2004– 0 5 4364.0 ...
NO T E S ABOU T THIS PUBL I C A T I O N This publication presents summary results from the 2004–05 Nationa...
SUMMA R Y OF FINDI N G SHEAL T H STAT U S The majority of Australians consider themselves to be in very good ...
S U M M A R Y O F F I N D I N G S continued Older people While respiratory conditions we...
S U M M A R Y O F F I N D I N G S continuedAsthma continued 11% in the 25–34 age group. The prevalence of asthma in mo...
S U M M A R Y O F F I N D I N G S continued Conditions of the Within the heart, stroke and va...
S U M M A R Y O F F I N D I N G S continuedDiabetes continued AG E DI S T R I B U T I O N OF PE O P L E WI T H DI A B E ...
S U M M A R Y O F F I N D I N G S continued Injuries continued a knife, tool or other implemen...
S U M M A R Y O F F I N D I N G S continued LEVEL OF CURRENT PSY...
S U M M A R Y O F F I N D I N G S continued Smoking continued SM O K E R ST A T U S — 20 0 ...
S U M M A R Y O F F I N D I N G S continuedExerc is e continued more in the previous two weeks. For over 80% of these, t...
S U M M A R Y O F F I N D I N G S continued Body mass continued FE M A L E S (a ) : 19 9 5 , ...
S U M M A R Y O F F I N D I N G S continuedHEALTH RELATED ACTIONS Females were more likely to consult health professiona...
LIST OF TABLE S ...
L I S T O F T A B L E S continued ...
1 SE L E C T E D HE A L T H CH A R A C T E R I S T I C S ...
2 SE L E C T E D HE A L T H CH A R A C T E R I S T I C S (a) ( b ) , 20 0 4 – 05 , 20 0 1 an d 19 9 5 ...
3 SE L F AS S E S S E D HE A L T H ST A T U S , 20 0 4 – 05 , 20 0 1 an d 19 9 5 AG...
3 SE L F AS S E S S E D HE A L T H ST A T U S , 20 0 4 – 05 , 20 0 1 an d 19 9 5 cont i n u e d...
4 LO N G TE R M CO N D I T I O N S (a) AGE GROUP (YEARS) ...
4 LO N G TE R M CO N D I T I O N S (a) cont i n u e d ...
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National health survey - WHO

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  • 1. 2004– 0 5 4364.0 NATIONAL HEALTH SURVEY: SUMMARY OF RESULTS AUSTR A L I A EMBA R G O : 11.30 A M (CAN B E R R A TIME) MON 27 FEB 2006 CON T E N T S page Notes .............................................. .. 2 Summary of findings....................................... 3 TABLE S List of tables ....................................... 14 ADDIT I O N A L INFOR M A T I O N Explanatory Notes ........................................ 69 Appendixes ............................................ 75 Technical Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84I N Q U I R I E SFor further informationabout these and relatedstatistics, contact theNational Information andReferral Service on1300 135 070 orJane Griffin-Warwicke onCanberra (02) 6252 6535.w w w. a b s . g o v. a u
  • 2. NO T E S ABOU T THIS PUBL I C A T I O N This publication presents summary results from the 2004–05 National Health Survey (NHS) conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) from August 2004 to June 2005. Approximately 25,900 people from all States and Territories and across all age groups were included. One adult (aged 18 years or more) and one child (where applicable) from each sampled dwelling were included in the survey. The survey was designed to obtain national benchmarks on a wide range of health issues, and to enable changes in health to be monitored over time. Information was collected about: ! the health status of the population; ! health-related aspects of lifestyle and other health risk factors; and ! the use of health services and other actions people had recently taken for their health. This publication contains a cross-section of results from the survey for the main topics covered. Explanatory Notes provide information about the survey design and methodology, the quality and interpretation of results, and information about the range of publications and other data services available or planned. More detailed information about the survey will be contained in the National Health Survey 2004–05 : Users Guide (cat.no 4363.0.55.001), which will be released on the ABS Website <www.abs.gov.au> in March 2006. A National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey was conducted at the same time as the 2004–05 NHS. Information about that survey, and summary results will be separately published in National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey 2004–05 : Summary of Results, Australia (cat. no. 4715.0) to be released in April 2006. EFFEC T S OF ROUN DI N G Where estimates have been rounded, discrepancies may occur between sums of the component items and totals. ACKN O W L E D G E M E N T S ABS publications draw extensively on information provided freely by individuals, businesses, governments and other organisations. Their continued cooperation is very much appreciated; without it, the wide range of statistics published by the ABS would not be available. Information received by the ABS is treated in strict confidence as required by the Census and Statistics Act 1905. Denni s Tre wi n Austr a l i a n Sta t i s t i c i a n2 ABS • NAT I O N A L HEA L T H SUR V E Y : SUMMA R Y OF RESU L T S • 436 4 . 0 • 200 4 – 0 5
  • 3. SUMMA R Y OF FINDI N G SHEAL T H STAT U S The majority of Australians consider themselves to be in very good or excellent health. SUMMARY HEALTH Results of the 2004–05 National Health Survey (NHS) showed that 56% of people aged INDIC ATORS 15 years and over considered their overall health to be very good or excellent. This compares to 52% of people who reported very good or excellent health in 2001 (aged standardised). The proportion of people reporting fair or poor health increased with age, from 7% of those aged 15–24 years to 35% of those aged 75 years and over (table 3). LONG TERM MEDICAL The following section summarises results of the survey relating to reported long term CONDITIONS medical conditions, i.e. current conditions which have lasted or were expected to last for 6 months or more. The data are based on conditions reported by respondents. Data relating to arthritis, asthma, cancer, conditions of the circulatory system, diabetes and osteoporosis in most cases relate to conditions which have been medically diagnosed, while data relating to other conditions are not necessarily based on medical diagnosis. It should also be noted that the survey results exclude persons in hospitals, nursing homes and other non-private dwellings. Although most people reported they were in good health or better, 77% of the total population reported that they had one or more long term medical conditions, similar to 2001 (78%) (aged standardised). The most commonly reported long term conditions were problems with eyesight (52% of the population), including long and short sightedness (27% and 22% respectively), hayfever and allergic rhinitis (16%), arthritis (15%), and back and disc disorders (15%). Other commonly reported conditions were hypertensive disease (11%), asthma (10%) and complete or partial hearing loss (10%) (table 4). The prevalence of most conditions increased with age, to the extent that nearly all people aged 65 years and over had at least one long term condition, compared with around 40% of children aged less than 15 years. Children and young adults Among children and young adults, respiratory conditions were the most commonly reported conditions (19% of children under 15 years and 30% of persons aged 15–24 years), with asthma being the most prevalent among children under 15 years (12%), while hayfever and allergic rhinitis was the most prevalent condition for young people aged 15–24 years (19%). 0–14 years 15–24 years Asthma 12 Hayfever and allergic rhinitis 19 Hayfever and allergic rhinitis 8 Short sightedness 18 Allergy nec 6 Asthma 12 Long sightedness 4 Long sightedness 9 Short sightedness 4 Back pain/problems nec, disc disorders 9 ABS • NAT I O N A L HEA L T H SUR V E Y : SUMMA R Y OF RESU L T S • 436 4 . 0 • 200 4 – 0 5 3
