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mothers/c...
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determine...
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study. BM...
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Prevalence and determinant factors of overweight and obesity among preschool children living in hawassa city, south ethiopia

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Transcripts - Prevalence and determinant factors of overweight and obesity among preschool children living in hawassa city, south ethiopia

  • 1. Food Science and Quality Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-6088 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0557 (Online) Vol.29, 2014 49 Prevalence and Determinant Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Preschool Children Living in Hawassa City, South Ethiopia Tsedeke Wolde, Lecturer of Nutrition, Department of Public Health, College of Medical and Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte- Ethiopia Tefera Belachew Professor of Nutrition, Population and Family Health Department, Collage of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, Ethiopia Abstract Background Childhood obesity and its related adverse health effects have become major public health problems in developing countries. The prevalence of childhood obesity and overweight and their predictors are not well documented in the developing countries, especially in Ethiopia. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and determinant factors of overweight and obesity among aged 3-5 years old children in Hawassa City, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in an urban locality called Hawassa City from February to March, 2012. Weight and height of the study children were measured and the dietary habits, physical activity and socio- demographic characteristics of the subjects were collected using a structured interview questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of obesity and overweight. Results Out of 358 participants, 50.6% were girls while 49.4% were boys with mean (±SD) age were 48.8±9 months. The combined prevalence of childhood obesity and overweight was 10.7%, the specific prevelences being 3.4% and 7.3% for obesity and overweight, respectively. Children living with higher socioeconomic status (SES) were significantly at risk for being overweight and obese as compared to children living with lower SES (AOR = 3.51 [95% CI: 1.30-9.50). Conclusions Although the prevalence of overweight and obesity among preschool children in the study area were lower than some reported elsewhere, its increase with socioeconomic status and food consumption practices in the study area indicates that it is an emerging problem given the rapidly increasing urbanization and changes in lifestyles and dietary habits. Overweight/obesity was more common among children with wealthier parents, early introduction of formula feeding, who ate a wide diversity of foods, consumed sweets and fast foods. Parents and children should be educated and trained on optimal nutrition practices. Keywords: Preschool children, overweight, obesity, risk factors, Hawassa, Ethiopia INTRODUCTION Obesity is now well known as a medical problem among children. Outcomes associated with obesity in adults are now affecting children. The prevalence of overweight status has tripled worldwide in the last 2 to 3 decades, including in developing countries and regions that are increasingly urbanized (Lobstein, 2004). An international obesity task force (IOTF) analysis has shown that overweight and obesity affects one in 10 children worldwide, but the rate is double in Europe and three times as great across the entire Americas (IOTF, 2003). Over nutrition is an emerging problem in segments of sub-Saharan African society, particularly where lifestyles become urbanized and westernized and data have accumulated on the adverse health effects of obesity in developed and developing nations. Non communicable diseases (NCDs) are imposing a growing burden up on developing countries which have limited resources and are still struggling to meet the challenges of existing infectious disease problems (WHO, 2004). Increased risk for diabetes, dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, hypertension, high blood cholesterol concentration, stroke, certain cancers and arthritis have been reported to be associated with childhood obesity (Vander et al., 2001). Obesity in childhood and adolescence has adverse consequences on premature mortality and physical morbidity in adulthood (Reilly & Kelly, 2011) and is associated with impaired health during childhood itself. Once obesity is established in children (as in adults) it is hard to reverse (de Onis & Lobstein, 2010).
  • 2. Food Science and Quality Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-6088 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0557 (Online) Vol.29, 2014 50 In 2010, 43 million children (35 million in developing countries) were estimated to be overweight and obese; 92 million were at risk of overweight. The worldwide prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased from 4.2% in 1990 to 6.7% in 2010. This trend is expected to reach 9.1%, or ’60 million, in 2020. The estimated prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in Africa in 2010 was 8.5% and is expected to reach 12.7% in 2020. The prevalence is lower in Asia than in Africa (4.9% in 2010), but the number of affected children (18 million) is higher in Asia (de Onis et al, 2010). Modern dietary patterns and physical activity patterns are risk behaviors that travel across countries and are transferable from one population to another like an infectious disease, affecting disease patterns globally. While age, sex and genetic susceptibility are non-modifiable, many of the risks associated with age and sex are modifiable. Such risks include behavioral factors (e.g. diet, physical inactivity); biological factors (e.g. dyslipidemia, hypertension, overweight, hyperinsulinaemia) and finally societal factors which include a complex mixture of interacting socioeconomic, cultural and other environmental parameters (WHO, 2003). Furthermore, rapid changes in diets and lifestyles that have occurred with industrialization, urbanization, economic development and market globalization have accelerated over the past decade. This is having a significant impact on the health and nutritional status of populations, particularly in developing countries and in countries in transition. While standards of living have improved, food availability has expanded and become more diversified, and access to services has increased, there have also been significant negative consequences in terms of inappropriate dietary patterns, decreased physical activities and a corresponding increase in diet-related chronic diseases, especially among poor people (WHO, 2003). In Ethiopia, many researchers were interested to study on undernutrition rather than overnutrition. Although, they continue to combat with the problems of undernutrition and infectious diseases but at the same time they are experiencing a rapid increase in risk factors of non-communicable diseases such as obesity, certain cancers, hypertension, diabetes and other coronary artery diseases particularly in urban settings like Hawassa City. The documentation of the extent of the problem and associated factors is critically important to prevent the problem and associated health consequences that could accrue throughout the life span. However, there were no studies regarding the prevalence of childhood obesity and overweight and its associated factors in Ethiopia in general and in Hawassa City in particular. Published data regarding prevalence and detriment factors of overweight and obesity among preschool children aged 3–5 years in Ethiopia is limited. This study was therefore conducted to determine the level of childhood obesity and overweight in the study area and identify the most important dietary, physical activity pattern and socio-economic factors which have impact on obesity among preschool children aged 3‐5 years in Hawassa city, Ethiopia. It is envisaged that data from this study will be useful for health policy makers, educators and other stakeholders in planning appropriate intervention programmes targeting preschool children. METHODS Study area, subjects and sample recruitment This study was conducted in Hawassa City. It is located in the South part of Ethiopia with a total population of 258,808. The target population included 31,421 are under five children, of this 16,410 are girls and 15,011 are boys while the eligible source population of preschool children aged between 3-5 years is 17,425 (CSA, 