PG STUDENT : Dr. AMOL ASKAR.
PG TEACHER : Dr. Lalit sankhe.
: Dr. Amit Mohite.
1
*NATIONAL IMMUNIZATION
PROGRAMME
Contents of seminar
1) Introduction to VPDs
2) EPI :- World & India
3) UIP
 Milestones
 Objective
 Components
 Micro p...
4) Status of VPDs
5) Pulse polio immunisation
6) Mission Indradhanush.
Vaccine Preventable Diseases
An infectious disease for which an effective preventive
vaccine exists.
If a person dies fr...
TARGETED VPDS
Tuberculosis
Diphtheria
Pertussis
Poliomyelitis
Measles
Tetanus
Hepatitis B
Japanese Encephalitis
TUBERCULOSIS
DIPHTHERIA
PERTUSSIS
POLIOMYELITIS
MEASLES
TETANUS
FULLY IMMUNIZED CHILD
A child who received
One dose of BCG,
Three doses of DPT and OPV,
One dose of measles
before one ye...
Control
 Reduction of prevalence or incidence of disease to lower acceptable level.
Elimination
 Eradication of disease ...
EXPANDED PROGRAMME ON IMMUNISATION (EPI)
EPI launched in 1974
Build on smallpox infrastructure
Targeted 6 diseases
EPI...
Original EPI infant schedule.
Age
Vaccines
Birth 6 weeks 10 weeks 14
weeks
9
months
BCG BCG
OPV OPV 1 OPV 2 OPV 3
DPT DPT ...
Addition to EPI
 Yellow fever in 1988
• For endemic countries only : 33 in Africa, 11 in S. America.
• Given with measles...
3 slides of coverage fm unicef
3 slides of coverage fm unicef
3 slides of coverage fm unicef
EPI IN INDIA
The Govt of India launched it’s EPI in 1978.
Introduced BCG, OPV, DPT, & Typhoid-paratyphoid vaccines
Objec...
 Target :- at least 80% coverage in infancy.
 As vaccination was offered through major hospitals & largely restricted to...
UNIVERSAL IMMUNIZATION PROGRAMME
Launched on 19 Nov 1985 in
remembrance of then Prime
Minister, Indira Gandhi.
MILESTONES IN THE IMMUNIZATION PROGRAM
1978 : Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) introduced after smallpox
eradication...
Continued….
1990 : Vitamin-A supplementation.
1992 : Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program.
1995:- India 1st conducte...
OBJECTIVES
1) To increase immunization coverage.
2) To improve quality of service.
3) To achieve self sufficiency in vacci...
 India has one of the largest Universal Immunization Programs (UIP) in the
world in terms of the quantities of vaccines u...
COMPONENTS OF UIP
1. Immunization of pregnant women against tetanus.
2. Immunization of children in their first year of li...
2 COMPONENTS OF UIP
Aim/ Target :-
 To achieve 100 % coverage of pregnant women with 2 doses of TT.
 At least 85% coverage of children under...
Goal 1
Districts will provide efficient and safe immunization services to all infants and
pregnant woman
Objectives
 Regu...
Strategies
 Coordination between national and state level
 Printing & supply of normal operational guidelines
 Strength...
Goal 2
Contribute global polio eradication, measles mortality reduction and neonatal
tetanus elimination
Objectives
 Poli...
Strategies
 Routine immunisation for polio
 Supplementary immunisation activities
 AFP surveillance
 Increasing the re...
Goal 3
UIP will have sufficient and sustainable funding with established adequate,
accountable, efficient fund flows
Objec...
Goal 4
Sustain demand & reduce social barriers to access immunisation services
Objectives
 Widespread support by families...
Goal 5
Accelerated introduction of licensed new and under utilized vaccines against
diseases with significant mortality an...
Goal 6
To monitor & use accurate, complete & timely data on vaccine preventable
disease , AEFIs, antigen coverage & drop o...
CHANNEL s OF SERVICE PROVISION
Immunization services are provided through the existing Health Care
Delivery System. (MCH c...