  • 4. S U M M A R Y O F F I N D I N G S continued Older people While respiratory conditions were also common among people aged 65 years and over (30%), other conditions were more prevalent in this age group. Sight conditions, arthritis, hypertension and hearing loss were the most common long term conditions among those aged 65 years and over. 65–74 years % 75 years and over % Long sightedness 64 Long sightedness 59 Arthritis 49 Arthritis 50 Hypertension 38 Deafness (complete/partial) 42 Short sightedness 36 Hypertension 41 Deafness (complete/partial) 26 Short sightedness 34 Although the 2004–05 NHS collected information on all long term conditions it had a particular focus on the national health priority area (NHPA) conditions of arthritis and osteoporosis, asthma, cancer, diabetes, heart and circulatory conditions, injury and mental health. Survey findings for these conditions are discussed briefly below. Arthritis/os teoporosis In the 2004–05 NHS 15% of persons reported that they currently had arthritis; 13% of males and 18% of females. Of those with arthritis, 16% had rheumatoid arthritis, 51% had osteoarthritis and 39% reported they had another type of arthritis or didnt know the type of arthritis they had (table 4). Of those who currently had arthritis, 78% reported their condition had been diagnosed by a doctor or nurse. The proportion of people with arthritis increased with age from less than 1% of people aged less than 25 years to 49% of people aged 65 years and over. The proportion of people reporting arthritis increased from 14% in 2001 to 15% in 2004–05 (age standardised). However, part of this increase is likely to be the result of changes in survey methodologies; see paragraph 28 of the Explanatory Notes. Overall, 3% of persons had osteoporosis: 1% of males and 5% of females. Like arthritis, the proportion of people with osteoporosis increased with age, from less than 1% of people aged less than 25 years to 14% of people aged 65 years and over. More than half (59%) of persons with arthritis and/or osteoporosis reported that they took some action for the condition in the previous 2 weeks (table 10). Pharmaceutical medications were used by 37% of people reporting these conditions, and 40% used vitamins, minerals or herbal treatments. Lifestyle changes were also common among people with arthritis or osteoporosis, with 18% reporting they exercised most days, 6% did weights/strength/resistance training and 6% used massage as a treatment. Also, 10% consulted a general practitioner or specialist and 4% visited another health professional. Females (48%) were more likely than males (29%) to use vitamins, minerals or herbal treatments for arthritis or osteoporosis. Asthma In 2004–05, there were approximately 2 million (10%) people in Australia with asthma as a current and long term condition (9% of males and 11% of females) (table 4), down from 12% in 2001 (table 2) (aged standardised). Asthma was most prevalent in younger age groups affecting 12% of those in the 0–14 and 15–24 years age groups combined, and4 ABS • NAT I O N A L HEA L T H SUR V E Y : SUMMA R Y OF RESU L T S • 436 4 . 0 • 200 4 – 0 5
  • 5. S U M M A R Y O F F I N D I N G S continuedAsthma continued 11% in the 25–34 age group. The prevalence of asthma in most other age groups was around 9 to 10 percent. Nearly one quarter (24%) of adults with asthma were also current smokers. Of those with long term asthma, 56% reported taking some action for their asthma in the previous two weeks (table 11). The most common action was the use of pharmaceutical medications (55% of those with asthma). The use of medications differed markedly across age groups from a low of 44% of those aged 0 to 14 years to 74% of those aged 65 years and over. Among those who reported using pharmaceutical medications for their asthma, 84% reported using bronchodilator relievers, and 37% used inhaled-steroid preventers. Just under 1% of persons with asthma visited a hospital for their condition in the previous 2 weeks, and 6% consulted a doctor.Cancer In interpreting survey data about persons with cancer, it should be noted that the 2004–05 NHS excluded persons in hospital, nursing and convalescent homes and hospices. The exclusion of these groups is expected to have a greater effect on the survey data for cancer than for most other conditions. In the 2004–05 NHS it is estimated that 388,500 persons (2% of the population) currently had a medically diagnosed neoplasm in 2004–05 (table 4). Of these people, 87% reported a malignant neoplasm (cancer) and 14% reported a benign neoplasm or neoplasm of uncertain nature. Cancer was most prevalent in the 65 to 74 and 75 years and over age groups (6% and 8% respectively) but just over half (59%) of those with skin cancer were aged less than 65 years.Conditions of the In 2004–05, 18% of the population reported one or more long term conditions of thecirculatory system circulatory system (table 4). This is a broad group of conditions relating to the heart and vascular system, ranging from heart attack, to angina, stroke, varicose veins and high blood pressure. The most common of these conditions was hypertensive disease (high blood pressure), reported by 11% of the population, which increased in prevalence from 14% in the 45 to 54 age group to 41% of those aged 75 years and over. Other circulatory conditions commonly reported in 2004–05 were angina and other ischaemic heart diseases (2%), tachycardia (2%) and varicose veins (3%) (table 4). Overall, circulatory conditions were mostly experienced by people in middle and older age groups. Almost one in four (23%) of those aged 45 to 54 years had a long term circulatory condition, rising progressively to 63% of those aged 75 years and over. High cholesterol is considered a risk factor for some circulatory conditions. High cholesterol levels were reported by 7% of the population, with the prevalence increasing with age to a high of over 22% of those in the 65–74 and 75 years and over age groups. While circulatory conditions overall were more common among females (20%) than males (16%), more males than females reported conditions in the heart, stroke and vascular diseases group (comprising ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, oedema and heart failure, and diseases of the arteries - see Glossary). ABS • NAT I O N A L HEA L T H SUR V E Y : SUMMA R Y OF RESU L T S • 436 4 . 0 • 200 4 – 0 5 5