2007). The data was collected from February 22 to March 22, 2012. In this community based cross-sectional study, 358 preschool children were selected by two stage cluster sampling method was used (probability proportional to population size and systematic random sampling) to select representative study subjects from the source population. The sample size was calculated by sample size determination formula for a single population proportion (n= [(Z (1-α/2)) 2 . p. (1-p)]/d2 ) with the following assumptions: 18% prevalence of overweight (Gewa, 2010), 95% confidence level, 5% degree of desired precision or margin of error for sampling, 2 design effect for cluster sampling error (de*n) and 5% non-response rate. Eligibility criteria were selected mothers who have permanent residence in the study area having apparently healthy children from 3-5 years old. An exclusion criterion was a child with evidence of physical impairment (such as physical defects or a grossly deformed), mental impairment and edematous conditions. Data Collection Procedures A structured interviews administered questionnaire was used to collect data related to the objectives of the study. The questionnaire on dietary habits and physical activities level were adapted from the WHO STEP wise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance (STEPS) (WHO, 2007). The questionnaire covered a range of topics including socio-economic and demographic factors, practices of breastfeeding and infant formula feeding of the child, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire in past one month, children’s dietary diversity score (DDS) which report the different food groups consumed by children over the past 24 hours. Socio-economic and demographic information Socio-economic and demographic information were collected by face-to-face interview of children mothers/caregivers which includes religion, ethnicity, educational status and occupation of the
  • 3. Food Science and Quality Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-6088 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0557 (Online) Vol.29, 2014 51 mothers/caregivers; family size, wealth index, means of transportation, sex of child, age of child and educational status of child. Wealth index information on household assets was collected and included as follows: ownership of various durable goods (radio/tape, television, car, refrigerator, sofa, bicycle, motorcycle, mobile/telephone and others). Wealth index was ranked and divided into low, medium and high socio-economic status tertiles). A socio-economic status/SES index was constructed as an indicator of the level of wealth that is consistent with expenditure and income measures. Assessment of feeding practices of the child The practices of breastfeeding and infant formula feeding of the child were assessed by face-to-face interview of mothers/caregivers. Assessment of food frequency consumption It was adopted and assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for the period in past one month by face-to-face interview of mothers/caregivers (Gibson, 2005). Preschool children who eat Fast Food means: when eat more fat, eat more saturated fat, eat fewer fruits and vegetables in the past one month. Assessment of dietary diversity score (DDS) Children’s dietary diversity score was assessed by asking mothers/caregivers to report the different food groups consumed by children over the past 24 hours. The dietary diversity score (DDS) was rank divided in to three subgroups (tertiles): six & over (high), 3-5 (medium) and less than 3 (low) food groups consumed in the previous day. According to USAID (Swindale & Bilinsky, 2006) the following nutritional food groups were used to calculate DDS: (1) grains, roots and tubers, (2) vitamin A-rich fruits and vegetables, (3) other fruits and vegetables, (4) meat, poultry and fish, (5) eggs, (6) pulses, legumes and nuts, (7) milk and milk products and (8) foods cooked in oil/fat/butter and sweet drinks/foods. Assessment of the physical activity level The global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ) was used to assess the physical activity pattern among children 3-5 years old through face-to-face interview of mothers/caregivers in the study area. The GPAQ was developed by WHO for physical activity surveillance in developing countries like Ethiopia and the level of total physical activity is categorized as sedentary activity (low active), moderate activity and high activity (WHO, 2007). Among 16 questions, we excluded the work activity part since the study subjects were children 3 to 5 years old. We also checked the reliability of the questionnaire by using Cronbach's alpha scale test. Cronbach's alpha is 0.806, which indicates a good level of internal consistency for our scale with this specific questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements The measurements of height and weight were taken from each child using standardized and calibrated equipment. Height was measured children with barefoot and in light clothing: remove shoes, socks and bulky clothing (no pullover, shirt or coat) and undo the hair: remove any pins and braids from the hair that could affect the measurement. Height was recorded to the nearest 0.1cm and positioning the subject at the Frankfurt plane using a stadiometer seca (Germany). Weight was measured children with light clothing (underwear, t-shirt only) and weight was recorded to nearest 0.1 kg using UNICEF seca digital weighing scale (Germany) (Gibson, 2005). Age was asked from both the child's date of birth and age on the day measured, since the year of birth is frequently reported incorrectly. If birth dates are not recorded or known with certainty, probe the mother/caregiver for the approximate date of birth based on a local events calendar. Then finally age was calculated using precise day by subtracting the date of birth from the date of data collection (WHO, 2009). The z-score values for BMI-for-age (BAZ) of children from birth to 60 completed months were generated with WHO child growth standards using WHO Anthro 2009 program, version 3.2.2 (WHO, 2007a). Overweight and obesity were operationally defined as the proportion of preschool children with values >2 SDs and >3 SDs, respectively, from the World Health Organization growth standard median. Being “at risk of overweight” was defined as the proportion with values >1 SD and <2 SDs, respectively (WHO, 2008). Data quality control Measurements of height and weight were taken in duplicate on each child. All the anthropometric measurements were taken by both investigator and trained diploma nurses to eliminate within-examiner error. Weight scale was calibrated to zero level with no object on it and placed in level surface before measurement was performed. Continuous checkup of scales was carried out for their reliability. The data collection was supervised by the principal investigator. The principal investigator supervised and reviewed every questionnaire for completeness and logical consistency and made corrections on the spot. Statistical analyses The data were checked for completeness, coded and entered in to a computer and then edited, cleaned, processed and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. A one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to assess whether the data were normally distributed. Hosmer-Lemeshow test and Multicollinearity also checked. Those variables were not normally distributed and hence variables were transformed using log or square root transformation. Descriptive statistics (mean ± SD, frequencies, proportions and tables) were used. All tests were two sided and P-value < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. First bivariate regression analyses were done to
