruary. These situations were strongly correlated to the rainfall distribution (see Fig. 8) that may triggered thespawning biomass of the species, furthermore recorded the Kn value in July was slightly lower as compared to othermonths. 3.8. Probability of CaptureGillnet selection plot (Fig. 9) showed that the probability of capture of the smaller sizes group of fish found to be at agreater level at sizes mode between 10.5 and 16.5 cm as compared to the bigger sizes fish.3.9. Length at First Capture (Lc)The length at first capture (the length at which 50% of the fish are vulnerable to capture) was estimated as a componentof the length converted catch curve analysis (FiSAT). The value obtained was Lc = 9.01 cm (Fig. 10).3.10. Yield and Biomass Per RecruitPlot in relative yield per recruit (Y’/R) and biomass per recruit (B’/R) were determined as a function of Lc/L∞ andM/K (Fig. 11), respectively. The exploitation rate at E = 0.32 (see Fig. 7) from the catch curve for B. schwanenfeldiiis lower than that generated 75% of B’/R (E 0.1 = 0.41) or maximum Y’/R (E max = 0.53). This indicates that (Y’/R)could be increased slightly by increasing E. However, maximisation of yields would lead to relatively low stockbiomass, i.e. to low catch per effort.4. DiscussionGenerally, there were not much different in water quality parameters of Pedu Reservoir when compared to previousstudy by Shah et al. (2006). This may due to a lacking in land activity in catchments area of Pedu reservoir asresulted the water quality were considered in healthy stage except the ammonia level that exceeded INWQS of theNational Water Quality Standards for Malaysia (DOE 2010). The high level of ammonia were believe to be closelyrelated to the nearby intensive aquaculture activity in the Reservoir. However the Secchi depth and otherparameters analysis such as nitrite, nitrate and phosphate indicated that the Pedu Reservoir can be classified as 58
  • 5. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)Vol 2, No.5, 2012mesotrophic lake and these conditions should be maintain at an average values (Sutela et al. 2010).Twenty species from seven families were recorded in the study as compared to 22 species recorded in the previousstudy by Shah et al. (2006). The two new species added to the list were Parambasis wolfii and Oxyleotris marmoratawhich make up a total of 24 species found in the Pedu reservoir. The exotic species such as Oreochromis niloticusand O. mossambicus are not present in the samples even though they were recorded to be caught by local fishermen.During the study periods it was noted that the culture cages in the Pedu reservoir have broken several times due tostrong wave and wind, where most of the cultured tilapia have been accidentally released to the wild (Per. Comm.).The other reason was probably due to inability of this species to adapt to the reservoir as noted in ChenderohReservoir (Ali 2006). In comparison, Shah et al. (2006) noted that these species were the dominant group caught bythe local fishermen in Timah Tasoh and Muda Reservoir suggesting the species is well established and they weresuccessfully adapted to the nature conditions in Timah Tasoh and Muda Reservoir but not in the Pedu Reservoir.A total of 797 individual fishes with a biomass of 43.6 kg were caught with gill nets during experimental fishing (seeTable 2). Fifteen species have been caught by 2” gillnet sizes followed by 13 species in 1” gill net size, 11 species(3”) and 3 species (4”). Out of the total individual fish caught from the Pedu reservoir, 310 specimens or 13.1 kg wasrepresented by B. schwanenfeldii. These were followed by Oxygaster anomalura and Notopterus notopterus. Thepresent study also showed that 51.6% of B. schwanenfeldii were captured by 1” gillnets mesh size, where by 35.4%,12.0%, and 1.0% were caught from 2”, 3”, 4” gill nets, respectively. The study conducted by Kong & Ali (1995) atChenderoh Reservoir noted that B. schwanenfeldii was the dominant species followed by Cyclocheilichthys apogonand Osteochilsu hasselti, while Zulkafli et al. (1999) found that B. schwanenfeldii was the dominant species caughtin Kenyir Reservoir followed by Hampala macrolepidota and Hemibagrus nemurus. B. schwanenfelddi was founddominant in open water in Kenyir Reservoir compared to the Semenyih Reservoir which was dominantly found inthe riverine system (Zulkafli et al. 1999).The present study conducted in the Pedu reservoir was found differed to the previous study conducted by Shah et al.