A Report of the Group 7…
Leader: Ananda Wisely
Asst. Leader: Jayson Rey Convicto
Members:
John Michael Santamena
Mary Louise Sadornas
Franz Hadrian...
Topics Defined in this Module:
I. The Administration of Manuel A. Roxas (1946-1948)
II. The Administration of Elpidio Quir...
The Administration of Manuel A. Roxas( 1946-1948 )
April 23, 1946 – Roxas,
together with his running
mate won swiftly as
P...
Political Developments Achieved:
1. Passage of the Treaty of General Relations
– stated that America withdrew and surrende...
The Administration of Elpidio Quirino( 1948-1953 )
Quirino targeted the elimination of
the HUKS.
He appointed a former Jap...
Achievements of the Quirino Administration:
1. Passed the Economic Mobilization Program in industrializing the
country thr...
The Administration of Ramon Magsaysay( 1954-1957 )
Ramon Magsaysay was the Defense
Secretary during the Quirino
Administra...
Achievements of the Magsaysay Administration:
1. Passed the Agricultural Tenancy Act of 1954
“which provides for greater p...
The Administration of Carlos P. Garcia( 1957-1961)
March 18, 1957 – then Vice President Carlos P.
Garcia took over as Pres...
Achievements of the Garcia Administration:
1. Proposed the “Filipino First Policy” that carried the slogan “Buy
Filipino” ...
The Administration of Diosdado Macapagal( 1962-1965)
Known in his presidential campaign as the
“poor boy from Lubao”
His a...
Achievements of the Diosdado Macapagal
Administration:
1. Established financial institutions such as the Veterans Bank and...
5. Passed the first land reform law in the country, Republic Act No.
3844 also known as the Agricultural Land Reform Law.
...
The Administration of Ferdinand E. Marcos( 1965-1986 )
He was the only and first President to
declare Martial Law and the ...
To improve the economy and living conditions of his people, Marcos
hired gifted young experts known as technocrats and in ...
The Filipino people were satisfied by his
performance during his first term and in
1969 elections, Marcos won his second
t...
Terrible incidents which were enough reasons for President Marcos
to put the country into Martial Law:
1. The Bombing of P...
September 21, 1972 – Marcos secretly signed Proclamation
No. 1081 placing the entire archipelago under Martial Law.
The end of Marcos era started when Sen. Benigno Aquino, leading critic of
Marcos was shot by a single bullet as he arrived...
After receiving the report submitted by the Agrava Commission,
President Marcos ordered the trial of these people referred...
The COMELEC declared Marcos-Tolentino tandem as winners
while the NAMFREL proclaimed Corazon Aquino and Salvador
Laurel as...
The Administration and Accomplishments of
President Corazon C. Aquino (1986-1992)
February 25, 1986 – Corazon Aquino was s...
After six years of power in the presidency, the following were her
accomplishments:
1. Restoration of peace, freedom, just...
6. Passage of the General Act of 1988 which provided the use
of generic names of pharmaceutical products in its
prescripti...
Introduction to the Study of State, Government and
Constitution
“The State, as a concept of political science and public l...
BASIC ELEMENTS OF THE STATE:
1. People – “Refers to the human beings living within its territory.”
2. Territory – “The fix...
State Distinguished from Nation
*State – a political and juridical concept, cannot be subjected to
external control
*Natio...
The 1973 Constitution
March 16, 1967 – Congress in joint session passed Resolution No. 2 of both
Houses authorizing the ho...
President Marcos issued a decree setting the plebiscite for the ratification of
the new Constitution. He also issued an or...