  • 4. Food Science and Quality Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-6088 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0557 (Online) Vol.29, 2014 52 determine the association between the dependent variable and different predictors. Then multivariable logistic regression was carried out to isolate an independent effect of the predictors that showed significant association with obesity and overweight. To evaluate the association between obesity/overweight and predictor variables, both crude odds ratio (COR) and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval were reported. Ethical considerations The study was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the University of Hawassa. Informed written consent was obtained from parents or caregivers. Child assent was taken for anthropometric measurements. Confidentiality of information collected from each study participant was maintained. RESULTS In this study, data were collected to determine the prevalence of overweight/obesity and a number of the risk factors that might be expected to affect overweight/obesity from a total sample of 358 mothers/caregivers and their 36-60 month old children, giving a response rate of 100%. Socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the study participants Regarding socio-demographic characteristics, 48.9% were Protestants and 31.6% were Orthodox by their religion, while the majority 36.0% was Sidama, followed by Wolaita (18.7%) by their ethnicity. About 31.3% of the mothers/caregivers completed 9-12 grade followed by 24.3% who were completed college or university level education and 8.1% of the mothers/caregivers had no formal education (Table 1). The majority of respondents, 40.2% were housewives. The government employees, merchants and others accounted for 18.4%, 8.9% and 32.4%, respectively. The family size of the study participants ranged 2-16 with a median of 5 people per household. The majority of study participants had five or above and below five people per household accounting for 56.7% and 43.3%, respectively and majority (41.9%) of the study participants were from high socioeconomic status (SES) whereas 23.7% of the participants were categorized into low SES (Table 1). The girls-boys ratio was 1.02 with 50.6% were girls and 49.4% were boys. Very large majority of the study subjects, 217 (60.6%), were under the age range of 48-60 months (Table 1). Table 1. Socio-economic and demographic characteristics of mothers/caregivers and their children in Hawassa City, 2012 (n=358) Variables Frequency Per cent (%) Religion Orthodox Protestant Muslim Others 113 175 61 9 31.6 48.9 17 2.5 Ethnicity Sidama Wolaita Amhara Gurage Others 129 67 53 35 74 36 18.7 14.8 9.8 20.7 Educational status Write and read only 1-4 grade 5-8 grade 9-12 grade College/University 29 58 72 112 87 8.1 16.2 20.1 31.3 24.3 Occupation House wife Government employee Merchant Others 144 66 32 116 40.2 18.4 8.9 32.4 Family size <5 > 5 SES tertiles Low Medium High Sex of child Male Female Age in months 36-47 48-60 155 203 85 123 150 177 181 141 217 43.3 56.7 23.7 34.4 41.9 49.1 50.6 39.4 60.6 The mean (± SD) for age, height and weight were 48.8 (± 9) months, 101.9 (± 8.2) cm and 16.93 (±
  • 5. Food Science and Quality Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-6088 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0557 (Online) Vol.29, 2014 53 2.98) kg, respectively. While the mean and standard deviations (± SD) of the BAZ score of children 3-5 years old based on WHO Anthro soft ware were analyzed as 0.6 and ±1.26 Prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the study participants were 7.3% and 3.4%, respectively. 25.1% of them were at risk-of-overweight in the study area based on BMI for age classification (Table 2). The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity was 10.7%. The sex specific prevalence of overweight and obesity in boys were 9% and 3.4% while in girls were 5.5% and 3.3%, respectively (Table 2). The age specific prevalence of overweight in age groups from 36-47 months was 12.1% and obesity was 4.3% while in age groups from 48-60 months, overweight was 4.1% and obesity was 2.8% (Table 2). Table 2. Prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity by overall, sex and age groups among children 3-5 years old in Hawassa City, 2012 (n=358) Variables At risk of overweight Overweight Obese No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) Overall 90 (25.1) 26 (7.3) 12 (3.4) Sex Boys Girls 56 (31.6) 34 (18.8) 16 (9) 10 (5.5) 6 (3.4) 6 (3.3) Age (months) 36-47 48-60 41 (29.1) 49 (22.6) 17 (12.1) 9 (4.1) 6 (4.3) 6 (2.8) Feeding practices of the preschool children Majority of the participants (98.9%) in this study were exclusive breastfed while 1.1% was not exclusive breastfed. Among exclusive breastfed children, majority (82.5%) was exclusive breastfed in the first six months while 10.5% was exclusive breastfed in the first four months and 7% was exclusive breastfed for more than six months after delivery. The majority of study participants (44.1%) were from 19-24 months, 27.7% were less than 12 months and 28.2% were from 12-18 months of continued breastfeeding within 24 months (Table 3). About 68.7% fed infant formula while 31.3% were never fed on infant formula. The minimum and maximum age of start of infant formula was at one month and 12 months with a median of six months. The age of introduction of infant formula, for the majority (58.54%) of the children were later than six months and 38.21% was from 4 to 6 months while 3.25% were lower than or three months. The minimum duration of infant formula feeding was 2 months while the maximum was 30 months with a median of 12 months. The majority of children, 54.07% were fed with infant formula for more than or 12 months, 36.99% were fed between 4 to 11 months and 8.94% were lower than or three months duration of infant formula feeding (Table 3). Table 3. Feeding practices of children 3-5 years old in Hawassa City, 2012 (n=358) Variables Frequency Per cent (%) Exclusive breastfeeding Yes No 354 4 98.9 1.1 Duration of exclusive breastfeeding The first 4 months The first 6 months > 6 months 37 292 25 10.5 82.5 7.0 Duration of continued breastfeeding < 12 months 12-18 months 19-24 months 98 100 156 27.7 28.2 44.1 Infant formula feeding Given Not given 246 112 68.7 31.3 Age of started infant formula 0-3 months 4-6 months > 6 months 8 94 144 3.25 38.21 58.54 Duration of infant formula 0-3 months 4-11 months > 12 months 22 91 133 8.94 36.99 54.07
  • 6. Food Science and Quality Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-6088 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0557 (Online) Vol.29, 2014 54 Dietary diversity score by preschool children The dietary diversity food groups reported by mothers/caregivers in the previous 24 hrs are presented in Table 5. In the study area, fruits are available in the market from March to May while vegetables are available in the market from December to February. The median intake of DDS was 6 and the mean (±SD) intake of dietary diversity score was 5.8 (±1.7) with 1 and 8 being the minimum and the maximum values, respectively. In this study, the majority of the study subjects (97.5%) of consumed foods from grain, root and tuber products, 68.2% ate foods from Vitamin A rich fruits and vegetables, 73.7% ate foods from other fruits and vegetables, 74% from eggs, 72.6% ate foods from meat, poultry & fish (MPF), 46.1% from legumes, nuts and pulses, 78.2% from milk and dairy products and 66.5% consumed from foods with oils /fats/ and sweet/soft drinks (Table 4). Table 4. Proportion of children 3-5 years old who consumed different food groups in the last 24 hrs preceding the survey in Hawassa City, 2012 (n=358) Food groups Frequency Per cent (%) Foods made from grains, roots and tubers 349 97.5 Vitamin A-rich fruits and vegetables 244 68.2 Other fruits and vegetables 264 73.7 MPF* 260 72.6 Eggs 265 74 Food made from pulses, legumes and nuts Milk and milk products Miscellaneous (foods cooked with oil/fat or butter, sugars, honey, tea, soft drinks) 165 280 238 46.1 78.2 66.5 Children diet diversity score mean ± SD 5.8 ± 1.7 MPF* = Meat, poultry and fish Food consumption pattern by preschool children Information regarding food consumption pattern of the children in the past one month prior to data collection are presented in table 6. Majority of the study participants (65.9 %) and 31.3% consumed cereal, grains and breads (pasta, macaroni, rice & injera) once per day or more and at least once per day, respectively. About 38% consumed roots and tubers based foods such as sweet potato, potato & carrot at least three to six times per week and about 41.1 % never consumed any enset and its products. About 52.5% and 38.3% consumed vegetables and fruits at least three to six times per week and at least once per day, respectively (Table 5). The majority of the study participants (45.3%) consumed meat at least three to six times per week while 36.9% consumed eggs at least once per day. About 49.4% and 41.9% consumed milk & milk products more than once per day and at least once per day, respectively and majority (53.9%) of the participants never consumed fish. 56.7% consumed legumes in the form of ‘Shiro Wot’ which is traditional Ethiopian food made from peas and beans at least once per day (Table 5). Some of the study participants, 20.4%, 29.6% and 32.7% consumed foods cooked with fat/ oil/butter at least once per day, at least three to six times per week and at least once or twice per week, respectively. About 47.2% consumed sweet foods and soft drinks at least once or twice per week and majority (79.9%) of the participants consumed tea with sugar at least once per day (Table 5).