Additional national efforts
 Launch of immunization strengthening project (ISP)
 Urban measles campaign
 Border distric...
 To strengthen post marketing surveillance for vaccines in India
• Manufacturers are required to submit periodic safety u...
 The year 2012-13 was declared as “Year of Intensification of Routine
Immunisation” in India.
 There was increased focus...
%Infants (0-1 year)reached
100
86.9
69.6 66.2 63.6
54.1
11.3
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Targetinfants
BCG
Measles
OPV
DPT-3
Ful...
As per the Coverage Evaluation Survey (CES-2009), 61% of children in the
country are Fully Immunized with all vaccines.
Ev...
Ref:-UNICEF Coverage evaluation survey: all India report 2009.
*
Ref:-UNICEF Coverage evaluation survey: all India report 2009.
National Immunization Schedule
Age Vaccines
Birth BCG, OPV-O, Hep B
6 weeks DPT -1, OPV -1, Hep B
10 weeks DPT -2, OPV -2,...
AGE VACCINES
16-24 months Measles 2nd dose
16-24 months Japanese Encephalitis
18 , 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54, 60 months Vitam...
Vaccines added
 On 2nd July GOI introduced 4 new vaccines on recommendations given by
NTAGI
 ROTAVIRUS
 INJECTABLE POLI...
IAP Schedule
VACCINES AGE
BCG Birth – 2 weeks
OPV Birth ; 6,10,14 weeks; 16-18 months; 5 years
DPT 6,10,14 weeks; 16-18 mo...
Vaccines that can be given after discussion with parents
 Varicella ---- 15 months
 Hepatitis A -- 18 months and 6 month...
1) If a dose is missed……..
Give the dose at the next opportunity irrespective of the time gap
Do not start the schedule ...
2) If a not a single dose taken ?????
What next ??
3) Immunisation in preterm infants
 All vaccines except Hepatitis B
 If BW < 2Kg & mother HBsAg negative :- postpone til...
4) Children receiving corticosteroids
Children receiving corticosteroids at the dose of 2 mg/kg/day for more
than 14 days...
5) Vaccination in HIV/AIDS
Tetanus toxoid
Intramuscular – upper arm – 0.5 ml
Pregnancy – 2 doses - 1st dose as early as possible and second dose af...
BCG
At birth or as early as possible till one year of age
0.1 ml (0.05ml until one month of age)
Intra-dermal
Left upp...
Hepatitis B
Birth dose – within 24 hours of birth
0.5 ml
Intramuscular
Antero-lateral side of mid-thigh
Rest three do...
OPV
Zero dose – within first 15 days of birth
2 drops
Oral
First, second and third doses at 6, 10 and 14 weeks with DP...
DPT
Three primary doses at 6, 10 and 14 weeks with OPV-1, 2 and 3
0.5 ml
Intra-muscular
Antero-lateral side of mid-thi...
Measles
At 9 completed months to 12 months
Give up to 5 years if not received at 9-12 months age
Second dose at 16-24 m...
Constraints
 Illiteracy
 Non uniform coverage
 Poor implementation
 Poor monitoring
 High drop outs
 Declining cover...
 Vacany of staff at field level not filled
 Poor surveillance of vaccine preventable diseases
 Poor vaccine logistics
...
STATUS OF VPD -INDIA
DISEASE 1987 2011 %
DECLINE
POLIMYELITIS 28,257 1 100
DIPTHERIA 12,952 4,233 62.3
PERTUSIS 163,786 3,...
Achievements:
The biggest achievement of the immunization program is the eradication of
small pox.
India is free of Poli...
*PULSE POLIO IMMUNIZATION
1995.
Under 5 children.
Additional oral polio drops administered in
December & January.
On 25 Feb 2012
INDIA is removed from the list of
“POLIO ENDEMIC COUNTRIES”
Maternal & Neonatal TT status
 WHO declared that Maternal & Neonatal TT eliminated from India in 15 May
2015
Mission Indradhanush
 Launched on 25th dec 2014 by GOI.
 Aim :- To immunise all children against 7 preventable diseases ...
