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Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of domestic turkey

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  • 1. Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-3186 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0921 (Online) Vol.4, No.17, 2014 Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasites of Domestic Turkey (Meleagris Gallopavo) Linnaeus, (1758) Slaughtered in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria Namso Aniefiok Udoh1., Sodangi Abdulkarim Luka2*. and Patrick Amidu Audu3 1 Community Staff Schools, P.M.B 8108, Asokoro, Abuja, Nigeria 2 Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria 3 Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University, Lokoja, , Kogi State , Nigeria *Corresponding Author- sodangiluka25@gmail.com Abstract A study on the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) was carried out in Kaduna metropolis, northern Nigeria. The gastrointestinal tracts of 196 Turkeys comprising 114 males and 82 females were examined for gastrointestinal parasites. The gastrointestinal tracts were collected from five slaughter slabs in Kaduna. Out of the 196 gastrointestinal tracts examined, the overall prevalence of 113 (57.7%) was recorded. The parasite with the highest prevalence was Ascaridia .spp 51 (26.0%), followed by Eimeria 44 (22.45%), Subulura brumpti 7(3.6%) Raillietina .cesticillus 5 (2.6%), Heterakis gallinarum 2(1.0%) Choanotaenia infundibulum, Davainea meleagridis, Methroliasthes lucida and capillaria spp had the least prevalence of 1(0.5%). Higher prevalence was recorded in males (62.3%) than females (47.6%). Double infection was more common (32.1%) than single infection (22.9%), triple (26.02%), quadruple (13.1%) and pentaple infection had the least (5.1%). Based on the prediction sites, small intestines harboured more parasites. No parasite was recovered in the proventriculus. There was statistically significant difference in prevalence rates between the sexes (p<0.05). Odd ratio (OR=1.8) value greater than one showed association between the prevalence of parasites and sex of the animal. Results of the study suggest that more attention be focused towards the improvement, management and care of domestic turkeys. Keywords: gastrointestinal parasites, domestic turkeys, Kaduna State, Nigeria. 1. Introduction The poultry industry is the largest and the most automated, vertically integrated and intensified of the animal production industries (Grandin &Deesing, 1988). In many countries in the world, poultry has become one of the most popular components of the livestock industry. The domestic turkeys (Meleagridis gallopavo) are one of the most important and widely distributed game bird species in Northern America, Europe, but in the rest of the world, especially in developing countries, it’s potential has been overlooked largely because modern turkeys are highly breed for intensive production, thereby rendering the birds in appropriate for home production(NRC, 1991). Turkeys are large poultry birds, fast gaining popularity among peasant farmers in Nigeria due to their quick turn over rate, higher feed conversion rate and minimum land requirements. The turkeys compliment chicken production. They are said to thrive more in arid conditions, they tolerate heat as compared to chickens. The turkey has higher quality meat with low fat content. Their males are bigger than the female turkeys. Smith (1990) and Oso et al. (2008) reported that the carcass of turkeys contains a higher amount of protein than the carcass of chicken. Domestic turkeys are omnivores, feeding on ground dwelling arthropods, molluscs and amphibians, vegetables, nuts, seeds and leaves (Eaton, 1992). Gastrointestinal parasites constitute a major factor limiting productivity of the poultry industry by affecting the growth rate of the host resulting in malnourishment which could eventually lead to death (Soulsby, 1982; Jordan & Pattison, 1999). Parasites that commonly invade the gastrointestinal tract of the turkeys include protozoans, nematodes, Acanthocephalas, Cestodes and Trematodes (Soulsby, 1982). These parasites when found in the gastrointestinal tract could lead to loss of appetite, emaciation, diarrhea, anaemia, reduced egg production, retarded growth therefore reducing their economic value. A few Ascarids may depress weight while large numbers may block the intestinal tract. Ascaridia dissimilis (Turkey roundworm) may also migrate out of the intestine through the portal system into the liver thereby causing hepatic granulomas (Gordon, 1997). The demand for protein as a vital component of nutrients is very important. Poultry production is the most efficient and economic means of meeting this demand; due to the relative small capital required to start off, the ease of feed availability and the fast maturity of the birds. Despite the importance of turkey in meeting the demand for protein, effects of parasites on the domestic turkeys is poorly understood especially in Nigeria. Due to the increasing demand of turkey meat by high ranked individuals in Kaduna metropolis, Northern Nigeria and lack of information on the gastrointestinal parasites of the domestic turkeys, the current study was embarked upon to determine the overall and sex specific 105