  • 7. Food Science and Quality Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-6088 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0557 (Online) Vol.29, 2014 55 Table 5. Food consumption pattern of children 3-5 years old in the past one month in Hawassa City, 2012 (n=358) Frequency of food groups More than once per day Once per day 3-6 times per week Once/twice per week Twice per month/less Never No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) Cereals, grains & breads 236 (65.9) 112 (31.3) 5 (1.4) 5 (1.4) - - Roots & tubers 10 (2.8) 100 (27.9) 136 (38) 84 (23.5) 23 (6.4) 5 (1.4) Enset products - 7 (2) 16 (4.5) 87 (24.3) 101 (28.2) 147 (41.1) Vegetables 4 (1.1) 65 (18.2) 188 (52.5) 71 (19.8) 17 (4.7) 13 (3.6) Fruits 11 (3.1) 137 (38.3) 137 (38.3) 55 (15.4) 18 (5) - Meat 5 (1.4) 39 (10.9) 162 (45.3) 121 (33.8) 25 (7) 6 (1.7) Egg 25 (7) 132 (36.9) 113 (31.6) 64 (17.9) 16 (4.5) 8 (2.2) Fish - 3 (0.8) 6 (1.7) 48 (13.4) 108 (30.2) 193 (53.9) Legumes 86 (24) 203 (56.7) 27 (7.5) 20 (5.6) 11 (3.1) 11 (3.1) Milk & milk products 177 (49.4) 150 (41.9) 12 (3.4) 13 (3.6) 2 (0.6) 4 (1.1) Food cooked with oil, fat or butter 41 (11.5) 73 (20.4) 106 (29.6) 117 (32.7) 19 (5.3) 2 (0.6) Sweet foods & soft drinks 10 (2.8) 23 (6.4) 72 (20.1) 169 (47.2) 81 (22.6) 3 (0.8) Tea with sugar 57 (15.9) 286 (79.9) 9 (2.5) 5 (1.4) 1 (0.3) - Determinant Factors of childhood obesity and overweight Those introduced infant formula at age of four to six months were 5.1 times more likely to be obese/overweight as compared to those introduced infant formula later than six months (AOR=5.06 [95% CI: 2.09-8.33]) (Table 6). Study participants who were categorized in the high socioeconomic status tertiles were 3.5 times more likely to be obese/overweight as compared to the low socioeconomic status tertiles (AOR = 3.51 [95% CI: 1.30- 9.50]) (Table 6). The prevalence of childhood obesity/overweight was higher proportion in age groups 36-47 months (16.4%) when compared to 48-60 months (6.9%). Children with age group 36-47 months were 4.6 times more likely to be obese/overweight when compared to children from age group 48-60 months (AOR = 4.59 [95% CI: 1.52-6.46]) (Table 6). The odds of being obese/overweight for those who ate ice cream and sweet foods were 3.8 and 6.4 times more likely when compared to those who did not eat ice cream and sweet foods (AOR = 3.84 [95% CI: 1.62-7.09] and (AOR = 6.36 [95% CI: [1.88-12.33]), respectively (Table 6). Consumption of fast foods by study participants was significant association with childhood obesity/overweight. Children who ate fast foods were 8.7 times found to be a higher risk for the development of obesity/overweight than their peers who did not eat fast foods (AOR = 8.69 [95% CI: 1.11-13.50]) (Table 6). Children who had high dietary diversity score tertiles were 3.5 times more likely to be obese/overweight when compared to low dietary diversity score tertiles (AOR=3.48 [95% CI: 1.50-8.10]) (Table 6). The level of total physical activities were not significant associated with childhood overweight and obesity (p>0.05) (Table 6).
  • 8. Food Science and Quality Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-6088 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0557 (Online) Vol.29, 2014 56 Table 6. Multivariable logistic regression analysis predicting the likelihood of a child in Hawassa City to be obese/overweight, 2012 (n=358) Variables Overweight and obese (n=38) Non overweight and non obese (n=320) Crude OR [95%CI] Adjusted OR [95%CI] No.[%] No.[%] Age (months) 36-47 48-60 SES tertiles Low Medium High Age of started IF 0-3 months 4-6 months > 6 months Ice cream Yes No Sweet foods Yes No DDS tertiles Low Medium High Fast foods Yes No # TPAL Low Moderate High 23 [16.4] 15 [6.9] 5 (5.9) 6 (4.9) 27(18) 1 [12.5] 24 [11.7] 13 [9] 22 [15.3] 16 [7.5] 20 [16.3] 18 [7.7] 9 [6.1] 5 [8.3] 24 [15.9] 32 [13.4] 6 [5] 9[9.2] 23[10.8] 3[8.6] 118 [83.7] 202 [93.1] 80(94.1) 117(95.1) 123(82) 7 [87.5] 182 [88.3] 131 [91] 122 [84.7] 198 [92.5] 103 [83.7] 217 [92.3] 138 [93.9] 55 [91.7] 127 [84.1] 206 [86.6] 114 [95] 89[90.8] 189[89.2] 32[91.4] 2.63 [1.32-5.23] ** 1 1 0.82 [0.24-2.78] 3.20 [1.17-8.74] ** 1.44 [0.16-12.63] 1.83 [1.65-2.71] * 1 1.36 [1.23-5.89] * 1 2.47 [1.22-6.84] ** 1 1 1.40 [0.45-4.35] 2.90 [1.30-6.45] ** 1.34 [1.14-4.84] * 1 1.08[0.28-4.24] 1.29[0.37-4.58] 1 4.59 [1.52-6.46] *** 1 1 ----- 3.51 [1.30-9.50] *** ------ 5.06 [2.09-8.33] ** 1 3.84 [1.62-7.09] ** 1 6.36 [1.88-12.33] * 1 1 ------ 3.48 [1.50-8.10] *** 8.69 [1.11-13.50] * 1 ----------------------- P < 0.05* P < 0.01** P < 0.001*** # TPAL= Total physical activity level (P>0.05) DISCUSSIONS The present study showed that the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity among children 3-5 years old in Hawassa City, South Ethiopia was 10.7%, of which 7.3% was overweight and 3.4% was obese. This prevalence was comparable to reports of studies in some developed and developing countries. In developing countries obesity may co-exist with under-nutrition, with children in the relatively affluent urban areas more likely to be obese than their rural counterparts. Many studies of individual countries have noted increases in childhood obesity in recent years. Kalies et al. (2002) showed that obesity rates have increased from 1.8% to 2.8% among pre-school children in Germany, which is in the range lower than our finding; this might be due to the time gap between the previous studies and this study or it might be in developed countries have better prevention and control interventions towards childhood obesity than developing countries like Ethiopia. In China, prevalence of obesity in urban area was 12.6% (Lou & Frank, 2002), which is four times higher than the finding of the present study. It might be the socio-economic status variation even if the study was conducted few years back. As one study indicated that prevalence of overweight in Eastern Mediterranean region was 3%-9% (Musaiger, 2004), which is in the range closer to our finding. In Kenya, prevalence of obesity among children 3 to 5 years old was 4% (Gewa, 2010), which is almost a similar figure to the present finding. In Pakistan, prevalence of obesity among children was 7.5% (Muhammad et al., 2011), which is more than two times higher than the finding of present study; the possible reason, it could be in the study area of the children are less adopted to nutrition transition than in Pakistan children. According to Wang & Lobstein (2006) reported that the prevalence of childhood obesity from different African countries as follows: Mauritius 4.0% (age 0 – 5 years), Nigeria 3.3% (0 – 6 years), Rwanda 2.1% (0 -5 years), Senegal 2.6% (0 – 5 years), Tanzania 1.5% (2 – 5 years), Uganda 1.6% (2 – 5 years), Zambia 2.2% (2 – 5