(2006), where they noted that O. hasselti was the dominant species. This was probably due to the differences inconditions of water level during the previous study where the reservoir experienced serious water shortage in 2005compared to the present study with less significance changes of water level. As a result the fish population of thePedu Reservoir tend to changed and adapted to the situation throughout by adjusting their reproduction strategy. Thefish species such as B. schwanenfeldii, Cyclocheilichthys apogon and O. hasselti were classified as “r” strategyfishes, as the changes of fish population were the most common (Ali 2006).The LWR of B. schwanenfeldii from Pedu reservoir was found confirmed to isometric growth (Mansor et al. 2010) inweight with low relative condition in July, probably correspond to lesser rainfall from April to August which lesstriggered the productivity in the reservoir. The populations of B. schwanenfeldii was emerged from two majorcohorts; one cohort was spawned in March and the other cohort was in October (see Figs. 6a and b), inline toMcAdam (1987) which noted that female of this species spawned more than one within years at size greater 160 gassociated with increased water level in the environment. It is interesting to note that these periods were positivelycorrespond to the rainfall recorded in October where relatively heavy rain started after August with increasing waterlevel while early rainy season started in February with decreasing water level towards July (see Fig. 8).The growth rate of B. schwanenfeldii at K = 0.66 yr-1 from the Pedu reservoir suggesting that this species takes 5year to reach L∞ at 30.92cm was found to be shorter in longevity than the finding reported by Christensen (1992); 8– 10 years. Lower number of fish sampled in the present study however may contribute to the different of the valueas compared to Christensen (1992). The population parameters indicated that, the present level of exploitation rate (E= 0.323) of B. schwanenfeldii was lower than the exploitation rate at E0.1 (0.406) and Emax (0.525) from the yield perrecruit suggesting the stock biomass of B. schwanenfeldii in the Pedu Reservoir were under-exploited and base on theabove analysis, there is room for expansion. However these results are more evidently pronounced if the catch andeffort data from fishing activities by the local fishermen operating in the Pedu reservoir, beside greater number ofindividual fish used are taken into consideration in the analysis. 59
  • 6. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)Vol 2, No.5, 20125. ConclusionIn conclusion, Pedu Reservoir is considered safe from human activities and it is capable to support twenty fishspecies, mainly dominated by B. schwanenfeldii. This species exhibits an isometric growth in weight and couldattains to L∞ = 30.95 cm at growth rate of K = 0.66 yr-1. The population of this species was represented from twodistinctive recruits that are in August and February with strong correlation to the rainfall. They entered the fishery atlength of 10 cm. The exploitation rates at 0.32 suggesting some room for expansion. However the status of thefish stock in the reservoir is not conclusively evidenced due to the fact that other sources of data such as the catchand effort from the fishermen activities in the area are required for further assessment. Overall, the