Price determination of garcinia kola (bitter kola) and aframomum melegueta (alligator pepper) in ibadan, oyo state.
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Transcripts - Price determination of garcinia kola (bitter kola) and aframomum melegueta (alligator pepper) in ibadan, oyo state.
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online) 093XVol 2, No.7, 2012 Price Determination Of Garcinia kola (Bitter Kola) And Aframomum melegueta (Alligator Pepper) In Ibadan, Oyo State. elegueta O. Famuyide, O. Adebayo, O. Adeniran*, T. Owese, K. Bolaji-Olutunji, A. Odebiyi Olutunji, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 5054, Jericho, Ibadan. 5054, * Email of the corresponding author: email@example.comAbstractThe study analysed the factors influencing the price of Bitter kola and Alligator pepper in Non Timber ForestProducts markets in Ibadan. Data were collected from 76 sellers with the aid of structured questionnaires inOja‘ba, Agbeni-Ologede, Bode, Oje, Oj Ologede, Ojoo, Shasha and Omi-Adio markets. The data were analysed using Adiodescriptive statistics, gini coefficient and multiple regression. The result shows that the market is dominated byfemale sellers, majority of which had no formal education but with more than twenty years of experience in the twentytrade. The gini coefficient of 0.76 and 0.81 for Garcinia and Aframomum respectively reveal that the marketfor these products tend towards oligopoly. The regression analysis shows that Age, Eeducational qualification of educationalthe seller and Cost price of the products are significant determinants of price for the two products. Also Years ofexperience in the trade positively influence price for Bitter kola and Cost of transportation for Aframomum It is Aframomum.recommended that better storage technology should be developed; the sellers should be encouraged to form ragecooperatives for the provision of services and facilities such as transportation and organized marketing system.Sustainability of the species should be encouraged by creating awareness and encouraging small and large awarenessprivate plantations.Keywords: Price, Garcinia kola, Aframomum melegueta1. IntroductionIt is commonly recognized that forests are the mainstay of a large number of the world’s poor and that 1.6 billionpeople living in and near forests use forests for subsistence, products and water supply and for generating asubstantial portion of their cash income (CIFOR, 2005). Forests and the goods and services they provide are shessential for human wellbeing. Humans use forests for many purposes and the products derived from the forestand their benefits are referred to as ‘forest goods and services’ (Campos et al, 2005; MEA, 2005). Although (Camposforest goods are the result of providing services, they are usually mentioned separately, being more tangible thanthe other services. This value chain includes wood and wood products such as fuelwood, paper, charcoal andwood structural products and non- wood products (Foods and plant products) such as rattan, mushrooms, nutsand fruits, honey, bushmeat, rubber and biochemicals (Bastiaan et al, 2009). Forests often serve an important‘safety net’ function, providing some measure of relief during the ‘hunger periods’ in the agricultural cycle omethrough their provision of wild foods (McSweeney, 2004). Forests and woodlands are increasingly recognizedfor their precious biological resources beyond timber which sustain the livelihoods of hundreds of millions of livelihoodspeople in forest-dependent and adjacent agricultural communities and contribute significantly to their domestic dependentenergy, food and health security needs. Through their experience with forest dependent communities, forest forest-dependent forestryexperts have recently begun to appreciate the enormous significance of NTFPs for sustaining rural livelihoods(Balgis et al, 2009). In recent years, a growing body of scientific research has shown that given certain basicconditions, non-timber forest resources can help communities to meet their needs on a sustainable basis. Despite esourcestheir importance to forest-dependent people worldwide, accurate information on marketing and use of NTFPs is dependentlimited and often mixed with agricultural production statistics. The United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation approximates that 80 percent of the developingworld relies on Non Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) for nutritional and health needs (TROPETAG, 2006). Inrecent years, NTFPs have attracted considerable global interests because of the increasing recognition that not globalonly can they improve livelihoods, household