HOW?
1) Intensified routine immunisation campaigns
Special catch up campaigns
2) Micro planning of campaigns/sessions at a...
References
1) Immunization Handbook for Health Workers, New Delhi, Government of India, 2006,
(http://www.whoindia.org/Lin...
7) Field Guide: Measles Surveillance, &, Outbreak Investigation, New Delhi, Government of India,
2006, (http://www.npsuind...
15)National Immunization Programme: Conduct Disease Surveillance, New Delhi, Government of
India, 1989
16)Outbreaks Invest...
THANK U !!!
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  • 1. PG STUDENT : Dr. AMOL ASKAR. PG TEACHER : Dr. Lalit sankhe. : Dr. Amit Mohite. 1 *NATIONAL IMMUNIZATION PROGRAMME
  • 2. Contents of seminar 1) Introduction to VPDs 2) EPI :- World & India 3) UIP  Milestones  Objective  Components  Micro planning  Coverage  Schedule  Constraints  Achievements
  • 3. 4) Status of VPDs 5) Pulse polio immunisation 6) Mission Indradhanush.
  • 4. Vaccine Preventable Diseases An infectious disease for which an effective preventive vaccine exists. If a person dies from it, the death is considered a vaccine- preventable death.
  • 5. TARGETED VPDS Tuberculosis Diphtheria Pertussis Poliomyelitis Measles Tetanus Hepatitis B Japanese Encephalitis
  • 6. TUBERCULOSIS
  • 7. DIPHTHERIA
  • 8. PERTUSSIS
  • 9. POLIOMYELITIS
  • 10. MEASLES
  • 11. TETANUS
  • 12. FULLY IMMUNIZED CHILD A child who received One dose of BCG, Three doses of DPT and OPV, One dose of measles before one year of age. This gives a child the best chance for survival.
  • 13. Control  Reduction of prevalence or incidence of disease to lower acceptable level. Elimination  Eradication of disease from a large geographic region or political jurisdiction  Either reduction of infectious disease’s prevalence in regional population to zero or reduction of global prevalence to a negligible amount. Eradication  Termination of all transmissions of infection by extermination of infectious agent through surveillance and containment.  Reduction of infectious disease’s prevalence in global host population to zero.
  • 14. EXPANDED PROGRAMME ON IMMUNISATION (EPI) EPI launched in 1974 Build on smallpox infrastructure Targeted 6 diseases EPI progressively adopted by all countries Universal by early 1098s
  • 15. Original EPI infant schedule. Age Vaccines Birth 6 weeks 10 weeks 14 weeks 9 months BCG BCG OPV OPV 1 OPV 2 OPV 3 DPT DPT 1 DPT 2 DPT 3 Measles Measles
  • 16. Addition to EPI  Yellow fever in 1988 • For endemic countries only : 33 in Africa, 11 in S. America. • Given with measles vaccine  Hepatitis B in 1992 • In high seroprevalence countries by 1995 • In all countries by 1997  Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) • 1998 : based on disease burden and capacity • 2006 : all countries. ( lack of data should not be obstacle)
  • 17. 3 slides of coverage fm unicef
  • 18. 3 slides of coverage fm unicef
  • 19. 3 slides of coverage fm unicef
  • 20. EPI IN INDIA The Govt of India launched it’s EPI in 1978. Introduced BCG, OPV, DPT, & Typhoid-paratyphoid vaccines Objectives  To reducing mortality, morbidity resulting from VPDs.  To achieve a self sufficiency in vaccine production.
  • 21.  Target :- at least 80% coverage in infancy.  As vaccination was offered through major hospitals & largely restricted to urban areas so coverage remained low.  In 1981 Typhoid-paratyphoid vaccine was dropped from EPI due to --- Considered higher reactogenicity and low efficacy of the vaccines --- Perceived reduced burden of typhoid disease in the country.  In 1983 tetanus toxoid vaccine for pregnant woman added in EPI
  • 22. UNIVERSAL IMMUNIZATION PROGRAMME Launched on 19 Nov 1985 in remembrance of then Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi.