populationparameters as estimated for B. schwanenfeldii could be used for future comparison if the fishing efforts or fishingpressure is planned to be deployed in the reservoir.AcknowledgementsWe would like to thank University of Science Malaysia for providing physical facilities to carry out this research.This study would not be possible without the support, cooperation and active involvement of many staff of School ofBiological Sciences and the final year students who has collected the physical, chemical and biological data and fishsamples from the Pedu Reservoir. This project was funded by the Grant of 1001/Pbiologi/815008. Special thank goesto Prof. Mashhor Mansor for his valuable comments and suggestions on the manuscript.ReferencesAli, A.B. (2006), “Chenderoh Reservoir, Malaysia: The conservation and wise use of fish biodiversity in a smallflow-through tropical reservoir”, Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management 2(1-2), 17-30.Ali, A.B. & Lee, K.Y. (1995), “Chenderoh Reservoir, Malaysia: A characterisation of a small-scale, multigear andmultispecies artisanal fishery in the tropics”, Fishery Research 23(3-4), 267–281.Ambak, M.A., Mansor, M.I., Mond-Zaidi, Z., Mazlan, A.-G. (2010), “Fishes of Malaysia”. Publisher UniversitiMalaysia Terengganu. 344p.Bagenal, T. (1978), Methods for assessment of fish production in fresh waters. (3rd ed.), Blackwell SciencePublication. 365p.Beverton, R.J.H. & Holt, S.J. (1956), “A review of methods for estimating mortality rates in exploited fishpopulations, with special reference to sources of bias in catch sampling”, Rapports et Proces-Verbaux des Reunions,Conseil International pour LExploration scientifique de la Mer 140, 67-83.Beverton, R.J.H. & Holt, S.J. (1966), “Manual of methods for fish stock assessment, Tables of yield functions”, FAOFisheries Technical Paper 38, Rev. 1, 67p.Christensen, M.S. (2007), “Investigations on the ecology and fish fauna of the Mahakam River in East Kalimantan(Borneo), Indonesia”, Internationale Revue der gesamten Hydrobiologie und Hydrographie 77(4), 593 – 608.Cinco, E. (1982), “Length-weight relationship of fishes”, In: Pauly, D. Mines, A.N. (Eds.). Small scale fisheries ofSan Miguel Bay, Philippines: biology and stock assessment (pp. 34-37). ICLARM Technology Report 7, 124 p.Department of Environment (2010), “Malaysia marine and freshwater quality criteria and standard”,www.doe.gov.my, viewed date 16 April 2012.Fartimi, O.J. (2008), “Feeding behavior analysis of Puntius schwanenfeldii and Notopterus notopterus”, B.Sc.Thesis, School of Biological Sciences, University of Science Malaysia, 65 p.FishBase, http/www.fishbase.org. 60
  • 7. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)Vol 2, No.5, 2012Froese, R. (2006), “Cube law, condition factor and weigh-length relationships: history, meta-analysis andrecommendations”, Journal of Applied Ichthyology 22, 241-253.Gayanilo, Jr.F.C., Sparre, P. & Pauly, D. (1996), “FAO-ICLARM stock assessment tools (FiSAT) software packageUser’s Manual”, FAO, Rome,126 p.Gayanilo, Jr.F.C., Sparre, P. & Pauly, D. (1997), “The FAO-ICLARM Stock Assessment Tools (FiSAT)”, FAOComputerized Information Series (Fisheries). No. 8. FAO, Rome.Gayanilo, Jr.F.C. & Pauly, P. (1997), “FAO-ICLARM Stock Assessment Tools (FiSAT) software package ReferenceManual”, International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, Computerized Information Series(Fisheries). No. 8. FAO, Rome. 262 p.Gulland, J.A. (1971), The fish resources of the ocean, West Byfleet, Surrey, Fishing News (Books), Ltd., 255p.Gulland, J.A. & Holt S.J. (1959), “Estimation of growth parameters for data at unequal time intervals”, Journal duConseil international d’Exploration de la Mer 25(1), 47-49.Hoenig, J.M. & Gruber, S.H. (1990), “Life-history patterns in Elasmobrachs: Implications for fisheries management”,In: Pratt Jr., H.L., Griber, S.H. & Taniuchi, T. (Eds.). Elasmobrachs as living