food security and nutrition, but their harvest may become moreecologically benign than that of timber (FAO 2010). NTFPs make up the largest share o the forest products ofmarket in volume, variety, aggregate income generated and trade volume. Official statistics are very misleadinghowever, as sales reach national or international accounting (ITTO, 2007). Edible NTFPs used as food staples,supplements and additives include bush meat, honey, edible fruits and nuts, leaves, shoots, tubers, whole plantsand fungi .They are important food sources for forest dependent communities. Garcinia kola is among the few commercial NTFPs that have several uses, the mo important being mostchewing stick and medicinal (Mshana et. al., 2000, Ayuk et. al.,1999; Sosef et.al., 1998). The seeds of Garcinia 52
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online) 093XVol 2, No.7, 2012kola together with other parts of the plant are used in medicinal preparations. For instance, some of thepreparations are used for the treatment of cirrhosis of the liver and have anti inflammatory, anti sed anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic,bronchial-dilator, anti-hepatoxic and anti viral compounds (Mbakwe 1983). Particularly exiting is the hepatoxicobservation that Garcinia kola can prevent the Ebola virus from replicating itself (Annon, 1999). Also, whenfood is suspected to be contaminated by bacteria, chewing bitter kola immediately forestalls the development ofany infection or poisoning. The bark of the stem is used in tanning and dyeing industry. Aframomum melegueta is commonly known as grains of paradise, melegueta pepper, alligator pepper.Guinea grains or Guinea pepper is obtained from the plant’s ground seeds. It gives a pungent, peppery flavor.Although it is native to West Africa, it is an important cash crop in the Basketo special wored of SouthernEthiopia. Aframomum melegueta, another NTFP in the family Zingerberacea, is used as a purgative, ,galactogogue (to increase production of breast milk) anti helmintic and haemostatic agent (purifies blood). It is anti-helminticalso effective against schistosomiasis (bilharzia). It is used against intestinal infections, infestations, to calmindigestion and heart burn. The seed of Aframomum melegueta possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity with inflammatorya gastric tolerability profile (TROPILAB, 2011). The alligator pepper is popularly used as spice and mainly as ofilefood and brewing. It is used traditionally to treat constipation, hemorrhoids, worm infestation as well as inpronouncing blessings and curses on people. When a baby is born in Yoruba culture, they are given a small taste bornafter birth as part of the routine of baby welcoming process. In Igbo land, alligator pepper with kolanut is used innaming ceremony, as presentation to visiting guests and for other social events. It is a painless and safemedication for men suffering from erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation as well as to improve sexualperformance (Oguntola, 2010). Among the many responsibilities of the purchasing agent is that of determining the best price f goods and forservices. Price is the measure of the value for a unit of a commodity or service that expresses its worth relative toother goods or services. Economists define price as the value of any item expressed in monetary terms i.e money.The best price is not necessarily the lowest price for price is only one of the variables a buyer must consider cebefore making the decision to purchase. The primary aim of the supplier is not only to remain in business but tomake a profit that will permit expansion and increase profits. It has been assumed that the seller has the and‘privilege’ of establishing the price at which he/she is willing to sell his products or service. In the economies ofthe business world, the price must be attractive to the buyer to result in any transaction. Otherwise there is nomarket for the goods or services. Neither can the buyer establish the price at which he/she is willing to buy.There would not be a seller willing to sell at a price that does not include a reasonable profit. Thus, t have a tobusiness transaction, there must be a ‘meeting of the minds’ to establish a price that is mutually agreeable to bothparties. Many studies have been carried out on the role of various NTFPs but little is available in literature onhow prices are determined for these products. How the prices are determined is very essential to avoid eterminedunder-valuing of these NTFPs so as to make policies for sustainability (or sustainable production and valuingmanagement) of the species. This study aims at assessing how