  • 23. MILESTONES IN THE IMMUNIZATION PROGRAM 1978 : Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) introduced after smallpox eradication: BCG, DPT, OPV, Typhoid. Limited to mainly urban areas 1985 : Universal Immunization Program (UIP) introduced Expanded to entire country; Measles added. 1986 : National Technology Mission Objectives Monitoring under PMO’s 20 point programme Improve coverage with existing antigens Develop self sustainability in vaccine production
  • 24. Continued…. 1990 : Vitamin-A supplementation. 1992 : Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program. 1995:- India 1st conducted national immunisation day for polio eradication. 1997:- Reproductive and Child Health Programme National Polio Surveillance Project launched as WHO & GOI collaboration. 2001:- National Technical Advisory Group On immunisation formed 2005:- National Rural Health Mission
  • 25. OBJECTIVES 1) To increase immunization coverage. 2) To improve quality of service. 3) To achieve self sufficiency in vaccine production & manufacturing of cold chain equipments. 4) To establish reliable cold chain equipment and establish a good surveillance network. 5) To introduce a district wise system monitoring & evaluation 6) To train health personnel.
  • 26.  India has one of the largest Universal Immunization Programs (UIP) in the world in terms of the quantities of vaccines used, number of beneficiaries covered, geographical spread and human resources involved.  Under the UIP, all vaccines are given free of cost to the beneficiaries as per the National Immunization Schedule.  All beneficiaries can get themselves vaccinated at the nearest Government/Private health facility or at an immunization post (Anganwadi centres/ other identified sites) near to their village/urban locality on fixed days.  The UIP covers all sections of the society across the country with the same high quality vaccines.
  • 27. COMPONENTS OF UIP 1. Immunization of pregnant women against tetanus. 2. Immunization of children in their first year of life against 6 VPDs.
  • 28. 2 COMPONENTS OF UIP
  • 29. Aim/ Target :-  To achieve 100 % coverage of pregnant women with 2 doses of TT.  At least 85% coverage of children under one year (with 3 doses of DPT, OPV & one dose of BCG, One dose of Measles) by march 1990.  Target was increased to cover 100% of infants as the vaccination programme became universalised in geographical coverage  UIP was first started in 31 selected districts with plan of scale up to additional districts.
  • 30. Goal 1 Districts will provide efficient and safe immunization services to all infants and pregnant woman Objectives  Regular quality immunisation sessions are planned and held  Adequate trained staff are empowered to provide quality immunisation services  Annually upgrade cold chain inventory according to levels of network  Implementation of safe injection practices & waste disposal
  • 31. Strategies  Coordination between national and state level  Printing & supply of normal operational guidelines  Strengthening of supervision  Prioritization of under served populations within districts  Strengthening Training of all categories of staff  Timely supply of vaccines and ensuring quality control of vaccines
  • 32. Goal 2 Contribute global polio eradication, measles mortality reduction and neonatal tetanus elimination Objectives  Polio eradication certification by 2007  Elimination of neonatal tetanus by 2009  Reduction in measles mortality by 2/3 compared to 2000 estimates by 2010  Achieve and maintain 70% coverage of 2 doses of vitamin A to children < 3 yrs
  • 33. Strategies  Routine immunisation for polio  Supplementary immunisation activities  AFP surveillance  Increasing the reporting and action on cases  Safe delivery practices  Strengthening measles vaccination and surveillance and response to outbreaks
  • 34. Goal 3 UIP will have sufficient and sustainable funding with established adequate, accountable, efficient fund flows Objectives  Adequate & reliable financial resources at national, state and local levels for the UIP to achieve goals & objectives  Political commitment for adequate annual funding at all levels Strategies  Strengthening national financial planning  Building partnership
  • 35. Goal 4 Sustain demand & reduce social barriers to access immunisation services Objectives  Widespread support by families and communities  All eligible children & pregnant woman are immunised  High level political and administrative support Strategies  Coverage with print, electronic media,etc.  Improve interpersonal communication
  • 36. Goal 5 Accelerated introduction of licensed new and under utilized vaccines against diseases with significant mortality and morbidity in India Objectives  Institutional mechanisms in place to adequately obtain, review and utilize information for deciding on introduction of new and under utilized vaccines  Review need for MMR or MR vaccines in India’s immunisation program  Phased introduction of Hepatitis B Strategies  Improve coordination between MoHFW, research institutes, NRI, development partners, surveillance & training.