resources: Advances in the biology,ecology, systematics and the status of the fisheries (pp 1-16). Vol. 90 of NOAA Technical report NMFS, NationalMarine Fisheries Services, USA.Kean, L.L. & Meng, C.C. (1996), “Irrigation development and management of the Muda Irrigation Scheme”, In:Morooka, Y., Jegatheesan, J. & Yasunobu, K. (Eds.). Recent advances in Malaysian rice production direct seedingculture in the Muda area (pp. 37-62). MADA-JIRCAS.King, M. (2007), Fisheries biology, assessment and management, Fishing News Books. Blackwell Publisher,342p.King, R.P. (1996), “Length-weight relationship of Nigeria freshwater fishes”, Naga, ICLARM Quarterly 19 (3),49-52.Kong, K.W. & Ali, A.B. (1995), “Chenderoh Reservoir, Malaysia: Fish community and artisanal fishery of a smallmesotrophic tropical reservoir”, Fisheries Research 23(94), 267-281.Kottelat, M., Whitten, A.J., Kartikasari, S.N. & Wirjoatmotjo, S. (1993), “Freshwater fishes of western Indonesiaand Sulawesi”, Jakarta, Periplus Editions.Le Cren, E.D. (1951), “The length-weight relationship and seasonal cycle in gonad weight and condition in the perch(Perca fluviatilis)”, Journal of Animal Ecology 20, 201-219.Mansor, M.I., Che-Salmah, M.-R., Rosalina, R., Shahrul-Anuar, M.-S. & Shah, A.R.M.S. (2010), “Length–weightrelationships of freshwater fish species in Kerian River Basin and Pedu Lake”, Research Journal of Fisheries andHydrobiology 5(1), 1-8.Mcadam, D.S.O. (1987), “Aspects of the reproductive biology of Puntius schwanenfeldi (Bleeker), a Malaysiancyprinid”, B.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 128p.McConnell, S.K.J. (2004), “Mapping aquatic faunal exchanges across the Sunda Shelf, South-East Asia, usingdistributional and genetic data sets from the cyprinid fish Barbodes gonionotus (Bleeker, 1850)”, Journal of NaturalHistory 38(5), 651 – 670.Mokhsin, A.K.M. & Ambak, M.A. (1983), Freshwater fishes of Peninsular Malaysia, Publisher Universiti PertanianMalaysia, 281p. 61
  • 8. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)Vol 2, No.5, 2012Mohd-Shafiq, Z., Mansor, M.I., Che-Salmah, M.-R., Amir-Shahruddin, M.-S. & Abu-Hassan, A. (2012),“Assessment of suitability of Kerian River tributaries using length-weight relationship and relative condition factorof six freshwater fish species”, Journal of Environment and Earth Science 2(3), 52-60.Pauly, D. (1980), “On the relationships between natural mortality, growth parameters and mean environmentaltemperature in 175 fish stocks”, Journal du Conseil international d’Exploration de la Mer 39(3), 175-192.Pauly, D. (1984), “Length-converted catch curves. A powerful tool for fisheries research in the tropics. (part II)”,ICLARM, Fishbyte 2(1), 17-19.Pauly, D. (1986), “On improving operation and use of the ELEFAN program. Prt II: Improving the estimation ofL-infinity”, Fishbyte 4(1), 18-20.Pauly, D. & Munro, J.L. (1984), “Once more on the comparison of growth in fish and invertebrates”, ICLARM,Fishbyte 2(1): 21Pauly, D. & Soriano, M.L. (1986), “Some practical extensions to Beverton and Holts relative yield-per-recruitmodel”, In: Maclean, J.L., Dizon, L.B. & Hosillo, L.V. (Eds.). The first Asian fisheries Forum (pp. 491- 496). Manila,Philippines, Asian Fisheries Society.Rainboth, W.J. (1996), “Fishes of the Cambodian Mekong, FAO species identification in field guide for fisherypurposes”, FAO, Rome.Ricker, W.E. (1973), “Linear regression in fisheries research”, Journal of Fisheries Research Board Canada 30,409-434.Rikhter, V.A. & Efanov, V.N. (1976), “On one of the approaches to estimation of natural mortality of fishpopulations”, International Commission for the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries 76/VI/8, 12p.Shah, A.S.R.M., Zarul-Hazrin, H., Khoo, K.H. & Mansor, M. (2006), “Reservoir fish biodiversity of northernPeninsular Malaysia”, In Ahmad-Izani, M.I., Koh, H.L. & Yahya, A.B. (Eds.). Proceeding models in ecological andenvironment studies (pp. 