  • 2. Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-3186 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0921 (Online) Vol.4, No.17, 2014 prevalence of gastrointestinal tract parasites and predilection sites of the parasites in the tract of turkeys slaughtered in Kaduna metropolis, Northern Nigeria. 2. Materials and methods 2.1 Study area The study was conducted in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Kaduna state is located in north central geopolitical zone covering a land mass area of 45, 567 square kilometres. The climate of the area is tropical continental with an annual rain fall of about 1,270mm. The raining season is from April to October while the dry season is from November to March. 2.2 Collection of samples The study population comprised domestic turkeys slaughtered in five slaughter slabs in Kaduna metropolis. The study was conducted between January and October, 2011. Gastrointestinal tracts of 196 domestic turkeys were collected once every week for ten months. The gastrointestinal tracts were collected in clean sample bottles containing 10% formalin to fix and preserve the parasites. The samples were transported to the Helminthology Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria for examination and identification of the parasites. 2.3 Processing and Laboratory examination of samples In the laboratory, the gastrointestinal tracts were separated into different regions: the gizzard, crop, small intestine, large intestine and caecum. Each region was cut open using a dissecting scissors. Intestinal scrapping was done and all adult parasites recovered from the different regions were picked with forceps, washed in saline and identified. The floatation method according to Soulsby, (1982) was used in the examination of the faecal samples for the detection of helminthes and protozoan parasites. The stool preparations were examined under the microscope at X10 and X40 magnification. The helminthes eggs and coccidian oocysts recovered in each sample were counted using the McMaster technique in order to obtain the estimated total number of eggs per gram of each sample. Identification of the parasites was done according to the descriptions of Soulsby, (1982); Ruff, (1984) and Ruprah et al. (1986). 2.4 Data analysis The prevalence and mean intensity of the parasites among infected Turkeys were calculated using frequencies and percentages. The Odds ratio was calculated to determine whether there is association between the most infected sex and their predilection sites. 3. Results The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of the domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) was determined in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The overall prevalence of the parasitic infection is shown in Table 1. Out of a total of 196 domestic turkeys examined, 113 (57.7%) were infected by Protozoans, Nematode and Cestode parasites. Nematodes had the highest prevalence of 61(31.1%), followed by protozoans 44(22.4%), cestodes had the least prevalence of 8(4.0%). TABLE 1: Overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) (N= 196) Parasites Number infected Prevalence(%) Protozoa Nematodes Cestodes Total 106 44 61 08 113 22.4 31.1 4.0 57.7 Species specific prevalence is shown in Table 2.The Nematode parasite Ascaridia Spp. was the most prevalent parasite recovered 51(26.0%) followed by Eimeria spp. 44 (22.4%) the least were Capillaria , Davainea meleagridis and Methroliasthes lucida species were each recovered in .1 (0.5%) of the turkeys. (Table2). On a general note, out of the three parasitic groups encountered in this study, the nematodes were the most prevalent followed by the protozoans and cestode parasites.
  • 3. Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-3186 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0921 (Online) Vol.4, No.17, 2014 TABLE 2: Species-specific prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of Domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) (N=196) Parasites Number infected Percentage (%) Protozoan Eimeria species Nematodes Ascaridia species Capillaria species Heterakis gallinarum Subulura brumpti Cestodes Raillietina cesticillus Davainea meleagridis Choanotaenia infundibulum Methroliasthes lucida Total 107 44 51 01 02 07 05 01 01 01 113 22.4 26.0 0.5 1.0 3.6 2.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 57.7 The sex specific prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infection revealed higher prevalence in males 71 (62.3%) than female turkeys 39(47.6%). The different parasites showed high predilection for specific sites in the gastrointestinal tract of the turkeys (Table 3). Most of the nematode and protozoan parasites preferred the small intestine while other nematodes and cestodes were found in the oesophagus, large intestine and caecum. No parasite was recovered in the proventriculus (Table 3). The intensity of infection was light with 1-100 eggs/ gram of faeces. Coccidian oocysts recovered in the faecal samples i.e , Eimeria spp. had a prevalence of 44 (22.4%) (Table 2) .the intensity of infection was light with 1-100 oocysts/ gram of faeces. Mixed infections of two (32.1%), three (26.0 %), four (13.1%) and five (5.1%) parasitic species per turkey were recorded in this study. No Trematode parasite was recovered during the study. Table 3: Predilection sites of gastrointestinal parasites of domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) n==196 Preferred sites Parasites Number infected Species specific prevalence Oesophagus Small intestine Large intestine Caecum Capillaria sp Raillietina cesticillus. Eimeria sp. Choanotaenia infundibulum Ascaridia spp Davainea meleagridis Methroliasthes lucida Subulura brumpti Heterakis gallinarum 01 05 44 2 51 01 01 7 2 0.51 2.6 22.4 1.0 26.0 0.5 0.5 3.6 1.0 4. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on gastrointestinal parasites of domestic turkeys in the study area. The study revealed high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of turkey. The occurrence of parasites in the Turkey is the most damaging infection and source of high economic losses in the industry through meat condemnation and morbidity (Naem and Eskandari, 2005). The high prevalence recorded in this study could be due to the fact that domestic turkeys are natural forages that can be fed with a wide range of diet that predispose them to parasitic infections with many of the foods such as seeds, kitchen wastes exposing them to the intermediate hosts (such as cockroaches, beetles, grasshopper, earthworms e.t.c.) of certain pathogens (Frantovo, 2000). A feature of this study was the complete absence of trematodes in the gastrointestinal tracts of the domestic turkeys. This could be due to the complex life cycle of the trematodes that requires at least an intermediate host which may be in the same habitat with the turkeys. The absence of such habitats helps to break the lifecycle of the trematodes thereby reducing the spread of the worms (Adang et al. 2008). Over the years, turkeys were only raised under semi intensive conditions by only the rich in Nigeria or their personal consumption. Until recently when more individuals could afford raising these birds in their backyards which to a great extent has increased the chances of the turkeys to harbor more gastrointestinal parasites. In addition to that, a considerable amount of human and animal wastes are discharged into the soil daily thereby leading to seeping of the soil with pathogenic organisms, contamination of the soil occurs and eventually infective stages are swallowed by the birds during feeding (Audu et al. 2004). The species specific prevalence of the parasites in this study revealed higher prevalence in males than
  • 4. Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-3186 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0921 (Online) Vol.4, No.17, 2014 female turkeys. This outcome could be due to the fact that female turkeys reduces their feeding range during incubation period and concentrate more on the grains and food remnants being served to them, thereby reducing the chances of acquiring infection. The males on the other hand can go far in search of food, thereby increasing the possibility of picking more parasitic eggs (Adang et al. 2008). The study revealed that the turkeys were parasitized by a variety of helminth parasites especially Nematodes.This could be due to the fact that parasites are said to be more predominant in the tropical countries since the climate and environmental conditions of the area tend to favour the growth of the parasites. Secondly, the management system of the turkey and lifecycle of the parasites determines the variety of the parasites the bird can acquire. Turkeys reared extensively on free range tend to acquire infection with a wide range of parasites having direct life cycle because of their increased exposure to larger areas of land and various intermediate hosts of parasites ( Fabiyi, 1972) Nematodes had the highest prevalence as compared to cestodes, with Ascaris having a prevalence of 26.0%. This work agrees with earlier findings of Yoriyo et al. (2008); Ohaeri & Okwum, (2013) which indicates that nematode parasites are always more prevalent than the cestodes. The nematodes do not require intermediate hosts as the cestodes do and are mostly soil transmitted, their eggs can remain viable for a long time enabling the turkeys to constantly pick up the viable eggs from the droppings that contaminate the environment as they feed and increase parasite burden.(Permin & Hansen, 1998; Ohaeri & Okwum, 2013). The domestic turkeys raised in backyards are hosts of a greater amount of gastrointestinal parasites this partly explains the low productivity that is common in raising turkeys, which confers greater resilience inherent to the production system to which they belong ( Marco-Antonio et al. 2014). Poor sanitary condition and lack of proper hygiene is a major contributing factor to the high prevalence recorded in this study. Most backyard farmers don’t bother about keeping their gutters and surrounding clean this exposes the birds to serious infection. Not much have been documented on gastrointestinal parasites of domestic turkeys in Nigeria and Africa the study would therefore serve as a reference point for further studies.. Mixed infections of two or more species of parasites per turkey were common in this study but lower prevalence of mixed infections was recorded as compared to the single infection. This outcome might be attributed to the food preference at a particular time which to a great extent can determine the establishment of mixed or single infection. The ability of two or more parasites to survive within the same host has increased the prevalence of mixed infection but as the number of parasites per host increases, the prevalence decreases due to the inability of the parasites to tolerate one another. ( Reid,.1962; Smyth, 1976; Fatihu et al. 1991). Most of the parasites encountered in this study were restricted to the small intestine where prevailing optimum concentration of saline, glucose and other semi digested food and debris abound(Adang et al. 2008) the site generally favour absorption of nutrients through the body surface of the parasites. In addition to that, some nematodes like Subulura brumpti and Heterakis gallinarum were restricted to the large intestine and caecum. This might be attributed to their fairly developed digestive system that gives them greater chances of establishment of a host- parasite relationship. The complete absence of parasites in the proventriculus might be due to the fact that the physiological medium in the site do not favour the existence of parasites as compared to the small intestine. 