  • 37. Goal 6 To monitor & use accurate, complete & timely data on vaccine preventable disease , AEFIs, antigen coverage & drop out rates by district Objectives  Institutional surveillance for VPDs & early detection of any outbreaks  Strengthened vaccine quality and injection safety by developing monitoring system for reporting & responding to adverse events following immunisation by 2009  Effective, efficient complete and timely immunisation, local recording and area monitoring system by 2009
  • 38. CHANNEL s OF SERVICE PROVISION Immunization services are provided through the existing Health Care Delivery System. (MCH centers, PHC, CHCs, Hospitals, Dispensaries).
  • 39. Additional national efforts  Launch of immunization strengthening project (ISP)  Urban measles campaign  Border district cluster strategy (BDCS)  Celebration of immunization weeks  The national technical advisory group on immunisation (NTAGI) was formed in 2001 .  The adverse events following immunisation reporting has been made a part of UIP since 1985. • 1st documented AEFI report & guidelines published in 1988 • Guidelines revised and widely disseminated in 2005-06
  • 40.  To strengthen post marketing surveillance for vaccines in India • Manufacturers are required to submit periodic safety update reports (PSURs) for all newly licensed vaccines to Central Drug Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO) every 6 months in 1st two years and then Annually for next 2 years  India adopted policy of use of auto disable syringes only for UIP in country starting in 2005-06  India adopted policy for procuring all vaccines with Vaccine Vial Monitor (VVM) to monitor potency of the vaccines in field situation  India released 1st National Vaccine Policy in 2011. policy provides guiding principles for functioning & strengthening of immunisation programme in country.
  • 41.  The year 2012-13 was declared as “Year of Intensification of Routine Immunisation” in India.  There was increased focus on improving coverage in identified 239 poor performing districts in India.
  • 42. %Infants (0-1 year)reached 100 86.9 69.6 66.2 63.6 54.1 11.3 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Targetinfants BCG Measles OPV DPT-3 Fully immunize No immunization Target infants : 26 million Fully immunized: 14.1 million Partial immunized:9.0 million No immunized: 2.9 million
  • 43. As per the Coverage Evaluation Survey (CES-2009), 61% of children in the country are Fully Immunized with all vaccines. Evaluated coverage (%) District Level Household Survey 3 (DLHS) 2007-08 Coverage Evaluation Survey (CES) 2009 Full immunisation 54.1 61.0 BCG 86.9 86.9 OPV3 65.6 70.4 DPT3 63.4 71.5 Measles 69.1 74.1 No immunisation 11.3 7.6
  • 44. Ref:-UNICEF Coverage evaluation survey: all India report 2009.
  • 45. * Ref:-UNICEF Coverage evaluation survey: all India report 2009.