these NTFPs are valued in the study area. Theobjectives of this study are: to assess how these NTFPs are valued, to examine the market structure for theseproducts and to determine the socio economic factors affecting price determination for these NTFPs in the area.2. Methodology2.1 The Study Area Ibadan was selected as the study area. Ibadan is the capital of Oyo state and it is the largest city south of Sahara.It has an estimated population of about 2,550,593 (Nigerian Population Census, 2006). Ibadan lie between lieslatitude 70N and 90N of the equator, longitude 30E and 50E of the Greenwich Meridian. It is situated in therainforest zone of Nigeria with rainfall of average distribution of about 1250mm and 1800mm. The temperatureof Ibadan ranges between 270C and 320C with a relative humidity of about 75% to 90%.2.2 Sampling Procedure and Data Analysis Data for this study were primarily sourced with the aid of structured questionnaires used as personal interviewguide. A total of 56 Garcinia kola sellers and 20 Aframomum melegueta sellers were selected using purposiveand simple random sampling techniques. Purposive sampling was used to select markets in four out of the elevenLocal Government Areas where NTFPs are sold in Ibadan while simple random sampling was used to selectrespondents for the study. Markets covered are Oja‘ba, Agbeni Ologede and Bode markets located in Ibadan Agbeni-OlogedeSouth East Local Government Area; Oje in Ibadan North; Ojoo and Shasha in Akinyele Local Government Areaand Omi-Adio market Ido Local Government area. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, calmultiple regression and gini coefficient.The regression model for the study is specified as:Y = f (X1, X2, ------------Xn)Y = b0+b1X1+b2X2+b3X3+b4X4+ b5X5+ b6X6+ b7X9 53
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online) 093XVol 2, No.7, 2012Y = Selling Price per unitb0 = constantb1-b9 = coefficients of the independent variables X1-X7X1 = Age of respondent in yearsX2 = Gender of respondentX3 = Marital statusX4 = Household sizeX5 = Educational QualificationX6 = Monthly IncomeX7 = Years of experience in the tradeX8 = Cost Price of the productX9 = Costs of TransportationMarket structure is concerned with the organizational characteristics of a market which influence the nature ofcompetition and pricing within the market. An important variable in market structure analysis is concentration importantwhich depicts a situation in which a few large firms have the largest share of the business. Gini coefficient wasused to measure the level of sellers’ concentration in the market to determine the degree of competition ormonopoly in the market. The Gini coefficient is given by:G = 1-∑XYG = Gini coefficientX = Percentage of sellers per period of study.Y = cumulative percentage of sellers revenue per period of studyThe Gini coefficient has a value ranging from 0 1 expressing the extent to which the market is concentrated. 0-1When G is zero, there is perfect equality in the size of the distribution of the sellers and when G is one, there isperfect monopoly in the market.3. Results and DiscussionThe result shows that the trade is dominated by female with 93.42% of the respondents. Majority of them arewithin 31 to 50 years of age and 78.95% of them are married. Also 40.79% of them have no formal educationand over half (57.89%) have more than twenty years of experience in the trade. This may be because most of thesellers inherited the trade from their parents The NTFPs provide reasonable income for the sellers with income parents.range of twenty thousand naira and above having the highest percentage. Table 2 below shows that counting in 50s is the most common unit of measurement for both Garcinia andAframomum in the study area. Those that sell in wholesales use bags and baskets to measure but these are few framomumamong them. The most important grade determinants according to the respondents are freshness (44.74%) andsizes (42.11%). This is because most seed lots/ fruit consignments come out in same colour and moisture contentafter processing. Also 72.37% of the repondents indicate individual seller as the one who determines price after indicateconsidering cost incured and desired profits the association does not regulate price. However prices fall when profits,demand for the products drops or when they are in season and vice versa. Garcinia was said to be in seasonduring the dry season and becomes scarce during the rainy season while Aframomum’s season is aroundMay/June and becomes scarce from September to April according to the respondents. Over 80% of the sellersagree that there are variations in selling price of the two NTFPs across different