  • 6. S U M M A R Y O F F I N D I N G S continued Conditions of the Within the heart, stroke and vascular disease group males were more likely to have circulatory system angina and other ischaemic heart diseases and diseases of the arteries, arterioles and continued capillaries than females, but females were more likely to report oedema and heart failure. This pattern varied across age groups, as summarised below. PR E V A L E N C E OF SE L E C T E D CI R C U L A T O R Y CO N D I T I O N S , Ma l e to fe m a l e ra t i o AGE GROUP (YEARS) 65 and 0–44 45–64 over Total Ischaemic heart disease 3.1 : 1.0 1.9 : 1.0 1.3 : 1.0 1.7 : 1.0 Cerebrovascular disease 3.3 : 1.0 1.0 : 1.3 1.2 : 1.0 1.1 : 1.0 Oedema and heart failure 1.0 : 6.1 1.0 : 2.5 1.0 : 1.5 1.0 : 2.0 Diseases of arteries, arterioles and capillaries 1.0 : 1.9 2.0 : 1.0 2.0 : 1.0 1.8 : 1.0 Of adults with conditions in the heart, stroke and vascular disease group, the proportions classified as overweight/obese (60%) or reporting sedentary or low levels of exercise (77%) were higher than the adult population overall (49% and 70% respectively) (table 7). Diabetes An estimated 699,600 persons (3.5% of the population) in 2004–05 currently had diabetes mellitus which had been medically diagnosed (excluding those with gestational diabetes) (table 4), similar to the proportion recorded in the 2001 NHS (3.0%) (age standardised). A further 56,300 people reported they currently had high sugar levels in the blood or urine, but had not been diagnosed with diabetes. The estimates for diabetes and high sugar levels understate the true prevalence of these conditions in the community, as they exclude those cases which have remained undetected. The majority of people with diabetes reported that they had Type 2 (adult onset) diabetes (83%), 13% reported Type 1 (sometimes referred to as insulin dependent diabetes) while 4% reported diabetes, but did not know which type. The proportions of males and females with diabetes mellitus were similar at 4% and 3% respectively. As shown below the age profiles of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes differed markedly.6 ABS • NAT I O N A L HEA L T H SUR V E Y : SUMMA R Y OF RESU L T S • 436 4 . 0 • 200 4 – 0 5
  • 7. S U M M A R Y O F F I N D I N G S continuedDiabetes continued AG E DI S T R I B U T I O N OF PE O P L E WI T H DI A B E T E S — 20 0 4 – 0 5 % 0–24 years 50 25–44 years 45–64 years 65 years and over 40 30 20 10 0 Type 1 Type 2 Overall, 20% of people with diabetes mellitus also reported having a long term heart, stroke or vascular disease. Among those aged 65 years and over with diabetes, 27% had one or more of these circulatory conditions (table 5). The proportions of those with diabetes reporting overweight/obese body mass index (69%) or no/low exercise level 78% were above the figures for all adults (49% and 70% respectively) (table 7). Only 12% of adults with diabetes were current daily smokers, and 8% consumed alcohol at risky/high levels, compared with 21% and 14% respectively for all adults. Over 90% of persons with diabetes or high sugar levels reported that they took some action for the condition in the previous 2 weeks (table 13). Almost two thirds (64%) of those with diabetes or high sugar level used pharmaceutical medications for their diabetes. Lifestyle changes were also common, with 79% of people with diabetes or high sugar levels reporting that they were following changed eating patterns/diet due to their diabetes, 29% reporting that they had exercised most days in the last 2 weeks, and 18% reported they were losing weight. Males were more likely to exercise for diabetes (31%) than females (26%).Injuries Respondents to the 2004–05 NHS were asked about events in the previous 4 weeks which resulted in injury for which they had medical treatment or had taken some other action (see Glossary). Detailed information was collected about the most recent injury event in that period. Having sustained an injury in the previous 4 weeks was reported by 18% of persons (19% of males and 18% of females) (table 16). Among those reporting an injury event, the most common events were cuts (31% of males, 25% of females), low falls of less than 1 metre (19% of males, 24% of females); hitting or being hit by something (16% of males, 13% of females) and bites/stings requiring some treatment (7% of males, 12% of females). Overall the proportion of people who had at least one recent injury event in the previous 4 weeks decreased with age from a peak of 25% of children 0–14 years to 10% of people aged 65 years and over. Based on the type of the most recent injury event in the last 4 weeks, low falls were the most common type of injury event among children (11% of those aged 0–14 years) and older people (4% of those aged 75 years and over). Cuts with ABS • NAT I O N A L HEA L T H SUR V E Y : SUMMA R Y OF RESU L T S • 436 4 . 0 • 200 4 – 0 5 7
  • 8. S U M M A R Y O F F I N D I N G S continued Injuries continued a knife, tool or other implement were the most common type of injury event among young adults and middle age groups; for example 8% of persons aged 25–34 years. In addition to recent injuries, the survey collected information about long term conditions which respondents considered were due to injuries. Overall 16% of persons reported a long term condition due to an injury (table 9). Conditions most commonly reported as due to injury were musculoskeletal conditions: 31% of those with back pain/problems, or disc disorders; 16% of those with rheumatism and other soft tissue disorders; and 12% of those with arthritis reported the condition was due to an injury. Mental wellbeing Around one in ten people reported in the 2004–05 NHS that they had a long term mental or behavioural problem (table 4). The most commonly reported problems were classified to two groups, anxiety related problems and mood (affective) problems (each reported by approximately 4% of males and 6% of females). However respondents in the survey were not specifically asked whether they had been diagnosed with any mental disorder so that the information provided by the respondents could be based on self-diagnosis rather than diagnosis by a health professional. Hence, self-reported survey data on mental and behavioural problems are considered to be less reliable than condition data in the other NHPAs where the respondent is asked to report whether a diagnosis had been made by a health professional. Among adults who reported a mental or behavioural problem, 32% were daily smokers, and 15% consumed alcohol at risky/high levels, compared with 21% and 14% of all adults (table 7). To complement the data on long term conditions, additional information on mental health was collected from adult respondents using the Kessler 10 Scale (K10), a 10 item scale of current psychological distress. The K10 asks about negative emotional states in the four weeks prior to interview. The results from the K10 are grouped into four categories: low (indicating little or no psychological distress); moderate; high; and very high levels of psychological distress. Based on research from other population studies, a very high level of psychological distress, as shown by the K10, may indicate a need for professional help. A little under two-thirds (63%) of adults were classified to low levels of current psychological distress, 24% to moderate levels, 9% to high levels and 4% to very high levels (table 14). Similar proportions across the levels were recorded in the 2001 NHS (age standardised). Proportionally fewer males than females, across most age groups shown in this publication, reported high to very high levels of distress. Of those who had very high levels of distress, 59% were female. As shown in the following table, adults reporting a long term mental or behavioural problem were more likely to record higher levels of current psychological distress: 48% reported high or very high levels compared with 13% of the total adult population.8 ABS • NAT I O N A L HEA L T H SUR V E Y : SUMMA R Y OF RESU L T S • 436 4 . 0 • 200 4 – 0 5