  • 9. Food Science and Quality Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-6088 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0557 (Online) Vol.29, 2014 57 years) and Zimbabwe 4.2% (0 ‐ 3 years). The obesity prevalence ranges from in this countries were lower than the finding except in Zimbabwe and Mauritius; the possible explanation, it might be due to the fact that, these studies were conducted more than a years ago and it has been a fast socioeconomic transition in Africa during the same period. Prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity was not different in both sexes. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among boys was 9% and 3.4%, respectively while the prevalence among girls was 5.5% and 3.3%, respectively. Although it was not statistically significant, boys were higher in overweight than girls; however, almost there was no gender disparity in prevalence of obesity in present study. Similar finding was reported from Pakistan, more boys were overweight than girls and the association was not statistically in significant differences (Muhammad et al., 2011). According to WHO European Region from a total of 36 countries reported that boys have a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity than girls in almost all countries at all ages (Branca et al., 2007). In contrast the finding, children from South African and Kuwait region, the prevalence of obesity was 3.2% for boys and 4.9% for girls and overweight 14% for boys and 17.9% for girls (Armstrong et al., 2006) while in Kuwait, found that 4.7% of boys and 6.7% of girls were obese (Al-Mousa Z. & Parkash P. 2000). The present result showed that obesity among boys was slightly higher when compared to South African boys. But prevalence of overweight in both sexes was higher in South Africa than the present finding. In Kuwait the prevalence of obesity was higher in both sexes when compared to our girls and boys. Female gender was associated with childhood overweight or obesity (Kimani-Murage et al., 2011). The lower prevalence among girls in present finding, it might be due to the fact that majority of the girls joined school in early age than boys (mean age of school entry for boys (49.3) months and girls (36.2) months. This gave them the opportunity of playing in the school than home which is resulting in high physical activity. Also the total physical activity showed that majority of the girls were engaged in both moderate (64.4) and high (10.7) intensity physical activities than boys were engaged in both moderate (58.3) and high (9.5) intensity physical activities. In present study, age was associated with childhood overweight and obesity. In both age groups, it decreased with increasing age. The highest prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity was observed in the age group of 36-47 months (16.4%), the values being 12% for overweight and 4.3% for obese, while the lowest prevelences were observed in the age groups 48-60 months (6.9%), the values being 4.1% for overweight and 2.8% for obese. A similar pattern of decreasing prevalence of obesity and overweight with age was reported from Kenyan urban settings (Gewa, 2010). The decreasing prevalence of overweight and obesity as age increases, it might be attributed to increase in moderate physical activity level (67.3) in age groups from 48-60 months than in moderate physical activity level (52.6) in age groups from 36-47 months. As WHO (2000) indicated that body weight increases are especially prevalent after three years of age (leading to an early adiposity rebound a physiological increase in the percentage of body fat at 5 or 6 years of age). Therefore, the first under five years of life may well be the best period for intervention regarding primary or targeted obesity prevention. The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity was statistically significant association with among high socioeconomic status (SES) (P < 0.001). Highest prevalence was seen among rich families (18%) than poor families (5.9%). One of the reason could be that those who are from high socio economic status will tend more to adopt industrialized or developed countries, that leads to an availability and high consumption of empty calorie junk foods, processed foods, sweet foods or high energy dense and low in fiber instead of the healthy traditional diet such as plant based food sources, low in fat, high fiber, fruits and vegetables. Another explanation might be, in present study Ethiopian societies, a fat child is thought to be a healthy child with better chances to survive the periods of undernourishment and infections and also belongs to a high socio-economic status family. While support to the present finding in developing nations childhood overweight and obesity is most prevalent in wealthier sections of the population. However, child obesity is also rising among the urban poor in these countries, possibly due to their exposure to westernized diets coinciding with a history of undernutrition (Lobstein et al., 2004). Similarly also Lobstein et al. (2004) stated that “overweight prevalence is high among the poor in rich countries and high among the rich in poor countries”. In contrast the present finding, in most industrialized countries the prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased in children specifically among minorities and low socioeconomic status (Lobstein et al., 2004). The reason might be for example, if low energy- dense food were relatively more expensive than less healthy energy dense food, it may be that low SES groups could not literally afford to be thin. Jobs in developed countries have become increasingly sedentary and as a result, more people now have to give up alternative pursuits to exercise. In another study showed that children from Germany in families with low SES are at risk of becoming overweight/obesity compared to children from medium & high SES families (Danielzik et al. 2004; Kleiser et al. 2009). This is contrast to the present finding, which showed that children from households categorized in the high socioeconomic status tertiles were 3.5 times more likely to be obese/overweight as compared to the low socioeconomic status tertiles (AOR = 3.51 [95% CI: 1.30-9.50]). Similar finding from Pakistan, a study showed that children living in the urban area with high socioeconomic status (SES) were significantly at risk for being overweight and obese as compared to children living in the urban area with lower SES (AOR = 18.10 [95% CI: 10.24-32.00) (Muhammad et al., 2011).