markets in the study area. iationsTransportation is the most serious challenge faced in the business as the products are sourced from places likeMamu, Iperu, Ogunmakin, Awa, Ilawe, Gbongan Ilesha, Ekiti and Ikire all in Nigeria. The distance travelled bythe sellers for procurement of the products range from about 30 km to 300 km. Some of the sellers also buy theproducts from Oja-‘ba market and sell in other places in the town. Also some import high ‘ba high-grade Alligator pepperfrom Ghana. Most of the respondents sell bitter cola, alligator pepper and kola nut especially the combination ofbitter cola and kola nut. Social activity (89.47%) and free entry prevention (94.74%) were what the majority ofthem indicated as the reasons the association existed. ated The analysis of the Gini coefficient (0.76) for Garcinia and (0.81) for Aframomum indicate that the marketstructures for Garcinia and Aframomum tend towards oligopoly. The market for the two NTFPs is charactericharacterizedby the presence of few sellers. There is no freedom of entry into the trade although the traders sell similar but notidentical products. Garcinia kola is differentiated by size, coat colour, freshness, and moisture content whileAframomum melegueta is differentiated majorly by size and freshness. 54
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online) 093XVol 2, No.7, 2012Regression Results for Price determinants of Garcinia kola and Aframomum meleguetaTo estimate the socio-economic factors influencing the price of Garcinia kola and Aframomum meleguta in the economicstudy area, four functional forms of the ordinary least square multiple regression equations were applied to the unctionaldata collected. The linear functional form gave the best fit for the NTFPs having produced the highest number ofsignificant variables with highest R2.Y Gar = 6.015 + 0.216X1 – 0.611X2 – 0.818X3 + 0.691X4 + 0.268X5 – 1.002X6 + 0.099X7 + 0.531X8 + 0.057X9 (1.674)** (0.079)** (0.412 2) (0.546) (1.629) (0.114)*)* (0.992) (0. (0.043)*(0.136 )** (0.108 )YAfr = 2.005 + 0.847X1 –1.712X2 + 0. 0.623X3 + 0.705X4 – 0.412X5 + 0.024X6 + 0.351X7 + 0.141X8 0.013X9 (0.511)** (0.383)* (1.717)) (0.564) (0. (0.630) (0.329)** (0.22) (0.124 (0.064)* 124) (0.004)*** Significant at 0.05 level** Significant at 0.01 level The result (Table 3) shows that the factors which were observed to have positive influence on price per unit for )Garcinia are Age of the respondent, Educational qualification, Years of experience of the seller in the trade and ge arsthe Cost price of the product denoted by X1, X5, X7 and X8 respectively. Age and Cost price a significant at . are0.01 level while Educational qualification and Years of experience are at 0.05 level. This implies that when the level.older sellers, who apparently are more experienced in the trade, have an additional year of education, the trade,marginal effect on price per unit of measurement of Garcinia in the study area increases by 0.2 0.268. Also with anadditional naira to the cost price of Garcinia from where sellers buy to resell, the marginal effect on selling priceper unit increases by 0.631. Table 4 shows that Age of the respondent, Educational qualification of the seller ducational seller,Cost price and Cost of transportation are the factors observed to have positive influence on price per unit for ndAframomum. Age and Cost price are significant at 0.05 level while Educational qualification and Cost oftransportation are significant at 0.01 level It can be said that Age and Educational qualification are important level. ducationaldeterminants of price in both species from the fore fore-going. The R2 for the regression models were reasonablewhich shows that there is great degree of association between the dependent and independent variables. independentPolicy Implication of these ResultsThe market structure for Garcinia and Aframomum shows that it is an oligopolistic market where there isindependent pricing. The understanding of the price behaviour of the sellers is fundamental to pr pricing policy andmarketing research. There is price discrimination among traders in the same market and in spatiallydifferentiated markets since there is no perfect competition. Policy measures aimed at improving theperformance of the market for these NTFPs should begin with empowering the sellers association and NTFPsre-organising it into a cooperative to cater for the marketing functions by creating an efficient transport system, organisingconstruction and maintainance of access roads should be done. The strict prevention of free entry into the trade preventionshould be reduced. Since level of education of a seller is a significant determinant of