  • 46. National Immunization Schedule Age Vaccines Birth BCG, OPV-O, Hep B 6 weeks DPT -1, OPV -1, Hep B 10 weeks DPT -2, OPV -2, Hep B 14 weeks DPT -3, OPV-3, Hep B 9 months Measles with vitamin A 16-24 months DPT booster 1st , OPV – Booster, 5 years DPT Booster 2nd 10 years TT 16 years TT
  • 47. AGE VACCINES 16-24 months Measles 2nd dose 16-24 months Japanese Encephalitis 18 , 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54, 60 months Vitamin A AGE VACCINES TT-1 Early in pregnancy TT-2 4 weeks after TT-1 TT booster if received 2 TT doses in last pregnancy within last 3 years
  • 48. Vaccines added  On 2nd July GOI introduced 4 new vaccines on recommendations given by NTAGI  ROTAVIRUS  INJECTABLE POLIO  RUBELLA  JAPANEASE ENCEPHALITIS
  • 49. IAP Schedule VACCINES AGE BCG Birth – 2 weeks OPV Birth ; 6,10,14 weeks; 16-18 months; 5 years DPT 6,10,14 weeks; 16-18 months; 5 years Hepatitis B Birth, 6 weeks, & 14 weeks or 6 weeks, 10 weeks & 14 weeks Hib Conjugate 6 weeks, 10 weeks & 14 weeks Measles 9 months; 16-24 months MMR 15 months Typhoid 2 years, 5 years, 8 years & 12 years TT 10 & 16 years TT Early in pregnancy & 4 weeks after TT-1
  • 50. Vaccines that can be given after discussion with parents  Varicella ---- 15 months  Hepatitis A -- 18 months and 6 months later  Influenza vaccine -- 6 months of age  Pneumoccocal conjugate vaccine -- 6 weeks
  • 51. 1) If a dose is missed…….. Give the dose at the next opportunity irrespective of the time gap Do not start the schedule all over again
  • 52. 2) If a not a single dose taken ????? What next ??
  • 53. 3) Immunisation in preterm infants  All vaccines except Hepatitis B  If BW < 2Kg & mother HBsAg negative :- postpone till baby attaines 2kg wt or 2 mths of age.  If BW < 2Kg & mother HBsAg positive :- give vaccine + immunoglobulin.
  • 54. 4) Children receiving corticosteroids Children receiving corticosteroids at the dose of 2 mg/kg/day for more than 14 days should not receive live virus vaccines until steroid has been discontinued for at least 1 month.
  • 55. 5) Vaccination in HIV/AIDS
  • 56. Tetanus toxoid Intramuscular – upper arm – 0.5 ml Pregnancy – 2 doses - 1st dose as early as possible and second dose after 4 weeks of first dose and before 36 weeks of pregnancy Pregnancy – booster dose (before 36 weeks of pregnancy) – If received 2 TT doses in a pregnancy within last three years. Give TT to woman in labour, if she has not received TT previously TT booster for both boys and girls at 10 years and 16 years No TT required between two doses in case of injury
  • 57. BCG At birth or as early as possible till one year of age 0.1 ml (0.05ml until one month of age) Intra-dermal Left upper arm
  • 58. Hepatitis B Birth dose – within 24 hours of birth 0.5 ml Intramuscular Antero-lateral side of mid-thigh Rest three doses at 6 weeks, 10 weeks and 14 weeks
  • 59. OPV Zero dose – within first 15 days of birth 2 drops Oral First, second and third doses at 6, 10 and 14 weeks with DPT-1, 2 and 3 OPV booster with DPT booster at 16-24 months
  • 60. DPT Three primary doses at 6, 10 and 14 weeks with OPV-1, 2 and 3 0.5 ml Intra-muscular Antero-lateral side of mid-thigh One booster at 16-24 m with OPV booster (antero-lateral side of mid-thigh) and second booster at 5-6 years (upper arm)
  • 61. Measles At 9 completed months to 12 months Give up to 5 years if not received at 9-12 months age Second dose at 16-24 months (select states after catch-up campaign) – Measles Containing Vaccine 0.5 ml Sub-cutaneous Right upper arm Along with Vitamin A (1st dose) – 1ml (1 lakh IU) - oral
  • 62. Constraints  Illiteracy  Non uniform coverage  Poor implementation  Poor monitoring  High drop outs  Declining coverage in some major states  Over reporting  Poor injection safety  Reorientation of staff being not carried out
  • 63.  Vacany of staff at field level not filled  Poor surveillance of vaccine preventable diseases  Poor vaccine logistics  Poor maintainance of equipments  Extra ordinary emphasis on polio vaccine
  • 64. STATUS OF VPD -INDIA DISEASE 1987 2011 % DECLINE POLIMYELITIS 28,257 1 100 DIPTHERIA 12,952 4,233 62.3 PERTUSIS 163,786 3,909 76.13 NNT 11,849 734 93.8 MEASLES 247,519 33,634 86.41
  • 65. Achievements: The biggest achievement of the immunization program is the eradication of small pox. India is free of Poliomyelitis caused by Wild Polio Virus (WPV) on 27 march 2014. India declared free of maternal and neonatal TT in June 2015 Besides, vaccination has contributed significantly to the decline in the cases and deaths due to the Vaccine Preventable Diseases (VPDs).