of 30

Political Development of the Presidents from Roxas to Marcos (1946-1986)

PHILHistory - a report of Group 7
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Political Development of the Presidents from Roxas to Marcos (1946-1986)

  • 1. A Report of the Group 7…
  • 2. Leader: Ananda Wisely Asst. Leader: Jayson Rey Convicto Members: John Michael Santamena Mary Louise Sadornas Franz Hadrian Gungon Caieb Guinto Wayne Alejado Shannen Cabilangan Patrick John Manalo
  • 3. Topics Defined in this Module: I. The Administration of Manuel A. Roxas (1946-1948) II. The Administration of Elpidio Quirino (1948-1953) III. The Administration of Ramon Magsaysay (1954-1957) IV. The Administration of Carlos P. Garcia (1957-1961) V. The Administration of Diosdado Macapagal (1962-1965) VI. The Administration of Ferdinand E. Marcos (1965-1986) VII. Civil Disobedience, Snap Election and Military Defection VIII. The Administration of Corazon C. Aquino (1986-1992) IX. Introduction to the Study of State, Government and Constitution X. The 1973 Constitution
  • 4. The Administration of Manuel A. Roxas( 1946-1948 ) April 23, 1946 – Roxas, together with his running mate won swiftly as President and Vice President respectively. They took office on May 26, 1946 and two months later, the Philippine Independence was proclaimed on July 04, 1946 and Roxas became the first President of the Republic.
  • 5. Political Developments Achieved: 1. Passage of the Treaty of General Relations – stated that America withdrew and surrendered “all rights of possession, supervision, jurisdiction, control or sovereignty over the Philippines except the military bases 2. The approval of the Tydings Rehabilitation Act of 1946 ( amounting to $120,000,000.) 3. The passing of the Parity Rights – gave the Americans the equal rights to the Filipinos in exploiting the Philippine natural resources 4. Approved the Bell Trades Relations Act – free trade relations between the United States and the Philippines for 8 years until 1954 5. Proclaimed the General Amnesty Program of 1946 to end the guerilla problem in the country
  • 6. The Administration of Elpidio Quirino( 1948-1953 ) Quirino targeted the elimination of the HUKS. He appointed a former Japanese guerilla named Ramon Magsaysay as his National Defense Secretary. Magsaysay’s proper handling of the problem brought back the people’s faith in the government. In his re-election bid on November 10, 1953, Quirino lost against his Defense Secretary, Ramon Magsaysay.
  • 7. Achievements of the Quirino Administration: 1. Passed the Economic Mobilization Program in industrializing the country through the opening of some industries. 2. Established the Central Bank of the Philippines in order to stabilize the currency of our country. 3. Created the President’s Action Committee on Social Amelioration to alleviate the life condition of the poor, especially the rural areas.
  • 8. The Administration of Ramon Magsaysay( 1954-1957 ) Ramon Magsaysay was the Defense Secretary during the Quirino Administration. He stopped the HUKS in terrorizing the people and became popular to the masses. Considered as the most beloved man of our country, Ramon Magsaysay served his people at his very best until his plane crashed in Mt. Manunggal, Cebu. In the 1953, elections, he defeated his Chief, Elpidio Quirino and became the third President of the Republic.
  • 9. Achievements of the Magsaysay Administration: 1. Passed the Agricultural Tenancy Act of 1954 “which provides for greater protection to the tenants by granting them the freedom to choose the system of tenancy” 2. Established the National Resettlement Rehabilitation Administration (NARRA) in 1955 to resettle the many landless Filipinos 3. Created the Agricultural Credit and Cooperative Financing Administration and the Farmers Cooperative and Marketing Association to strengthen the agricultural capability of the country 4. Created the Presidential Complaints and Action Committee to hear the problems of the people
  • 10. The Administration of Carlos P. Garcia( 1957-1961) March 18, 1957 – then Vice President Carlos P. Garcia took over as President after the death of Ramon Magsaysay Carlos P. Garcia continued the economic policies of Ramon Magsaysay. Unfortunately, his administration was toppled with issues of graft and corruption. In the 1961 elections, he lost his re-election bid to Vice President Diosdado Macapagal
  • 11. Achievements of the Garcia Administration: 1. Proposed the “Filipino First Policy” that carried the slogan “Buy Filipino” which highlighted Filipino products rather than American goods 2. Advocated the “Austerity Program” as a policy of temperate spending which signifies “more work, more thrift, more productive investment and more efficiency. It means less imports and less extravagant consumption”. 3. Strengthened Filipino culture by sending dance groups abroad such as the Bayanihan Dance Troupe that revived Filipino cultural dances
  • 12. The Administration of Diosdado Macapagal( 1962-1965) Known in his presidential campaign as the “poor boy from Lubao” His administration was hampered with many cases of graft and corruption. The most “infamous” corruption case uprooted during his term involved an American ex-soldier turned multi-millionaire Harry Stonehill and its crony, Robert Brooks. It was reported that Stonehill made many collaboration in regards to secret dealings with business legislation to government officials, including members of congress, cabinet members and even newspaper men. Macapagal ordered the deportation of the two Americans saving the case buoyantly in the air.