  • 9. S U M M A R Y O F F I N D I N G S continued LEVEL OF CURRENT PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS Low Moderate High Very high TotalTyp e of lon g - t e r m con d i t i o n % % % % %Feeling depressed and other mood affective disorders 13 29 31 26 100Anxiety related disorders 15 31 32 23 100All mental and behavioural disorders 20 32 28 20 100All adults 63 24 9 4 100 Mental wellbeing continued Nearly one fifth (19%) of adults reported that they had used some medication (pharmaceutical medication and/or vitamins, minerals or herbal treatments) for their mental wellbeing (table 15) in the previous 2 weeks. Of those using medications for mental well being, 27% reported using anti depressants, 23% used sleeping tablets and 10% used medications for anxiety or nerves. Use of medications was higher among females than males overall (24% and 14% respectively). Use of medications was higher overall in older age groups but this was largely due to the higher use of sleeping medications (11% of persons aged 65 years and over compared with 5% for the whole adult population). RISK BEHAVIOURS The 2004–05 National Health Survey collected information on a number of lifestyle behaviours and related characteristics which are recognised as risks to health. The risk factors covered were smoking, alcohol consumption, lack of exercise, being overweight and some dietary habits. Compared with results from the 2001 survey, the 2004–05 survey found that more adults are drinking alcohol at risky or high risk levels and more adults are overweight or obese. Differences in smoking rates and level of exercise were not statistically significant. RI S K FA C T O R S : AD U L T S , 19 9 5 , 20 0 1 AN D 20 0 4 – 0 5 % 1995 50 2001 2004–05 40 30 20 10 0 Smokers(a) Alcohol(b) Exercise(c) Overweight(d) (a) Includes daily smoker and other current smokers. (b) Risky and high alcohol risk. (c) Sedentary exercise level. (d) Overweight or obese body mass index (BMI). Smoking Almost one in four adults (23%) currently smoked in 2004–05; 21% were regular daily smokers and 2% smoked less often than once a day, while 47% reported that they had never smoked regularly, and the remaining 30% reported they were ex-smokers (table 17). More males than females were current smokers (26% and 20% respectively), and for both males and females the prevalence of smoking was highest in younger age groups: 34% of males and 26% of females aged 18–34 years smoked. ABS • NAT I O N A L HEA L T H SUR V E Y : SUMMA R Y OF RESU L T S • 436 4 . 0 • 200 4 – 0 5 9
  • 10. S U M M A R Y O F F I N D I N G S continued Smoking continued SM O K E R ST A T U S — 20 0 4 – 0 5 % Female smoker 50 Male smoker 40 30 20 10 0 18–24 25–34 35–44 45–54 55–64 65–74 75+ Age group (years) Alcohol consumption The majority of adults (62%) had consumed alcohol in the week prior to interview (71% of males and 54% of females) (table 17). Far fewer people reported they had either never consumed alcohol, or had last consumed alcohol 12 months or more ago (11% of males and 20% of females). Persons were classified to a health risk level (low risk, risky, or high risk) based on their estimated average daily consumption of alcohol during the previous week. Nearly 80% of both males and females who drank alcohol in the previous week did so at a level which would pose a low risk to their health. On an age standardised basis, in 2004–05 13% of adults consumed alcohol at levels which, if continued, would be risky or a high risk to their health, compared to 11% in 2001 (table 22) (age standardised). For both males and females the proportions drinking at risky and high risk levels were highest in the middle age groups; for example 18% of males and 13% of females aged 55–64 years reported consumption which would place them in the risky or high risk groups. Exerc is e In 2004–05, 66% of adults had exercised for recreation, sport or fitness during the two weeks prior to interview. It should be noted that results from this survey relate only to exercise for sport, recreation or fitness, and therefore are not necessarily indicative of total physical activity; for example they could exclude physical activity at work. Almost half (49%) of adults reported they walked for exercise in the two weeks prior to interview, 36% did some form of moderate exercise and 15% did vigorous exercise (table 24). Females were more likely to walk for exercise than males (54% compared with 45%) while males were more likely than females to do moderate exercise (39% compared with 32%) and vigorous exercise (18% compared with 11%). Moderate and vigorous exercise were most common among younger age groups while the highest proportions walking for exercise were recorded in the 55–64 and 65–74 year age groups (around 54%). The National Physical Activity Guidelines for Australia recommend exercise of at least a moderate level (including brisk walking), most days of the week for a total of 30 minutes or more on each of those days, and with each exercise session lasting 10 minutes or more. Results of the NHS cannot be assessed directly in terms of these recommendations. The survey did find that 23% of those adults who exercised at a moderate level, and 21% of those who exercised at a vigorous level, exercised 7 times or10 ABS • NAT I O N A L HEA L T H SUR V E Y : SUMMA R Y OF RESU L T S • 436 4 . 0 • 200 4 – 0 5
  • 11. S U M M A R Y O F F I N D I N G S continuedExerc is e continued more in the previous two weeks. For over 80% of these, the average duration of each session was 30 minutes or more. Of those who walked for exercise, 40% did so 7 times or more in the last 2 weeks. Also for those who walked, 85% did so for periods of 30 minutes or more on average.Body mass In the 2004–05 NHS, adults were asked whether they considered themselves to be overweight, of acceptable weight or underweight. Body mass index (BMI) was also calculated from self-reported height and weight information (see Glossary). Those men (5%) and women (11%) who either declined or were unable to provide their height and/or weight (table 17) are excluded from the calculations of percentages in BMI categories discussed below. In 2004–05, the majority of adults considered themselves to be of acceptable weight (63% of males and 59% of females), while 32% of males and 37% of females considered themselves to be overweight (table 28). However, this was significantly below the proportions classified as overweight or obese based on their BMI; 62% of males and 45% of females. Only half of adult males who considered themselves to be of acceptable weight were classified to the normal BMI category, compared with 76% of females. For both males and females the proportion classified as overweight or obese based on BMI was highest in older age groups (e.g. for people aged 55–64 years 72% of males and 58% of females were classified as overweight or obese) (table 25). Among females aged 18–24 years 10% were classified as being underweight. When compared to results from previous surveys the proportion of adults classified as overweight or obese has increased (table 25). Excluding those for whom BMI could not be derived, the proportion of males classified as overweight or obese rose from 52% in 1995 to 62% in 2004–05; for females the increase was 37% to 45% (age standardised). For both males and females, increases were recorded in both the overweight and obese groups and were recorded across all age groups. MA L E S (a ) : 19 9 5 , 20 0 1 AN D 20 0 4 – 0 5 % 1995 80 2001 2004–05 60 40 20 0 18–24 25–44 45–54 55–64 65–74 75 and over Age group (years) (a) Overweight or obese BMI based on self reported height and weight. ABS • NAT I O N A L HEA L T H SUR V E Y : SUMMA R Y OF RESU L T S • 436 4 . 0 • 200 4 – 0 5 11