5. Conclusions This study revealed the presence of protozoans, nematodes and cestode parasites in the domestic turkeys slaughtered in Kaduna metropolis. The domestic turkeys raised are hosts of a greater amount of gastrointestinal parasites which is attributed to the production system to which they belong. Therefore, Turkeys raised in free range condition of breeding should have a boundary and food served to them to reduce their search for food which exposes them to intermediate hosts of parasites. predilection sites are the small intestine, large intestine and caecum. Mixed infections were recorded but as the number of parasites per host increases, the prevalence decreases. Acknowledgements The Authors are grateful to Prof. and Prof Mrs. J.U Umoh and the entire laboratory Technicians Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. References Adang, K.L., Oniye., S.J., Ajanusi, O, J., Ezealor, A.U.. & Abdu, P.A. (2008). Gastrointestinal Helminthes of the Domestic Pigeons (Columbalivia domestica Gmelia, 1780 Aves columbidae) in Zaria, Northern Nigeria. Science World Journal, 3: 33-37 Audu, P.A., Oniye, S.J. & Okechukwu, P.U. (2004). Helminth parasites of domesticated pegions (Columbalivia domestica) in Zaria Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Pest Diseases and Vector Management, 5:356-360. 108
  • 5. Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-3186 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0921 (Online) Vol.4, No.17, 2014 Eaton, S. (1992). Wild Turkey(Meleagris gallopavo). 1-28 Fabiyi, J.P. (1972). Incidence of helminth parasites of the domestic fowl in Vom Area of Benue Plateau State, Nigeria. Bulletin of Epizootic Diseases of Africa, 20:229-233. Fatihu, M. Y., Ogbogu, V. C., Njoku, C.V. & Saror, O. I. (1991). Comparative studies of gastrointestinal helminths of poultry in Zaria. Revue d’ E’Levage Medicine Veterinaries pour pays Tropicaux, 44(2): 175-177. Frantovo, D. (2000). Some parasitic nematodes (Nematoda) of (Aves) in the Czech Republic. Acta Societatis Zoological Biochemical, 66: 13-28 Gordon, R. F. (1997). Poultry Diseases. Macmillian Publishing Company Inc. Newyork. 145-146. Grandin, T. & Deesing, M.J. (1988). Genetics and Animal Welfare. In: Genetics and the Behaviour of domestic Animals. Academic Press, San Diego, California. Pp. 310-341 Jordan, F.T.W. & Pattison , O. (1999). Poultry diseases. Fourth Edition. W.B. Saunder, London, United Kingdom. Pp 2-3 Marco Antonio, C., Jaime, A,. Narciso Tsac, A. S., Jerez- Salas, M.P., Edgar, I.S. B &Lopez, J.C.(2014). Ectoparasites and their damage in Backyard Turkeys in oaxaca’s coast, Mexico. European Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 7: 1-14 Naem, S. & Eskandari, S. (2005). Prevalence of intestinal helminthes of native chickens in Urmin Iran. Iranian, 3(2):200-203. National Research Council (1991). Microlivestock little known small Animals with a promising Economic Future. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. pp157-165 Ohaeri, C.C.& Okwum, C. (2013). Helminthic Parasites of Domestic Fowls in Ikwuano, Abia State Nigeria. Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 3(1) Oso, A.O., Fafiolu, A.O., Sobayo, R.A., Jegede, A. V., Dele, P.E., Alaka, K.O., Oni, A.O. & Amosun, A.Y. (2008). A survey of Backyard indigenous and exotic Turkey production In Abeokuta Metropolis. In Proceedings on the 13th Annual conference of the ASAN, Pp 709-710, Repositioning Animal agriculture for the Realization of national Vision 2020. Permin, A. & Hansen,J.W.(1998). Epidemiology, diagnosis and control of poultry parasites. FAO Animal health Manuals and Control of Poultry Parasites. FAO Animal Manuals 4. Rome: foodand agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO). 160Pp Reid, W. M.(1962. Chickens and Turkey Tapeworms.University of Georgia Handbook. Poultry Department, Athens, G.A. 649-667 Ruff, M. D. (1984). Nematodes and Acanthocephalas In: Hofstad, M.S., Barnes, H.J., Calnek, B.W., Reid, M.W. and Yobe, H.W. (Eds) Diseases of Poultry. 8th Edition, IOWA State University Press. Pp 705-736. Ruphrah, N.S., Chaudri, S.S.& Gupta, S.K. (1986). General Parasitology snd Platyhelminthes. In: Parasitological Manual. Haryana Agricultural University Hisar 125004, 1:97 Smith, A.J.(1990). Poultry production. The Tropical Agriculturist Poultry. National Academic Press. London. Pp 24-49 Smyth, J.D. (1976). Introduction to Animal Parasites 2nd edition. Hazzel Watson and Viney Limited. Aylesbury bucks. Soulsby, E.J.L. (1982). Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoans of domesticated animals (7th edn). Bailliere Tindale London. 149-157 Yoriyo, K.P.; Adang, K.L.; Fabiyi, J.P. & Adamu, S.U. (2008). Helminth parasites of local chickens in Bauchi State, Nigeria. Science World Journal, 3 (2):35-37 109
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