price in the area, periodicworkshops and adult education should be organised for the sellers to enlighten them. The younger sellers s shouldalso be share in the experience of the older and more experienced ones using such workshops as an avenue to doso. An organised pricing arrangement should be designed by the association. The production of the productsshould be intensified since production and marketing constitute a continuum and the absence of development in uctionone retards the other (Olayemi, 1972).4. Conclusion and Recommendation ndThe study revealed that Age, Educational qualification Years of experience and Cost price are positively related ducational qualification,to Price per unit of measure of Garcinia kola by the sellers. Age, Educational qualification, Cost price and Cost ,of transportation have positive influence on the Price of Aframomum. This result suggests that Age andEducational qualification of the seller are important determinants of Selling price for both Garcinia andAframomum by the sellers in the study area. The analysis of the Gini coefficient (0.76) and (0.81) for Garciniaand Aframomum respectively indicate that the market is characterized by the presence of few sellers. There is nofreedom of entry into the trade although the traders sell similar but not identical products. T sellers are faced Thewith various challenges in the trade which includes seasonal scarcity, high transportation cost and bad roads,interference of middlemen at the places where they source the products. Based on the findings of the study, thefollowing recommendations were made: development of better processing storage technology should be in place commendationsthrough research so as to ensure an efficient storage in order to reduce sharp fluctuations in the prices of theseNTFPs. The sellers should be encouraged to form cooperatives through which there would be provision of some formservices and facilities such as transportation and an organised marketing system, periodic workshops and 55
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online) 093XVol 2, No.7, 2012interactive sections. Sustainability of the species should be encouraged by creating awareness and encouraging awarenesssmall and large private plantations.ReferencesAnonymous (1999): Plant half Ebola virus. Daily Graphic, Ghana August 1999.Ayuk, E.T., Duguma, B., Franzel, S., Kengue, J., Mdldt, M., Tiki-Manga, T. and Zenkeng, P. (1999): Uses, Manga,management and economic potentials of Garcinia kola and Ricinodendron heudelotii in the humid lowlands ofCameroon. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 11(4):746 11(4):746-761.Balgis, O., Parrotta, J., Neil, A., Maria B, Carol J. P., Brent S, Talaat D., Linda A.J., Johnson N. and Carmenza R. A.J.,(2009). Future Socio-Economic Impacts and Vulnerablities. In: Risto Seppala, Alexander Bucand Pia Katila Economic(Eds.). Adaptation of Forests and People to Climate Change. A Global Assessment Report. IUFRO World SeriesHelsinki Volume 22, pp: 101-122.Bastiaan, L., Fischlin, A., Gluck, P., Innes, J., Lucier, A., Parrotta, J., Santoso, H., Thompson, I. and Wreford, A. hompson,(2009). Forest Ecosystem Services: A Cornerstone for Human Well Being. In: Risto Seppala, Alexander Buck Well-Being.and Pia Katila (Eds.). Adaptation of Forests and People to Climate Change. A Global Assessment Report. IUFROWorld Series Helsinki Volume 22, pp: 15 15-27.Campos, J.J., Alpizar, F., Bastiaan, L., Parrotta, J. And Porras, I.T. (2005). An integrated approach to forest astiaan,ecosystem services. In: G. Mery, R. Alfaro, M. Kanninen, M. Lobovikov (Eds.). forest in the GlobalBalance-Changing Paradigms, IUFRO World Series vol Changing vol.17. Helsinki, pp: 97-116.CIFOR (2005): Contributing to African development through forests CIFOR’s strategy for engagement insub-sahara African. Centre for International Forest Research, Bogor, Indonesia. saharaFAO (2010): Information bulletin on Non Non-wood Forest products No 20 January 2010.ITTO (2007): Community-based forest enterprises. Their status and potential in Tropical countries. ITTO basedTechnical series, 28, 74pp.MEA, (Millenium Ecosystem Assessment) 2005. Ecosystem and human well being synthesis. Island Press, well-beingWashington, D.C., pp 137.McSweeny, K. (2004): Forest Product sale as natural insurance. The effects of household characteristics and thenature of shock in eastern Honduras, Society and Natural Resources 17: 39 39-56.Mshana, N.R., Abbiw, D.K., Addae Mensah, Adjaouhun E., Ahyi, M.R.A., Ekpere, J.A Enow-Orock, E.G., Addae- J.A.,Gbile Z.O., Noamesi, G.K., Odei,M.A Odunlami, H., Oteng-Yeboah, A.A., Sarpong, K., Sofowora, A. and Odei,M.A.,Tackie, A.N.