89-97). Publisher Universiti Sains Malaysia.Steven, D., McAdam, O., Robin-Liley, N. & Eddy, S.P.T. (1999), “Comparison of reproductive indicators andanalysis of the reproductive seasonality of the tinfoil barb, Puntius schwanenfeldii, in the Perak River, Malaysia”,Environmental Biology of Fishes 55, 369–380.Sparre, P. & Venema, S.C. (1992), “Introduction to tropical fish stock assessment, Part 1-Manual”, FAO FisheriesTechnical Paper 306/1 Rev. 1. Rome. 376p.Sutela, T., Vehanen, T. & Jounela, P. (2010), “Response of fish assemblages to water quality in Borel Rivers”,Hydrobiologia 641, 1-10.Taki, Y. (1978), “An analytical study of the fish fauna of the Mekong basin as a biological production system innature”, Research Institute of Evolutionary Biology, Special Publication no. 1, p. 77.von Bertalanffy, L. (1938), “A quantitative theory of organic growth (Inquiries on growth laws. 2)”, Human Biology10, 181- 213.Zulkalfi, A.R., van Densen, W.L.T. & Machiels, M.A.M. (1999), “A comparison of the fish communities and trophicrelationships in Kenyir and Semenyih reservoirs, Peninsular Malaysia”, In van Densen, W.L.T. & Morris, M.J. (Eds.),Fish and fisheries of lakes and reservoirs in Southeast Asia and Africa (pp. 77-94). Westbury Academic & ScientificPublishing. 62
  • 9. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)Vol 2, No.5, 2012First Author:MANSOR MAT ISA, born in Tokai, Kedah, Malaysia on 4th Aug 1955.Graduated from the National University of Malaysia in 1981.Obtained Ph.D. on Fish Population Dynamics and Management from the University College of Swansea, Swansea,Wales, United Kingdom in September 1993.Became a Fisheries Officer at the Fisheries Research Institute, Penang Malaysia from 1981 to 1989.Appointed as a Research Officer at the Fishery Resources Development and Management Department of theSoutheast Asian Fisheries Development Centre, Chendering, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia from 1993 to 2005.Took part as a part time tutor at the Open University of Malaysia, Sungai Petani Branch in 2006-2007.Joining as a University Lecturer at the School of Biological Sciences, University of Science Malaysia from 2007 tillpresent. Table 1. Physical, chemical and biological parameters observed from Pedu Reservoir from April to December 2008. Parameters Measurement Physical parameters Temperature 28.85 ± 0.98ºC pH 7.18 ± 0.36 DO 5.93 ± 1.19 mg/L Conductivity 46.22 ± 2.56 µS/m TDS 21.50 ± 1.00 mg/L TSS 16.32 ± 13.00 mg/L Secchi disk depth 3.45 ± 0.46 m Chemical parameters Nitrite 0.62 ± 0.64 mg/L Nitrate 0.97 ± 0.97 mg/L Ammonia 3.84 ± 2.65 mg/L Phosphate 0.30 ± 0.21 mg/L Biological parameters Chlorophyll a 0.005 ± 0.002 µg/ L Net primary productivity. 76.250 ± 60.77 mg C/m3/h 63
  • 10. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)Vol 2, No.5, 2012 Table 2. Shannon-Wiener Diversity and Evenness Index of fish population by sampling stations. Sampling Station Diversity Index Evenness Index Species Number (n) A 0.7301 0.7301 10 B 0.6875 0.7613 8 C 0.8901 0.7991 13 D 0.8469 0.8133 11 E 0.7935 0.7619 11 F 0.6842 0.6142 13 G 0.6294 0.5832 12 H 0.534 0.5913 8 (a) (b) Fig. 1. Map of Pedu Reservoir in the state of Kedah (a) showing the 8 sampling locations from A to G (b), where the gill nets were stretched in the outlets of the rivers and also in the area closed to vegetation of the littorial zone. 64
  • 11. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)Vol 2, No.5, 2012 B. schwanenfeldii O. anomalura N. notopterus M. marginatus B. gonionotus O. microcephalus O. waandersi H. macrolepidota H. nemurus C. apogon O. goramy O. hasselti S. binonotus R. sumatrana R. borapetensis P. wolffii Labiobarbus sp. M. mystus P. fasciatus O. marmoratus 0 10 20 30 40 50 Percentage composition Fig. 2. Fish species compositions captured from Pedu Reservoir using various mesh sizes (2.5 - 10 cm) of gill nets. 300 W = 0.0122 TL2.992 250 200 Weight (g) 150 100 50 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Total length (cm) Fig. 3. Length-weight relationships of Barbonymus Fig. 4. Estimation of L∞ = 29.12 cm with K = 0.444 schwanenfeldii sampled from Pedu Reservoir in and Z/K = 1.254, R2 = 0.98 of Barbonymus April-December 2008. schwanenfeldii from Pedu Reservoir using the Power-Wheterall method (Wetherall et al. 1987). 65