  • 13. Achievements of the Diosdado Macapagal Administration: 1. Established financial institutions such as the Veterans Bank and allowed the establishment of the Asian Development Bank in Manila. 2. Changed the Philippine Independence Day from July 4th back to June 12th. 3. Claimed North Borneo as part of the Philippine territory, unfortunately, the claims never prospered due to the intervention of foreign powers like the United States and Great Britain. 4. Helped to start the MAPHILINDO, a group to bring Malaysia, Philippines and Indonesia closer which was later on led to the formation of what is now ASEAN or the Association of Southeast Asian Nation.
  • 14. 5. Passed the first land reform law in the country, Republic Act No. 3844 also known as the Agricultural Land Reform Law. 6. Created the National Industry Development Administration to help small scale businesses in the country.
  • 15. The Administration of Ferdinand E. Marcos( 1965-1986 ) He was the only and first President to declare Martial Law and the longest- serving President of our country. He was the President who built the most number of roads, bridges, schoolhouses and government buildings.
  • 16. To improve the economy and living conditions of his people, Marcos hired gifted young experts known as technocrats and in the first year of his administration, Marcos achieved the following: 1. Greater production of rice by promoting the cultivation of “miracle rice”, the construction of more irrigation systems, and giving financial assistance to the farmers. 2. Effective tax collection and securing loans from the IMF and the government agencies which produced surplus and increased our Gross National Product (GNP). 3. Implemented counter insurgency measures that significantly reduced the NPA and criminal acts in the country. 4. In 1964, signed the Vietnam Aid Law to which our country would send military support to aid the United States in its war in Vietnam. 5. Held the Manila Summit Conference in October 1966, attended by the heads of state of Australia, South Korea, New Zealand, South Vietnam, Thailand and America.
  • 17. The Filipino people were satisfied by his performance during his first term and in 1969 elections, Marcos won his second term. He was the only President of our country to win re-election unlike his predecessors who ran for re-election and lost. Unfortunately, his second term was commenced by massive economic problems and opposition from radical groups and new-emerged political enemies. Marcos extended his term beyond the 8-year constitutional declaration. His political maneuvering finally took the government through military means.
  • 18. Terrible incidents which were enough reasons for President Marcos to put the country into Martial Law: 1. The Bombing of Plaza Miranda (August 21, 1971) 2. Demonstrations and rallies conducted by militant students, intellectuals and religious groups. One shocking event occured on the night of January 30, 1970 in Mendiola causing the death of five students. 3. The bombings of public properties and private residences which included the U.S. Embassy, Manila Water System in San Juan Manila, the Manila City Hall, the Constitutional Convention and a department store in Carriedo Manila whick killed an innocent customer in August 1972. 4. Alleged assassination attempts on President Marcos and other key national leaders such as the residence of Congressman Eduardo Cojuangco and Senator Jose Roy and the car ambush of Defense Secretary Juan Ponce Enrile resulting the death of his driver.
  • 19. September 21, 1972 – Marcos secretly signed Proclamation No. 1081 placing the entire archipelago under Martial Law.
  • 20. The end of Marcos era started when Sen. Benigno Aquino, leading critic of Marcos was shot by a single bullet as he arrived at the Manila International Airport on August 21, 1983. After the incident, the goverment insinuated the name of Rolando Galman being the sole assassin of Aquino. President Marcos created the “Agrava Commission”, an independent board of jury, to probe the Aquino murder case. After a year and two months of investigation, the commission submitted its report stating that the murder of Aquino was a military conspiracy, composed of 26 men involving the Chief of Staff, two generals, a colonel and more than a dozen of military men. Civil Disobedience, Snap Election and Military Defection
  • 21. After receiving the report submitted by the Agrava Commission, President Marcos ordered the trial of these people referred to as the “Trial of the Century”. December 2, 1985 - The Sandiganbayan headed by Justice Manuel Pamaran acquitted all 26 accused. A widespread of protests followed. To prove that he was still in control of the worsened situation of the country and to end the doubt of the foreign diplomats, Marcos was forced to call a special presidential election or “snap election”.