  • 12. S U M M A R Y O F F I N D I N G S continued Body mass continued FE M A L E S (a ) : 19 9 5 , 20 0 4 AN D 20 0 4 – 0 5 % 1995 60 2001 2004–05 40 20 0 18–24 25–34 35–44 45–54 55–64 65–74 75+ Age group (years) (a) Overweight and obese BMI based on self reported height and weight. Dietary indic ators Information was collected in the survey about the usual intake of fruit and vegetables by people aged 12 years or more, and about types of milk they consumed (as an indicator of fat intake). Some care should be taken in interpreting the data on fruit and vegetable intake due to the difficulties respondents had in estimating the quantities consumed. Results of the survey indicated that in 2004–05 females were more likely to adopt healthier dietary behaviours than males (table 29). Females consumed higher levels of fruit and vegetables than males. The proportions of people aged 12 years and over who reported they usually consumed 5 or more serves of vegetables every day (the recommend daily intake) were 16% for females compared with 11% for males. The proportion of females who usually consumed two or more serves of fruit per day (the recommended daily intake) was 60% compared with 48% for males. Compared to other types of milk females were more likely to consume low fat or skim milk (50%) while males were more like to consume whole milk (53%). The highest proportions of people usually having the recommended number of serves of fruit and vegetables per day were recorded in the 55–64 year and older age groups. HYSTERECTOMY AND More than one in ten (14%) women aged 18 years or more reported they had a HORMONE REPLAC EMENT hysterectomy. Among those women, 41% reported they had a hysterectomy at age 35–44 THERAPY (HRT) years, and 28% at age 45–54 years. Information was obtained in the 2004–05 NHS about women currently using HRT which had been prescribed by a doctor, and the length of time they had been using HRT (table 30). Among women aged 45 years and over 11% reported currently using HRT: almost two thirds (65%) of these women had been using HRT for 5 years or more. HEALTH RELATED ACTIONS Information was collected in the survey about actions people had recently taken for their health. Nearly one quarter (23%) of Australians living in private dwellings consulted a general practitioner (GP) or specialist in the previous two weeks (table 31). This compares with 25% in 2001 (table 33). As well, 6% had a dental consultation and 14% had consulted a health professional other than a doctor or dentist. Of those consulting other health professionals, 29% consulted a chemist, 16% consulted a physiotherapist and 16% consulted a chiropractor (table 35).12 ABS • NAT I O N A L HEA L T H SUR V E Y : SUMMA R Y OF RESU L T S • 436 4 . 0 • 200 4 – 0 5
  • 13. S U M M A R Y O F F I N D I N G S continuedHEALTH RELATED ACTIONS Females were more likely to consult health professionals than males. For example, 20%continued of males had consulted a doctor in the previous two weeks, compared with 26% of females. Proportions consulting other health professionals were 11% of males and 16% of females. Consultations with doctors were strongly age-related. Almost one in four (22%) children aged less than 5 years had consulted a doctor in the previous 2 weeks. The proportion consulting a doctor was lowest for children aged 5–14 years (11%) then rose across older age groups to 47% for persons aged 75 years and over (table 31). The overall patterns of use of health professionals across age groups were similar for males and females. Consultations with doctors increased in older age groups whereas consultations with other health professionals showed little change.Days away from work Of employed persons aged 15–64 years 13% reported that they had one or more days away from work in the previous 2 weeks due to their own illness or injury (10%) or to care for another who was ill (3%). This was similar to the proportion of persons who reported days away from work in 2001 (age standardised). Absences from work accounted for around 3.6 million days lost from work (table 36). Although the proportion of females taking days away from work was higher than that for males (15% and 12% respectively), more male days were lost (2.0 million) than female days (1.6 million).PRIVATE HEALTH Results of the survey showed that half of the population aged 15 years and over hadINSURANCE private health insurance (table 37) in 2004–05. Of those persons with private health insurance, 75% had both hospital and ancillary cover, 17% had hospital cover only and 7% had ancillary cover only. The level and type of cover differed across age groups, with highest overall coverage in the 45–54 and 55–64 year age groups (61%) and the lowest in the age groups 25–34 years and 75 years and over (both around 41% with some form of private health insurance cover). In all age groups, having both hospital and ancillary cover was more common than having only hospital or ancillary cover. However among those aged 75 years and over with private health insurance, 40% had hospital cover only, compared with 17% for all age groups combined. The proportion of privately insured people with ancillary cover only was highest in the 15–24 and 25–34 years of age groups (both 9%). Security, protection and peace of mind was the most common group of reasons for having private health insurance (43% of those insured), while the category cannot afford it/too expensive was the most commonly reported reason for not insuring (64% of those without private health insurance) (table 39). Consistent with this, only 29% of people in the lowest quintile of household income had private health insurance, compared with 76% of those in the highest household income quintile (table 38). ABS • NAT I O N A L HEA L T H SUR V E Y : SUMMA R Y OF RESU L T S • 436 4 . 0 • 200 4 – 0 5 13