  • 10. Food Science and Quality Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-6088 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0557 (Online) Vol.29, 2014 58 In present study, early time of infant formula introduction was significantly associated with childhood overweight/obesity in the study population (P < 0.01). Similar finding reported that an early age of infant formula introduction was significantly associated with childhood overweight/obesity (P < 0.05) (Bogen et al., 2004). There was higher prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity among those who started formula feeding at age of 4 to 6 months (11.7%) as compared to those who started infant formula at later than six months (9%) in the study participants. This is indicating that an early introduction of formula feeding exposes children to overweight/obesity. The possible explanation might be infant formula feeding at an early age, the parents were believe that giving only breast feeding until six months not sufficient to promote growth of their child. Other possible reason for an early introduction of formula feeding could be that the majority of the study subjects are employed workers. Regarding dietary habits in present study those who ate ice cream and sweet foods showed significant association with childhood overweight/obesity (P < 0.01) & (P < 0.05), respectively. Eating fast foods was significant association with childhood overweight/obesity in the study subjects (P < 0.05). Eating fast food has been identified as risk factors for childhood obesity (St-Onge et al., 2003). Similar findings showed that eating fast food has been identified as risk factors for childhood obesity (St-Onge et al., 2003). Frequency of sweets intake are associated with childhood overweight /obesity (Janssen et al., 2005). Other studies showed that dietary behavior such as frequency of sweets intake are associated with childhood overweight/obesity (Janssen et al., 2005). Consumption of fruits and vegetable was not associated with childhood overweight/obesity (P > 0.05). Similar finding showed that childhood overweight/obesity status was not associated with the intake of fruits and vegetables (Janssen et al., 2005; Pawloski et al., 2010). In present study showed that a high dietary diversity score was statistically significant association with childhood overweight/obesity (P<0.001). A higher prevalence of overweight/obesity was observed in higher dietary diversity score (15.9%) than in both medium (8.3%) and low (6.1%) dietary diversity score. Dietary diversity could be a common determinant for the coexistence of under- and over-nutrition (Styen et al., 2006). Similar finding, a study showed in Mexico a higher prevalence of obesity in the study participants with higher dietary diversity score (Ponce et al., 2006). A study also showed in Tehran an increased prevalence and risk of obesity in the individuals with high dietary diversity due to the consumption of fruits and vegetables with oils and inclusion of the high sugar and fat as part of their diet in diversifying their diet (Azadbakht et al., 2005). A limitation of the present study is used cross-sectional survey to assess the prevalence of childhood obesity/overweight and its associated factors which did not allow us to determine cause and effect relationship. In this study other factors which may affect excess body weight gain such as birth weight, health status of child, genetic factor and parent weight status and nutritional knowledge were not included. The food frequency questionnaire relies on memory of the respondents and was not validated. Global physical activity questionnaire used in the study was also not validated to be used for preschool children. There is limited information on childhood overweight and obesity in the study area. CONCLUSIONS In summary, this study shows that data on the prevalence and determinants of overweight and obesity among preschool children in Hawassa City, Ethiopia. With the world-wide increases in overweight and obesity being observed and this region being understudied. Ethiopia has long been considered one of the countries in Africa with very low rates of overweight, yet the present study suggests in this one capital city, at least, urban children are at risk of excessive weight gain. The study showed although the prevalence of overweight and obesity among preschool children in the study area were lower than some reported elsewhere, there is an emerging problem since the trend of the situations is rising rapidly given the trended rapid urbanization and changes in lifestyles and socioeconomic status transition. The present study showed that the association between socio-economic status and childhood overweight/obesity was observed in the study participants. Unlike in developed countries, childhood obesity/overweight in the study area is more prevalent in those of higher socio-economic status. Similar to other developing countries, overweight/obesity was more common among children with wealthier parents, early introduction of infant formula feeding, who ate a wide diversity of foods, consumed sweets and fast foods. Even though, while measures of total physical activity level were not associated with overweight/obesity. Therefore, nutrition education should promote avoidance of early introduction of infant formula into the diets of children and exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months. Parents and children should be educated on good food consumption practices and trained to develop healthy eating behaviors. Parents should be discouraging frequent consumption of sweet and fast foods in to children’s diet. Further research should be done on addressing all factors contributing to the occurrence of overweight and obesity among preschool children. COMPETING INTERESTS The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
  • 11. Food Science and Quality Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-6088 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0557 (Online) Vol.29, 2014 59 AUTHORS’ CONTRIBUTIONS TW designed the study and created the survey instrument. TB and DM participated in the design of the study and helped to write the manuscript. TB also contributed to statistical analysis and data interpretation and helped to write the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The study was financially supported by grants from the University of Hawassa, South Ethiopia and NORAD project. We are profoundly grateful to the preschool children and their parents who participated in the study and the many people that assisted with this study. The supervisors and data collectors are thankfully acknowledged for their assistance and support during data collection. I really would like to express my deep gratitude and appreciation to my mother (Amarech Anito), Mama your prayers are always a source of strength. I am deeply indebted to her for her patience, concern and love. Also, I would like to thank my wife (Mekdes Zeleke) for her invaluable support. Finally, we would like to appreciate the peer reviewers for their highly constructive reviews (Dr. Barbara Stoecker, Dr. Amy Luke and Dr. Tarek Amin). ABBREVIATIONS WHO: World Health Organization; USAID: United States Agency for International Development; UNICEF: United Nations international Children’s Fund; CSA: Central Statistical Agency; BMI: Body mass index; SPSS: Statistical Package for Social Science; PPS: Probability Proportional to Size; SD: Standard deviation; CI: Confidence Interval; AOR: Adjusted Odds Ratio; BAZ: Body Mass Index for Age z score; DDS: Dietary Diversity Score and SES: Socioeconomic status. REFERENCES Al-Mousa Z. & Parkash P. 2000. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among Kuwaiti children and adolescents. Bahrain med. bulletin. 