(2000). Traditional medicine and pharmacopoeia: Contribution to the Revision of ethnobotanical theand floristic studies in Ghana. OAU/SIRE. Institute for Scientific and technological Information, Accra.Nigerian Population Census (2006).Oguntola, S. (2010): Alligator Pepper, Guinea Pepper have sex stimulating effects. Nigerian Tribune Newspaper, NigerianThursday 4th October, 2010.Olayemi, K. (1972). Improving Marketing as a strategy for generating increased food production: The NigerianExperience. West African Journal of Agricultural Economics 1(1): 86 86-109Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T. and Prawirohatemodji, L. (1998) (eds) Timber Tree; Lesser Lesser-known timbers. PlantResources of south East Asia (PROSEA) 5(3). Backhings Publishers Leiden.TROPENTAG (2006): Participation Behaviour of Indigenous People.TROPILAB (2010): http://www.tropilab.com/nengrekondrepepre.html http://www.tropilab.com/nengrekondrepepre.html. 56
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online) 093XVol 2, No.7, 2012Table 1: Socio-economic Characteristics of Respondents economicVariable Frequency PercentageGenderMale 05 6.58Female 71 93.42Total 76 100Age20-30 09 11.8431-40 20 26.3241-50 21 27.6351-60 10 13.1661 and above 16 21.05Total 76 100Marital StatusSingle 06 7.89Married 60 78.95Widowed 10 13.16Divorced 00 0.00Total 76 100Educational qualificationNone 31 40.79Primary 28 36.84Secondary 17 22.37Total 76 100Household Size3-5 21 27.636-8 39 51.329-11 11 14.4712 and above 05 6.58Total 76 100Years of Experience10-20 32 42.1121-30 26 34.2131-40 11 14.4741-50 06 7.8951 and above 01 1.32Total 76 100Monthly Income<5,000 17 22.375,000-9,999 12 15.7910,000-14,999 16 21.0515,000-19,999 8 10.5320,000 and above 23 30.26Total 76 100 57
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online) 093XVol 2, No.7, 2012Source: Field survey 2011Table 2: Trade-specific Characteristics of Respondents specificVariable Frequency PercentageUnit of measurement Small-sized bag 02 02.63Medium-sized bag 02 02.63Basket 04 05.27Counting in 50 pieces 68 89.47Total 76 100.00Grade DeterminantSorting according to freshness 34 44.74Sorting into colours 06 07.89Sorting according to sizes 32 42.11Sorting with moisture content 04 05.26Total 76 100.00Who determines priceIndividual seller 55 72.37Buyer’s bargaining power 21 27.63Total 76 100.00Variation in selling price across marketsYesNo 63 82.89No response 12 15.79 01 01.32Total 76 100.00Challenges faced in the tradeTransportation cost/bad roads 46 60.53Seasonality of the products 21 27.63No access to credit facilities 09 11.84Total 76 100.00Reason for AssociationTo prevent free entry 72 94.74To regulate price 12 34.21For social activities 68 89.47Source: Field Survey 2011 58
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online) 093XVol 2, No.7, 2012Table 3: Regression Result for Price determinants of Garcinia cola :Variables Functional Forms Linear Semi-log Double-log log ExponentialConstant 6.015 4.009 4.002 4.069 (3.592)** (2.131)* (2.327)* (2.851)**Age 0.216 0.418 0.220 1.215 (2.730)** (1.621) (2.231)* (2.977)**Gender -0.611 -1.059 -0.557 -0.003 (-1.484) (-1.123) (-1.366) (-2.024)*Marital status -8.618 -0.051 -0.051 -0.035 (-0.497) (-2.710)** (-0.852) (-0.446)Household size 0.691 2.113 1.170 0.093 (0.424) (0.823) (2.656)** (1.691)Education 0.268 0.789 0.583 0.013 (2.345)* (1.124) (0.811) (2.284)*Monthly Income -1.002 -0.621 -0.155 -0.002 (-1.010) (-0.925) (-0.245) (-0.483)experience 0.099 1.104 2.093 2.022 (2.295)* (2.681)** (1.160) (0.890)Cost price 0.531 0.367 0.068 0.017 (3.906)** (3.612)** (1.327) (1.365)Transport cost 0.057 0.627 0.086 0.097 (0.528) (0.612) (0.929) (1.638)R2 0.583 0.449 0.381 0.592Computed from field surveyTable 4: Regression Result for Price determinants of Aframomum melegueta :Variables Functional Forms Linear Semi-log Double-log log ExponentialConstant 2.005 0.259 0.025 0.014 (3.921)** (2.081)* (2.255)* (2.168)*Age 0.847 1.036 0.071 0.027 (2.213)* (2.443)* (2.095)* (2.491)*Gender -1.712 -0.556 -0.091 -0.003 (-0.917)* (-0.819) (-0.472)* (-0.003)*Marital status 0.623 0.065 0.091 0.472 (1.104) (1.518) (1.006) (1.543)Household size 0.705 1.114 0.615 0.072 (1.119) (1.527) (0.281) (0.253)Education -0.412 -0.08 -0.022 -0.001 (1.251) (1.602) (1.159) (1.018)Monthly Income 0.024 0.481 0.304 0.101 (-1.091) (-2.426)* (-1.457) (-1.209)Experience 0.351 0.029 0.022 0.013 (2.822)* (2.211)* (2.605)** (2.401)*Cost price 0.141 0.047 0.015 0.302 (2.202)* (1.691) (0.688) (2.716)**Transport cost 0.013 0.721 0.035 0.091 (3.221)** (1.711) (2.137)* (2.007)*R2 0.610 0.385 0.427 0.551Computed from field surveyNote: Figures in parentheses are t-values values 59
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