  • 66. *PULSE POLIO IMMUNIZATION 1995. Under 5 children. Additional oral polio drops administered in December & January.
  • 67. On 25 Feb 2012 INDIA is removed from the list of “POLIO ENDEMIC COUNTRIES”
  • 68. Maternal & Neonatal TT status  WHO declared that Maternal & Neonatal TT eliminated from India in 15 May 2015
  • 69. Mission Indradhanush  Launched on 25th dec 2014 by GOI.  Aim :- To immunise all children against 7 preventable diseases by 2020  Why?  Where?
  • 70. HOW? 1) Intensified routine immunisation campaigns Special catch up campaigns 2) Micro planning of campaigns/sessions at all levels 3) Effective communication and social mobilisation efforts 4) Intensive training of health officials and frontline workers 5) Establish accountability framework through task forces
  • 71. References 1) Immunization Handbook for Health Workers, New Delhi, Government of India, 2006, (http://www.whoindia.org/LinkFiles/Routine_Immunization_Immunization_Handbook_for_Health_W orkers_2006.zip), 2) Immunization In Practice: A Practical Resource Guide for Health Workers,Geneva, World Health Organization, 2004, (WHO/IVB/04.06), (http://www.who.int/vaccines-documents/DoxTrng/h4iip.htm) 3) India National Universal Immunization Programme Review, New Delhi, B(http://www.whoindia.org/LinkFiles/Routine_Immunization_Acknowledgements_contents.pdf) 4) Integrated Disease Surveillance Project: , Training Manual for State & District Surveillance Officers, Module 5, New Delhi, Government of India, 2005, (http://nicd.nic.in/IDSP_docs/TRAINING%20MANUAL/District%20Surveillance%20Team%20Training% 20Manual/Module5.pdf) 5) Measles Mortality Reduction: India Strategic Plan 2005-2010, New Delhi, Government of India, 2005, (http://www.whoindia.org/LinkFiles/Measles_Measlespdf.pdf) 6) National Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Programme: Surveillance, New Delhi, Government of India, 1994
  • 72. 7) Field Guide: Measles Surveillance, &, Outbreak Investigation, New Delhi, Government of India, 2006, (http://www.npsuindia.org/download/Measles%20Guide.pdf) 8) Field Guide: Surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis, New Delhi, Government of India, 2005, (http://www.npspindia.org/download/Redbook.pdf) 9) Guidelines for Disposal of Bio-medical Waste Generated during Universal Immunization Programme, Delhi, Central Pollution Control Board, 2004, (http://www.solutionexchange-un.net.in/environment/cr/res21040602.doc) 10) Guidelines for Reporting & Management of Adverse Events Following Immunization: India, New Delhi, Government of India, 2005, (http://www.whoindia.org/LinkFiles/Routine_Immunization_AEFIguidelines_for_reporting.pdf) 11) Guidelines for Surveillance of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome, New Delhi, Government of India, 2006, (http://nvbdcp.gov.in/Doc/AES%20guidelines.pdf) 12) Immunization Essentials: A Practical Field Guide, Washington, D.C., United States Agency for International Development, 2003, (http://www.dec.org/pdf_docs/PNACU960.pdf) 13) Multi Year Strategic Plan 2005-2010: Universal Immunization Programme, New Delhi, Government of India, 2005, (http://www.whoindia.org/LinkFiles/Routine_Immunization_MYP_PDF_(o5_July_05)__Final.pdf) 14) National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), 2005-06: India, Mumbai, International Institute of Population Sciences and Macro International, 2007, (http://nfhsindia.org/nfhs3_national_report.html)
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  • 74. THANK U !!!

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