22(3):123–7. Armstrong M.E., Lambert M.I., Sharwood K.A. & Lambert E.V. 2006. Obesity and overweight in South African primary school children. The Health of the Nation Study. S. Afr. Med. J. 96: 439-444. Azadbakht L., Mirmiran P. & Azizi F. 2005. Dietary diversity Score is favorably associated with the metabolic syndrome in Tehranian adults. Int. J. of Obes. 29 (11): 1361– 7. Bogen D., Hanusa B.H. & Whitaker R.C. 2004. The effect of breast-feeding with and without formula use on the risk of obesity at 4 years of age. Obes Res. 12:1527–1535. Branca F., Nikogosian H. & Lobstein T. 2007. The challenge of obesity in the WHO European Region and the strategies for response. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe (http://www.euro.who.int/document/E90711.pdf). (Accessed on 12 March 2012). CSA (Central Statistical Agency). 2007. Census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia (http//en.wiki/centeral_stastical_agency_Ethiopia). (Accessed on 17 Decmber 2011). Danielzik S., Czerwinski-Mast M., Langnäse K., Dilba B. & Müller M.J. 2004. Parental overweight, socioeconomic status and high birth weight are major determinants of overweight and obesity in 5-7 y-old children: baseline data of the Kiel Obesity Prevention Study (KOPS). Int. J. Obes. 28:1494-1502. de Onis M, Blo¨ssner M & Borghi E. 2010. Global prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity among preschool children. Am J Clin Nutr. 92:1257–64. de Onis M. & Lobstein T. 2010. Defining obesity risk status in the general childhood population: Which cut-offs should we use? Int. J. Pediatr. Obes. 5: 458-460. Gewa C.A. 2010. Childhood overweight and obesity among Kenyan pre-school children: association with maternal and early child nutritional factors. Public Health Nutr. 13:496–503. Gibson RS. 2005. Principles of Nutritional Assessment. 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, New York. pp. 275- 276. IOTF (International Obesity Task Force). 2003. Obesity and diabetes. London. (http://www.iotf.org/media). (Accessed on 26 November 2011). Janssen I., Katzmarzyk P.T., Boyce W.F., Vereecken C., Mulvihill C., Roberts C., Currie C. & Pickett W. 2005. Health behavior in school-aged children obesity working group. Comparison of overweight and obesity prevalence in school-aged youth from 34 countries and their relationships with physical activity and dietary patterns. Obes Rev. 6: 123-132. Kalies H., Lenz J. & Rüdiger von Kries. 2002. “Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity and trends in Body Mass Index in German Pre-School Children 1982-1997,” Int. J. of Obes. 26:1211-1217. Kimani-Murage E.W., Kahn K., Pettifor J.M., Tollman S.M., Klipstein-Grobusch K. & Norris S.A. 2011. Predictors of adolescent weight status and central obesity in rural South Africa. Public Health Nutr. 11:14-1122. Kleiser C., Schaffrath Rosario A., Mensink G.B.M., Prinz-Langenohl R. & Kurth B.M. 2009. Potential determinants of obesity among children and adolescents in Germany: results from the cross-sectional KiGGS
  • 12. Food Science and Quality Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-6088 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0557 (Online) Vol.29, 2014 60 study. BMC Public Health. 9:46. Lobstein T., Baur L. & Uauy R. 2004. For the International Association for the Study of Obesity of the International Obesity Task Force. Obesity in children and young people: a crisis in public health. Obes Rev. 5 (Suppl 1): 4-104. Luo J. & Frank B. 2002. “Time Trends of Obesity in Pre-School Children in China from 1989 to 1997,” Int. J. of Obes. 26:553-558. Muhammad U.M., Sibgha G., Hussein M.A., Ubeera S., Mushtaq A.S. & Javed A. 2011. Prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of overweight and obesity among Pakistani primary school children. BMC Public Health. 11:724. Musaiger A.O. 2004. Overweight and obesity in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, Eastern Mediterranean Health J. 10 (6): 345-349. Pawloski L.R., Kitsantas P. & Ruchiwit M. 2010. Determinants of overweight and obesity in Thai adolescent girls. Int. J. Med. 3: 352-356. Ponce X., Ramirez E. & Delisle H. 2006. A more diversified diet among mexican men may also be more atherogenic. J. Nutr. 136: 2921–2927. Reilly J.J. & Kelly J. 2011. Long-term impact of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence on morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood: Systematic review. Int. J. Obes. 35: 891-898. St-Onge M.P., Keller K.L. & Heymsfield S.B. 2003. Changes in childhood food consumption patterns: a cause for concern in light of increasing body weights. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 78:106873. Styen N.P., NEL J.H., Nantel G., Kennedy G., Labadarios D. 2006. Food Variety and Dietary Diversity Scores in children: are they good indicators of dietary adequacy: Public Health Nutr. 9 (5):644-50. Swindale A. & Bilinsky. (2006). Household dietary diversity score (HDDS) for measurement of household food access: Indicator guide (v.2). Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project, Academy for Educational Development. 1-9. Vander Sande MAB, Ceesay SM, Milligan PJM, Nyan OA, Banya WAS, Prentice A, McAdam KPWJ & Walraven GEL. 2001. Obesity and undernutrition and cardiovascular risk factors in rural and urban Gambian communities. American Journal of Public Health. 91(10): 1641-1644. Wang Y. & Lobstein T. 2006. Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesity. Int. J. of Pediatr. Obes. 1: 11–25. WHO (World Health Organization). 2000. Obesity preventing and managing the global epidemic: Report of a WHO consultation. Technical Report Series. (894): 4. Geneva: Switzerland. WHO (World Health Organization). 2003. “Diet, nutrition and prevention of chronic diseases,” WHO Technical Report Series 916,WHO, Geneva, Switzerland. WHO (World Health Organization). 2004. Developing countries Face double burdened of disease: The bulletin of the WHO, Geneva. (82): 7. WHO (World Health Organization). 2007. The WHO stepwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance (STEPS). WHO 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27: Switzerland. (www.who.int/chp/steps). (Accessed on 02 December 2011). WHO (World Health Organization). 2007a. WHO Anthro for personal computers: Software for assessing growth and development of the world's children (version 3.2.2). Geneva: Switzerland. (http://www.who.int/childgrowth/software/en/). (Accessed on 20 December 2011). WHO (World Health Organization). 2008. Training course on child growth assessment. Module C: interpreting growth indicators. Geneva: Switzerland. WHO (World Health Organization). 2009. WHO AnthroPlus for personal computers Manual: Software for assessing growth of the world's children and adolescents. Geneva: Switzerland. (http://www.who.int/growthref/tools/en/). (Accessed on 08 December 2011). ADDITIONAL TABLES, FIGURES AND INFORMATION The sampling process by probability proportional to population size (PPS) selection Selection of a sample of kebeles is performed by sampling with PPS. This is carried out by creating a cumulative size of preschool children (3-5 years) list of kebele population size and selecting a systematic sample from a random start. To take a sample of three kebeles from list of 20 kebeles, as shown in the Table below based on PPS sampling technique and then divide the total cumulative size of preschool children (N=17,425) by the number of kebeles to be selected (3) to obtain the sampling interval (17,425/3=5808). Choose random number between 1 and 5808, the selected random number is 3819. The kebele having an individual listed at 3819th will be the first kebele to be the sample. Now add the sampling interval to this random number to select the other two kebeles.