  • 14. LIST OF TABLE S page SUMM A R Y 1 Selected health characteristics by age, persons, Australia 2004–05 ....... 16 2 Selected health characteristics, persons, Australia, 2004–05, 2001 and 1995, Age standardised . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 17 HEAL T H STAT U S INDI C A T O R S 3 Self assessed health status by age and sex, persons aged 15 years and over, Australia, 2004–05, 2001 and 1995, Age standardised totals . . . ..... 18 4 Long term conditions by age and sex, persons, Australia, 2004–05 ....... 20 5 Co-morbidity of selected long term conditions by age, persons, Australia, 2004–05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......... 24 6 Selected long term conditions by selected population characteristics, persons, Australia, 2004–05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 25 7 Long term conditions by risk behaviours, persons aged 18 years and over, Australia, 2004–05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... 26 8 Long term conditions, persons, States and ACT, 2004–05 ............ 28 9 Reported cause of long term condition reported as work-related or caused by injury, persons aged 15 years and over, Australia, 2004–05 ..... 30 10 Action taken for arthritis or osteoporosis by age and sex, persons with arthritis or osteoporosis, Australia, 2004–05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 31 11 Action taken for asthma by age and sex, persons with asthma, Australia, 2004–05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 32 12 Medication used for circulatory conditions, persons with circulatory conditions, Australia, 2004–05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... 33 13 Action taken for diabetes or high sugar levels by age and sex, persons with diabetes or high sugar levels, Australia, 2004–05 . . . . . . . . . . ..... 34 14 Level of current psychological distress by age and sex, persons aged 18 years and over, Australia, 2004–05 and 2001, Age standardised totals . .... 35 15 Medication used for mental wellbeing by age and sex, persons aged 18 years and over, Australia, 2004–05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 36 16 Recent injury events by age and sex, persons, Australia, 2004–05 ........ 37 HEAL T H RISK FACT O R S 17 Health risk behaviours by age and sex, persons aged 18 years and over, Australia, 2004–05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 38 18 Selected health risk behaviours by selected population characteristics, persons aged 18 years and over, Australia, 2004–05 . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 42 19 Health risk behaviour combinations, persons aged 18 years and over, Australia, 2004–05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 43 20 Health risk behaviours, persons aged 18 years and over, States and ACT, 2004–05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... 44 21 Smoker status by age and sex, persons aged 18 years and over, Australia, 2004–05, 2001 and 1995, Age standardised totals . . . ......... 45 22 Alcohol risk level by age and sex, persons aged 18 years and over, Australia, 2004–05, 2001 and 1995, Age standardised totals . . . . . ....... 4614 ABS • NAT I O N A L HEA L T H SUR V E Y : SUMMA R Y OF RESU L T S • 436 4 . 0 • 200 4 – 0 5
  • 15. L I S T O F T A B L E S continued pageH E A L T H R I S K F A C T O R S continued 23 Exercise level by age and sex, persons aged 18 years and over, Australia, 2004–05, 2001 and 1995, Age standardised totals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 47 24 Type of exercise by age and sex, persons aged 18 years and over, Australia, 2004–05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ 49 25 Body mass index groups by age and sex, persons aged 18 years and over, Australia, 2004–5, 2001 and 1995, Age standardised totals . . . ...... 50 26 Self-reported height by age and sex, persons aged 18 years and over, Australia, 2004–05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 53 27 Self-reported weight by age and sex, persons aged 18 years and over, Australia, 2004–05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 54 28 Self-assessed weight by body mass index by age and sex, persons aged 18 years and over, Australia, 2004–05, 2001 and 1995, Age standardised totals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 55 29 Selected dietary indicators by age and sex, persons aged 12 years and over, Australia, 2004–05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 56HEAL T H - RELA T E D ACTIO N S 30 Hysterectomy and Hormone Replacement Therapy, Women aged 18 years and over, Australia 2004–05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 58 31 Action taken for health, by age and sex, persons, Australia, 2004–05 ...... 59 32 Selected actions, by selected population characteristics, persons, Australia, 2004–05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ 60 33 Action taken by age and sex, persons, Australia, 2004–05, 2001 and 1995, Age standardised totals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... 61 34 Action taken for health, persons, States and ACT, 2004–05 ............ 62 35 Consultations with health professionals, by age and sex, persons who consulted a health professional, Australia, 2004–05 ................ 63 36 Days away from work by age and sex, employed persons aged 15 to 64 years, Australia, 2004–05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 65 37 Private health insurance by type of cover, age and sex, persons aged 15 years and over Australia, 2004–05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 66 38 Private health insurance cover by selected population characteristics, persons aged 15 years and over, Australia, 2004–05 . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 67 39 Reasons for insuring or not insuring with private health insurance, persons aged 15 years and over, Australia, 2004–05 . . . . . . . . . ....... 68 ABS • NAT I O N A L HEA L T H SUR V E Y : SUMMA R Y OF RESU L T S • 436 4 . 0 • 200 4 – 0 5 15
  • 16. 1 SE L E C T E D HE A L T H CH A R A C T E R I S T I C S Children Children 0–14 15–17 18–64 65 years All years years years and over persons % % % % 000 Self assessed health status Excellent/very good . . 82.4 58.6 35.5 8 864.4 Good . . 13.4 28.0 31.8 4 384.0 Fair/poor . . 4.3 13.4 32.7 2 512.6 Selected long term conditions(a) Arthritis **0.1 *0.6 14.4 49.4 3 020.1 Asthma 11.5 11.1 9.9 9.4 2 013.5 Back pain/problems nec, disc disorders 0.5 3.4 19.6 21.2 3 018.5 Deafness (complete/partial) 1.4 *1.6 9.0 33.5 2 014.3 Diabetes mellitus *0.1 **0.4 2.9 13.7 699.6 Hayfever & allergic rhinitis 7.7 13.6 19.8 11.3 3 165.7 Heart, stoke & vascular diseases (b) np np 2.4 18.4 754.7 Hypertensive disease np np 9.1 39.4 2 100.7 Long sightedness 3.7 8.5 28.8 61.8 5 334.1 Malignant neoplasms np np 1.5 6.1 338.3 Mental and behavioural problems 6.7 9.4 12.3 9.5 2 108.3 Osteoporosis np np 1.9 14.1 585.8 Short sightedness 3.5 10.9 26.1 35.1 4 353.0 High/very high psychological distress(c) . . . . 13.4 11.0 1 940.8 Risk behaviours Current daily smoker . . . . 24.0 7.2 3 180.1 Risky/high alcohol risk . . . . 14.6 8.1 2 020.9 Sedentary/low exercise level . . 55.3 69.4 75.2 10 966.4 Overweight/obese BMI . . 13.1 49.5 47.8 7 470.8 1 or less serves of fruit . . 48.3 48.3 34.6 (d)7 606.5 4 or less serves of vegetables . . 90.7 86.3 82.0 (e)14 214.9 Actions taken in previous 2 weeks Hospital inpatient(f) 0.6 0.2 0.7 1.4 151.0 Visited casualty/outpatients/day clinic 2.9 3.5 4.7 8.3 932.4 Consulted GP/Specialist 14.9 13.7 22.1 42.2 4 487.6 Consulted dentist 6.4 9.2 5.6 5.6 1 158.9 Consulted OHP(g) 8.8 8.8 14.5 17.1 2 648.5 Days away from work/study 10.4 12.3 8.2 . . 1 531.8 Other days of reduced activity 5.1 7.8 10.9 15.5 2 009.9 All persons (000) 3 920.6 797.9 12 523.0 2 440.1 19 681.5 * estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution ** estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered too unreliable for general use .. not applicable np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated (a) Conditions which have lasted or are expected to last for 6 months or more. (b) Includes ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, oedema and heart failure, and diseases of the arteries, arterioles and capillaries. (c) Kessler 10 scores of 22 or more. See Psychological distress in Glossary. (d) Aged 12 years and over. Includes those who did not eat fruit. (e) Aged 12 years and over. Includes those who did not eat vegetables. (f) Discharged from a stay in hospital. (g) Other health professional. See Glossary.16 ABS • NAT I O N A L HEA L T H SUR V E Y : SUMMA R Y OF RESU L T S • 436 4 . 0 • 200 4 – 0 5