  • 12. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)Vol 2, No.5, 2012 Fig. 5. K-scan computed to obtain initial combination of K = 0.26 yr-1, L∞ = 29.93cm with Starting Sample at 1 and Starting Length at 20.5 cm, Rn = 0.29 for Barbonymus schwanenfeldii from the Pedu Reservoir. (a) (b) Fig. 6. von Bertalanffy Growth Function fitted using K = 0.66 and L∞ = 30.95, Rn = 0.228 for Barbonymus schwanenfeldii. The growth curve is referring to the first major cohort of the population which indicates the origin of the growth curve started in October (a) and the second cohort in March (b). 66
  • 13. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)Vol 2, No.5, 2012 25 400 350 20 Average rainfall (mm) 300 Recrutment (%) 15 250 200 10 150 100 5 50 0 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D Month Recrutment Average rainfall (2000-2007) Fig. 7. Extrapolate length-converted catch curve of Fig. 8. Two groups of BarbonymusBarbonymus schwanenfeldii resulted from Z = 2.01 yr-1; schwanenfeldii in Pedu Reservoir in Augusta = 7.903 ± 0.426 with 95% C.I. at 7.001 - 8.806 and b= and second recruits in March with positively -0.212 with 95% C.I. between -2.458 and -1.558 at corresponded to the starting periods of heavy 2 regression coefficient (R ) = 0.85, M at 29ºC = 1.37, F = rainfall. 0.64 and E = 0.32. Fig. 9. Selection curves (diamonds shaded) for Fig. 10. Probability of capture of BarbonymusBarbonymus schwanenfeldii caught with gill nets schwanenfeldii from Pedu Reservoir at L0.25 = 8.39, from Pedu Reservoir of mesh sizes of 2.5 cm with L0.50 = 9.01, L0.75 = 9.6 cm.LA = 12.5 cm and largest mesh size 9.4 cm with LB = 16.5 cm. 67
  • 14. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)Vol 2, No.5, 2012 Fig. 11. Relative yield per recruit (Y’/R) and relative biomass per recruit (B’/R) of Barbonymus schwanenfeldii in Pedu Reservoir at B’/R = 75% (E0.1 = 0.406) and optimum Y’/R (Emax = 0.525) and B’/R = 50% (E0.5 = 0.298), respectively with the input of Lc/L∞ = 0.291 and M/K = 2.076. 68
  • 15. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)Vol 2, No.5, 2012Appendix 1. Freshwater fish species captured from Pedu Reservoir using various mesh size of gill nets. Sampling stations Total Percentage Family Species Local name A B C D E F G H Number Number Bagridae Hemibagrus nemurus Baung 1 2 2 9 4 2 1 - 21 2.63 " Mystus mystus Baung Akar 2 - - - - - 1 - 3 0.38 Ambassidae Parambassis wolffii Cermin - - 4 - - - - - 4 0.50 Barbonymus Lampam 1 Cyprinidae gonionotus Jawa 19 - 0 5 2 1 1 38 4.77 Barbonymus Lampan 1 2 2 5 " schwanenfeldii Sungai 71 15 8 5 36 65 8 2 310 38.90 Cyclocheilichthys " apogon Temperas 8 - 1 3 3 1 1 2 19 2.38 Hampala " macrolepidota Sebarau 3 - 1 8 5 2 1 3 23 2.89 " Labiobarbus sp. Kawan - - - 2 1 - - - 3 0.38 Mystacoleucus " marginatus Sia-sia 54 3 1 6 - 4 1 - 69 8.66 " Osteochilus hasselti Terbui - - - 1 2 7 1 - 11 1.38 Osteochilus 2 " microcephalus Rong - - - - - 10 - 5 35 4.39 " Osteochilus waandersi Ekor Merah - - - - 29 - 1 - 30 3.76 " Oxygaster anomalura Lalang 55 22 8 1 4 1 5 3 99 12.42 " Rasbora borapetensis Seluang - - 1 4 - - - - 5 0.63 " Rasbora sumatrana Seluang - 4 - - - 2 - 2 8 1.00 " Systomus binonotus Tebal Sisik - 11 - - - - - - 11 1.38 Oxyeleotris Eleotridae marmoratus Ketutu - - 2 - - - - - 2 0.25 Nandidae Pristolepis fasciatus Patong - - 1 - - 1 - - 2 0.25 1 Notopteridae Notopterus notopterus Selat 8 42 7 0 9 8 1 3 88 11.04 Osphronemi dae Osphronemus goramy Kalui 3 1 1 1 3 5 2 - 16 2.01 22 10 5 7 10 11 4 9 Total 4 0 7 0 1 0 4 1 797 100 69
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