  • 13. Food Science and Quality Management ISSN 2224-6088 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0557 (Online) Vol.29, 2014 Table 1: A Cumulative size of children 3 S.No. Name of kebeles Registered total population size 1 Adare 4,333 2 Addis Ababa 8,413 3 Andenet 2,208 4 Daka 13,586 5 Dume* 10,876 6 Fara 7,350 7 Filidelfia 7,265 8 Gebeya dar 13,303 9 Gudumale 4,054 10 Guwi* 16,601 11 Harer 3,434 12 Hetata 12,593 13 Hoganne 11,575 14 Leku 6,472 15 Millennium* 8,104 16 Nigat Kokeb 4,130 17 Piassa 3,979 18 Teso 9,544 19 Tilte 15,092 20 Wukro 11,345 N.B. Star [*] ones are those selected kebeles by PPS. Table 2: List of the three selected kebeles with the sample size drawn from each kebel S.No. Name of the selected (3) clusters/kebeles 1 Dume 2 Guwi 3 Millennium Children’s dietary diversity food groups Dietary diversity is a qualitative measure of food consumption that reflects household access to a wide variety of foods, and is also a proxy of the nutrient adequacy of the diet for individuals. Individual Dietary Diversity Score (IDDS) is often used as a proxy measure of the n uality Management 0557 (Online) 61 children 3-5 years old with list of the kebele population sizes in Hawassa City, South Ethiopia, 2011/2012 Registered total population size Children (3-5yrs old) Cumulative size of children (3 4,333 433 433 8,413 841 1274 2,208 221 1495 13,586 1,359 2854 10,876 1,088 3942 7,350 735 4677 7,265 727 5404 ,303 1,330 6734 4,054 405 7139 16,601 1,660 8799 3,434 343 9142 12,593 1,259 10,401 11,575 1,158 11,559 6,472 647 12,206 8,104 810 13,016 4,130 413 13,429 3,979 398 13,827 9,544 954 14,781 15,092 1,509 16,290 11,345 1,135 17,425 Star [*] ones are those selected kebeles by PPS. Table 2: List of the three selected kebeles with the sample size drawn from each kebel Name of the selected (3) clusters/kebeles Estimated number of preschool aged children (3- 5yrs) 1,088 109 1,660 167 810 82 Children’s dietary diversity food groups qualitative measure of food consumption that reflects household access to a wide variety of foods, and is also a proxy of the nutrient adequacy of the diet for individuals. Individual Dietary Diversity Score (IDDS) is often used as a proxy measure of the nutritional quality of an individual’s diet. For dietary diversity, a www.iiste.org 5 years old with list of the kebele population sizes in Hawassa Cumulative size of children (3-5yrs old) 433 1274 1495 2854 3942 4677 5404 6734 7139 8799 9142 10,401 11,559 12,206 13,016 13,429 13,827 14,781 16,290 17,425 Table 2: List of the three selected kebeles with the sample size drawn from each kebele (n=358) Sample size drawn 109 167 82 qualitative measure of food consumption that reflects household access to a wide variety of foods, and is also a proxy of the nutrient adequacy of the diet for individuals. Individual Dietary Diversity Score utritional quality of an individual’s diet. For dietary diversity, a
  • 14. Food Science and Quality Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-6088 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0557 (Online) Vol.29, 2014 62 simple count of the number of food groups is calculated. Specifically USAID guidelines suggest not including oils/fats, sugar/honey, and miscellaneous food groups because these food groups do not significantly contribute to a healthful diet. However, sugars, fats and oils do contribute to improved weight-for-age and weight-for height scores, if for nothing else other than the fact that these foods increase weight. The argument against their inclusion cites the potential to lead to negative health outcomes, namely childhood overweight and obesity. While recognizing this point, childhood overweight and obesity is not a widespread problem in Ethiopia. Therefore, when constructing the DDS, foods were classified in the following groups: (1) Grains, roots or tubers (2) Vitamin A-rich fruits and vegetables foods (3) Other fruits or vegetables (4) Meat, poultry, fish and seafood (5) Eggs (6) Pulses/legumes/nuts (7) Milk and milk products (8) Miscellaneous The final group includes fats, oils, sugars, honey, tea, snack foods, soft drink beverages, soda and various commonly used spices (Swindale A. & Bilinsky P., 2006). Total physical activity calculation guide According to GPAQ comprise 16 questions grouped to capture physical activity undertaken in different behavioral domains, namely work, transport and discretionary activity (also known as leisure or recreation). In the transport, recreation and sport activities, the frequency and duration of all walking, cycling for transport, vigorous and moderate activities. One additional item is collected, i.e. time spent in sedentary activities. Metabolic Equivalents (MET) are commonly used to express the intensity of physical activities and are also used for the analysis of GPAQ data, existing guidelines have been adopted: it is estimated that, compared to sitting quietly, a person's caloric consumption is four times higher when being moderately active and eight times higher when being vigorously active. Therefore, when calculating a person's overall energy expenditure using GPAQ data, 4 METs get assigned to the time spent in moderate activities and 8 METs to the time spent in vigorous activities. For the calculation of a categorical indicator, the total time spent on physical activity during a typical week, the numbers of days as well as the intensity of physical activity are taken into account. The three levels of physical activity suggested for classifying children are low, moderate and high based on total physical activity calculation guide criteria (WHO, 2007). Questions Used P1-P15 Program Ptotallevels (unweighted), PtotallevelsWT (weighted) Equations Total physical activity MET-minutes/week ( = the sum of the total MET minutes of activity computed for each setting) Equation: Total Physical Activity = [(P2 * P3 * 8) + (P5 * P6 * 4) + (P8 * P9 *4) + (P11 * P12 * 8) + (P14 * P15* 4)] Level of total Physical activity Physical activity cutoff value High • IF:(P2 + P11) ≥3 days AND Total physical activity MET minutes per week is ≥1500 OR • IF: (P2 + P5 + P8 + P11 + P14) ≥7 days AND total physical activity MET minutes per week is ≥3000 Moderate • IF: level of physical activity does not reach criteria for high levels of physical activity AND at least one of the following: • IF: (P2 + P11) ≥3 days AND ((P2 * P3) + (P11 * P12)) ≥ 3*20 minutes OR • IF: (P5 + P8 + P14) ≥ 5 days AND ((P5 * P6) + (P8 * P9) + (P14 * P15) ≥150 minutes OR • IF: (P2 + P5 + P8 + P11 + P14) ≥5 days AND Total physical activity MET minutes per week ≥600 Low IF level of physical activity does not reach the criteria for either high or moderate levels of physical activity
  • 15. Food Science and Quality Management ISSN 2224-6088 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0557 (Online) Vol.29, 2014 Table 3: Reliability test for global physical activity questionnaire Cronbach's Alpha .806 uality Management 0557 (Online) 63 Table 3: Reliability test for global physical activity questionnaire Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Items No. of GPAQ items .795 10 www.iiste.org Table 3: Reliability test for global physical activity questionnaire No. of GPAQ items
  • 16. Food Science and Quality Management ISSN 2224-6088 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0557 (Online) Vol.29, 2014 uality Management 0557 (Online) 64 www.iiste.org
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