  • 17. 2 SE L E C T E D HE A L T H CH A R A C T E R I S T I C S (a) ( b ) , 20 0 4 – 05 , 20 0 1 an d 19 9 5 2004–05 2001 1995 % % % Self assessed health status(c) Excellent/very good 56.4 51.5 54.3 Good (d)27.8 30.2 (d)28.5 Fair/poor 15.8 18.2 17.2 Selected long term conditions(e)(f ) Arthritis 14.9 13.9 15.7 Asthma 10.2 11.6 11.1 Back pain/problems nec, disc disorders 15.1 20.5 6.4 Deafness (complete/partial) (d)10.1 10.8 (d)10.1 Diabetes mellitus 3.5 3.0 2.4 Hayfever & allergic rhinitis (g)16.1 (g)15.5 13.9 Heart, stroke & vascular diseases (h) 3.8 4.3 na Hypertensive disease (g)10.4 (g)10.3 11.5 Long sightedness 26.3 (i)22.4 (i)22.0 Malignant neoplasms (g)1.7 (g)1.7 2.2 Mental & behavioural problems 10.7 9.6 5.9 Osteoporosis 2.9 (i)1.6 (i)1.5 Short sightedness 21.8 (i)20.9 (i)20.9 High/very high psychological distress(j)(k ) (g)13.0 (g)12.6 na Selected risk behaviours Current smoker (k)(l ) (d)(g) 23.3 (g)24.2 (d)23.3 Risky/high alcohol risk(k) 13.4 10.8 8.2 Sedentary/low exercise level (c) (g)(d ) 69.6 (g)(i ) 68.6 (d)( i) 69.3 Overweight/obese BMI (c) 47.1 44.3 39.0 Actions taken in the previous 2 weeks (f) Hospital inpatient(m) (g)(d ) 0.8 (g)(i ) 0.9 (d)( i) 0.8 Visited casualty/outpatients/day clinic (g)4.7 (g)4.7 4.0 Consulted GP/specialist 22.7 24.6 23.6 Consulted dentist (g)(d ) 5.9 (g)6.1 (d)5.6 Consulted OHP(n) (g)13.4 (g)13.2 10.0 Days away from work/study (g)7.8 (g)8.2 7.4 Other days of reduced activity 10.1 10.9 5.8 na not available (a) Age standardised percentages. See paragraph 31 of Explanatory Notes. (b) Percentages are of age groups specified. For the population estimate used in calculating these percentages see Appendix C. (c) Aged 15 years and over. (d) Difference between 2004–05 and 1995 is not statistically significant. See Technical Notes and paragraph 33 of Explanatory Notes. (e) Changes to survey methodology and classifications may reduce direct comparability between surveys. See Explanatory Notes. (f) All persons. (g) Difference between 2004–05 and 2001 is not statistically significant. See Technical Notes and paragraph 33 of Explanatory Notes. (h) Includes ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, oedema and heart failure, and diseases of the arteries, arterioles and capillaries. (i) Difference between 2001 and 1995 is not statistically significant. See Technical Notes and paragraph 33 of Explanatory Notes. (j) Kessler 10 score of 22 or more. See Psychological distress in Glossary. (k) Aged 18 years and over. (l) Includes daily and other current smokers. (m) Discharged from a stay in hospital. (n) Other health professional. See Glossary. ABS • NAT I O N A L HEA L T H SUR V E Y : SUMMA R Y OF RESU L T S • 436 4 . 0 • 200 4 – 0 5 17
  • 18. 3 SE L F AS S E S S E D HE A L T H ST A T U S , 20 0 4 – 05 , 20 0 1 an d 19 9 5 AGE GROUP (YEARS) Sel f as s e s s e d he a l t h 75 and st a t u s 15–24 25–34 35–44 45–54 55–64 65–74 over Total(a) MALE S ( % ) 2004–05 Excellent 34.5 22.5 18.8 18.2 15.0 14.3 6.8 20.4 Very good 36.4 39.4 38.7 35.0 31.8 21.9 21.9 34.3 Good 22.9 29.0 29.5 30.5 27.8 31.0 34.7 28.8 Fair 5.1 7.1 10.7 11.3 17.4 22.6 22.7 11.8 Poor *1.1 2.1 2.3 5.0 8.0 10.2 13.8 4.7 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2001 Excellent 28.6 23.8 17.2 15.9 12.3 11.0 8.3 18.4 Very good 38.3 36.2 34.9 31.8 25.2 21.4 18.3 31.7 Good 24.9 29.4 34.0 33.8 30.8 36.3 35.5 31.4 Fair 6.9 8.6 10.8 13.0 22.5 19.7 28.3 13.5 Poor 1.3 2.1 3.1 5.5 9.3 11.7 9.6 5.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1995 Excellent 28.1 20.9 19.3 20.6 14.3 11.1 9.7 19.3 Very good 39.9 41.7 40.7 32.9 27.2 22.1 18.1 34.6 Good 23.7 27.8 28.5 30.5 31.5 32.2 28.4 28.6 Fair 7.6 8.3 9.1 12.1 19.5 23.3 28.3 13.0 Poor 0.7 1.3 2.5 3.9 7.6 11.3 15.5 4.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 FEMAL ES (% ) 2004–05 Excellent 27.2 25.9 25.3 20.1 17.1 12.9 7.9 21.6 Very good 41.3 39.9 40.8 36.0 30.6 28.3 25.4 36.5 Good 24.4 26.3 24.4 27.9 28.8 30.0 32.4 26.9 Fair 6.5 6.5 6.8 11.3 16.3 19.7 22.6 10.9 Poor *0.6 1.5 2.7 4.6 7.3 9.0 11.7 4.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2001 Excellent 22.1 24.3 21.5 17.8 16.4 13.4 7.4 19.2 Very good 39.8 37.4 38.3 32.9 28.0 22.6 22.3 33.7 Good 27.8 27.2 27.8 29.1 30.8 35.6 31.0 29.2 Fair 8.4 8.7 10.1 15.1 17.5 20.7 26.1 13.3 Poor 2.0 2.5 2.4 5.1 7.2 7.7 13.2 4.6 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1995 Excellent 21.4 21.9 23.0 22.0 14.2 9.5 10.6 19.2 Very good 40.0 41.5 39.3 34.4 29.4 26.3 21.7 35.4 Good 29.1 26.5 27.1 28.2 30.7 32.5 28.2 28.5 Fair 8.3 8.6 8.6 12.0 19.9 21.8 27.1 12.9 Poor 1.2 1.6 2.0 3.4 5.8 9.9 12.4 3.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 PER S O N S ( % ) 2004–05 Excellent 30.9 24.2 22.1 19.2 16.0 13.6 7.4 21.0 Very good 38.8 39.7 39.7 35.5 31.2 25.2 23.9 35.4 Good 23.6 27.6 26.9 29.2 28.3 30.5 33.4 27.8 Fair 5.8 6.8 8.8 11.3 16.9 21.1 22.6 11.3 Poor 0.9 1.8 2.5 4.8 7.6 9.6 12.6 4.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 * estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution (a) Age standardised percentages. See paragraph 31 of Explanatory Notes.18 ABS • NAT I O N A L HEA L T H SUR V E Y : SUMMA R Y OF RESU L T S • 436 4 . 0 • 200 4 – 0 5
  • 19. 3 SE L F AS S E S S E D HE A L T H ST A T U S , 20 0 4 – 05 , 20 0 1 an d 19 9 5 cont i n u e d AGE GROUP (YEARS) Sel f as s e s s e d he a l t h 75 and st a t u s 15–24 25–34 35–44 45–54 55–64 65–74 over Total(a) PER S O N S ( % ) co n t . 2001 Excellent 25.4 24.0 19.4 16.9 14.3 12.2 7.8 18.8 Very good 39.1 36.8 36.6 32.3 26.6 22.0 20.6 32.7 Good 26.3 28.2 30.8 31.4 30.8 35.9 32.9 30.2 Fair 7.6 8.6 10.4 14.1 20.0 20.2 27.0 13.4 Poor 1.6 2.3 2.7 5.3 8.2 9.6 11.7 4.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1995 Excellent 24.8 21.4 21.2 21.3 14.2 10.2 10.2 19.3 Very good 40.0 41.6 40.0 33.6 28.3 24.4 20.3 35.0 Good 26.3 27.2 27.8 29.3 31.1 32.4 28.3 28.5 Fair 7.9 8.4 8.8 12.1 19.7 22.5 27.6 13.0 Poor 0.9 1.5 2.3 3.7 6.7 10.5 13.6 4.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 (a) Age standardised percentages. See paragraph 31 of Explanatory Notes. ABS • NAT I O N A L HEA L T H SUR V E Y : SUMMA R Y OF RESU L T S • 436 4 . 0 • 200 4 – 0 5 19
  • 20. 4 LO N G TE R M CO N D I T I O N S (a) AGE GROUP (YEARS) 75 and 0–14 15–24 25–34 35–44 45–54 55–64 65–74 over Males Females Persons 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000Certain infectious & parasitic diseases *8.7 24.4 31.6 29.9 25.0 24.3 *16.2 *10.3 89.5 80.9 170.4Neoplasms Malignant neoplasms Skin np np *7.4 *11.8 36.8 31.2 26.7 33.7 90.4 57.5 147.9 Other & site unknown np np *5.2 18.0 28.1 45.5 45.6 45.0 107.9 86.2 194.1 Total np np *12.7 29.7 63.3 76.7 71.7 77.2 194.9 143.4 338.3 Benign neoplasms & neoplasms of uncertain nature *4.9 *3.9 *5.6 *6.5 *11.0 *7.7 *10.5 *4.4 *15.1 39.4 54.5 Total *7.9 *8.0 18.3 36.2 73.8 83.2 80.1 81.0 206.5 182.0 388.5Diseases of the blood & blood forming organs Anaemias *11.3 39.0 45.2 64.8 40.6 26.6 28.9 26.7 46.1 236.9 283.1 Other diseases of the blood & blood forming organs **1.9 *5.1 **2.7 *10.6 *9.2 *7.2 *6.0 *6.4 20.1 28.9 49.0 Total *13.2 41.9 47.3 75.4 48.4 33.8 34.8 31.8 65.0 261.6 326.6Endocrine, nutritional & metabolic diseases Disorders of the thyroid gland **2.7 *9.4 32.3 76.2 93.4 105.8 76.0 72.8 61.6 406.9 468.5 Diabetes mellitus Type 1 np np *8.0 *8.6 *11.9 19.8 20.7 *10.0 50.9 41.0 91.9 Type 2 np np *7.6 45.6 93.1 145.0 164.3 123.7 329.5 253.3 582.8 Total (b) *5.4 *11.0 16.6 55.9 106.1 171.5 188.8 144.4 387.8 311.8 699.6 High sugar levels in blood/urine np np **1.7 *6.2 *10.1 *11.6 *14.3 *8.6 27.9 28.4 56.3 High cholesterol np np 33.5 108.1 251.7 372.2 321.0 242.4 686.7 653.0 1 339.7 Other endocrine, nutritional & metabolic diseases *11.1 *9.4 31.1 19.8 18.4 22.2 *11.1 *6.2 44.9 84.4 129.3 Total 20.4 41.3 111.7 254.4 421.5 573.8 498.9 396.2 1 057.0 1 261.1 2 318.1Mental & behavioural problems Alcohol & drug problems np 19.0 38.1 36.6 43.1 *15.4 *6.7 np 115.9 45.4 161.4 Mood (affective) problems 30.3 144.6 184.6 230.1 210.0 139.7 61.7 51.7 415.3 637.3 1 052.6 Anxiety related problems 89.7 123.6 142.3 197.9 174.2 143.5 56.4 40.2 384.1 583.8 967.9 Problems of psychological development 100.6 60.8 28.3 27.1 25.9 16.7 *6.7 *9.2 181.8 93.5 275.3 Behavioural & emotional problems with usual onset in childhood/adolescence 116.3 34.7 np np np **2.8 np np 124.6 52.5 177.0 Organic mental problems np — np np np *3.8 np 20.3 *13.3 18.6 31.9 Other mental & behavioural problems 19.4 21.0 31.0 36.3 28.4 23.0 *4.9 *4.2 109.7 58.6 168.3 Symptoms & signs involving cognition, perceptions, emotional state & behaviour *8.3 *7.6 18.0 40.5 34.4 29.1 *6.0 *11.9 94.4 61.3 155.6 Total 263.0 267.8 322.7 403.3 358.2 262.4 118.8 112.0 982.9 1 125.4 2 108.3Diseases of the nervous system Epilepsy 18.8 16.8 *13.9 21.3 27.3 24.1 *7.8 *3.7 61.2 72.4 133.7 Migraine 43.3 158.3 293.1 307.5 282.5 133.2 56.8 20.1 375.4 919.4 1 294.8 Other diseases of the nervous system 24.1 *9.2 20.9 36.9 31.7 37.3 31.2 *10.8 98.0 104.1 202.2 Total 80.7 183.0 321.9 354.4 328.7 189.9 89.5 33.4 516.4 1 064.9 1 581.4* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless caution otherwise indicated** estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered too (a) Conditions which have lasted or are expected to last for 6 months or more. unreliable for general use (b) Includes persons from whom type of diabetes was not known.— nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)20 ABS • NAT I O N A L HEA L T H SUR V E Y : SUMMA R Y OF RESU L T S • 436 4 . 0 • 200 4 – 0 5
  • 21. 4 LO N G TE R M CO N D I T I O N S (a) cont i n u e d AGE GROUP (YEARS) 75 and 0–14 15–24 25–34 35–44 45–54 55–64 65–74 over Males Females Persons 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000Diseases of the eye & adnexa Cataract *3.6 np np *5.6 *16.2 41.8 107.9 179.3 141.4 215.3 356.7 Glaucoma np np **2.0 *5.0 24.4 36.0 51.6 84.8 88.5 117.7 206.2 Astigmatism 43.0 86.0 158.4 177.3 167.2 127.2 64.3 42.4 382.6 483.2 865.8 Macular degeneration np np np **1.8 *8.1 22.4 23.2 50.8 39.1 72.4 111.6 Presbyopia *3.8 — **2.7 45.6 236.6 226.0 173.1 160.6 386.1 462.3 848.4 Short sightedness 137.8 482.4 628.2 639.1 833.9 774.7 482.7 374.1 1 876.7 2 476.2 4 353.0 Long sightedness 146.6 236.0 243.7 435.1 1 428.8 1 336.0 863.9 644.0 2 380.6 2 953.4 5 334.1 Other disorders of the ocular muscles, accommodation & refraction 48.4 34.9 35.4 33.8 33.6 29.4 20.5 *11.6 123.4 124.2 247.6 Blindness (complete/partial) *5.7 *5.8 *12.4 21.4 *15.7 21.3 22.7 43.4 79.8 68.6 148.3 Other visual disturbances or loss of vision 32.5 38.2 61.6 59.9 60.6 55.0 57.3 54.1 196.3 223.1 419.4 Other diseases of the eye & adnexa 38.8 51.2 73.7 100.5 85.4 86.6 62.8 50.5 407.6 141.8 549.5 Total 410.7 801.8 1 018.0 1 249.5 2 338.4 2 038.6 1 300.0 1 048.8 4 666.9 5 538.8 10 205.8Diseases of the ear & mastoid Deafness (complete/partial) 54.8 70.3 148.3 250.8 295.0 378.5 358.6 458.2 1 303.9 710.4 2 014.3 Otitis media 59.3 *8.7 *8.3 *15.7 *5.1 **2.3 **2.4 **2.3 49.2 54.9 104.1 Other diseases of the ear & mastoid *14.2 27.9 56.1 64.9 89.1 111.0 74.0 53.2 277.4 213.1 490.5 Total 123.6 104.9 204.4 320.6 371.2 456.9 411.0 493.9 1 548.6 937.7 2 486.3Diseases of the circulatory system Heart, stroke & vascular diseases Angina — np np *4.6 *10.2 46.5 67.9 85.1 126.4 88.0 214.4 Other ischaemic heart diseases np np **2.1 *8.9 *14.5 36.3 40.2 49.3 102.7 49.6 152.2 Cerebrovascular diseases np np np *4.2 *5.4 19.4 22.0 37.6 48.2 42.6 90.8 Oedema & heart failure **0.7 **0.9 *7.7 18.9 41.4 52.4 52.0 89.0 86.7 176.3 263.0 Diseases of the arteries, arterioles & capillaries **1.7 **2.1 *3.6 *5.3 22.7 48.3 54.8 65.2 131.3 72.3 203.6 Total **3.0 *4.8 *13.7 37.0 81.4 166.0 191.3 257.5 388.2 366.5 754.7 Hypertensive disease **2.7 *11.4 55.4 137.0 371.8 559.8 513.8 448.8 999.6 1 101.1 2 100.7 Tachycardia **2.6 18.9 23.0 34.5 62.5 63.9 91.8 120.2 166.0 251.4 417.4 Haemorrhoids — *4.0 30.3 34.6 45.0 49.9 32.6 30.4 76.8 150.1 226.9 Varicose veins np np 52.9 84.1 102.1 103.3 90.9 69.7 134.9 374.5 509.4 Low blood pressure **2.3 17.7 39.0 59.2 39.9 29.5 20.7 29.4 55.9 181.9 237.8 Other diseases of the circulatory system np np 41.7 69.6 46.1 42.2 37.8 40.2 89.5 214.5 304.0 Symptoms & signs involving the circulatory system 39.5 20.7 32.8 51.5 49.6 55.8 58.5 60.3 159.4 209.4 368.8 Total 51.1 83.8 224.0 375.6 615.5 786.3 713.8 686.4 1 568.5 1 968.1 3 536.6Diseases of the respiratory system Bronchitis/emphysema 48.4 46.7 48.6 77.5 76.5 100.7 95.6 95.8 273.3 316.6 589.9 Asthma 451.5 333.1 301.5 260.4 251.8 185.8 143.9 85.5 879.2 1 134.3 2 013.5 Hayfever & allergic rhinitis 303.4 521.8 618.6 601.7 528.6 315.1 158.2 118.3 1 463.5 1 702.2 3 165.7 Chronic sinusitis 122.9 182.1 317.5 341.9 335.6 260.9 149.7 104.9 738.0 1 077.6 1 815.5 Other diseases of the respiratory system 33.0 *8.6 *6.6 *7.1 *11.3 *8.5 *11.1 *8.5 58.4 36.2 94.6 Symptoms & signs involving the respiratory system *14.3 *5.7 *8.3 **2.4 *6.6 *5.4 *6.8 *4.9 26.1 28.2 54.3 Total 752.3 813.9 920.8 971.4 873.9 640.5 415.0 320.4 2 629.2 3 079.0 5 708.2* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with — nil or rounded to zero (including null cells) caution np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless** estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered too otherwise indicated unreliable for general use (a) Conditions which have lasted or are expected to last for 6 months or more. ABS • NAT I O N A L HEA L T H SUR V E Y : SUMMA R Y OF RESU L T S • 436 4 . 0 • 200 4 – 0 5 21

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