  • 22. The COMELEC declared Marcos-Tolentino tandem as winners while the NAMFREL proclaimed Corazon Aquino and Salvador Laurel as the new President and Vice-President of the Philippines respectively. February 15, 1986 – the Catholic Church issued a pastoral letter to all Filipino Catholics declaring that the government had lost its moral basis due to the electoral fraud and urged the people to protest peacefully and for the gov’t. to make ammends for the irregularities. February 22, 1986 – Enrile together with AFP Vice- Chief of Staff General Fidel Ramos hastily gave a press conference to announce their withdrawal of support from President Marcos. By February 25, some 85 percent members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines defected against Marcos. On the same night, President Marcos and his family fled to Hawaii. It was over.
  • 23. The Administration and Accomplishments of President Corazon C. Aquino (1986-1992) February 25, 1986 – Corazon Aquino was sworn into office as the seventh President of the Republic. The first thing she did was the restoration of democracy by appointing a new set of Cabinet members, freeing all political prisoners and proclaiming a “freedom constitution” to give way for a new path of governing the country.
  • 24. After six years of power in the presidency, the following were her accomplishments: 1. Restoration of peace, freedom, justice and democracy in our country; 2. Improvement of the Filipino image in other countries; 3. Creation of the Commission on Human Rights to examine complaints of criminal acts, labor abuses to children and to check the government for any violation of human rights;
  • 25. 6. Passage of the General Act of 1988 which provided the use of generic names of pharmaceutical products in its prescription and production, in order to lower the price of the medicine 5. Enactment of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law that benefited almost 2 million farmers throughout the country; and 4. Formation of the Commission on Good Goverment to recover the ill-gotten wealth of President Marcos, his wife and their cronies.
  • 26. Introduction to the Study of State, Government and Constitution “The State, as a concept of political science and public law, is a community of persons more or less numerous, permanently occupying a definite portion of territorry, independent or nearly so, of external control, and possessing an organized government to which the great body of inhabitants render habitual obedience.”
  • 27. BASIC ELEMENTS OF THE STATE: 1. People – “Refers to the human beings living within its territory.” 2. Territory – “The fixed portion of the earth in which the people of the state reside.” Modes of acquiring a territory: a. Discovery and Occupation b. Conquest c. Cession d. Prescription e. Accretion 3. Government – “The agency through which the will of the state is formulated, expressed and realized.” 4. Sovereignty – Composed of two parts: a. Internal Sovereignty b. External Sovereignty
  • 28. State Distinguished from Nation *State – a political and juridical concept, cannot be subjected to external control *Nation – ethnic concept based on common social origin, language, customs and traditions, may be subjected to external control
  • 29. The 1973 Constitution March 16, 1967 – Congress in joint session passed Resolution No. 2 of both Houses authorizing the holding of a constitutional convention in 1971. This resolution was amended by Resolution No. 4 on June 17, 1969. On August 4, 1970, Republic Act No. 6132 was approved setting the day of the election for the 320 delegates to the Constitutional Convention. The delegates were elected on November 10, 1970 and the Constitutional Convention was inaugurated on June 1, 1971. The 1935 Constitution as well as the Malolos Constitution became the bases for the drafting of amendments to the new Constitution. On September 21, 1972, President Ferdinand Marcos issued Presidential Proclamation No. 1081 or An Act Declaring Martial Law. On November 29, 1972, the Constitutional Convention approved the draft Constitution.
  • 30. President Marcos issued a decree setting the plebiscite for the ratification of the new Constitution. He also issued an order suspending the effects of Presidential Proclamation 1081 in order to allow free and open debate on the proposed Constitution. On January 17, 1973, the new Constitution was ratified by the people with 14, 971, 561 voting for its adoption and 743, 869 voting for its rejection. The 1973 Constitution was amended on four occasions. Among the important amendments were: a) making the incumbent President , the regular President and the Prime Minister; b) granting concurrent law making powers to the President; c) establishing a modified form of government; d) allowing the grants of land of the public domain to qualified citizens; e) providing for urban land reform and social housing program; f) providing new rules for presidential succession; and g) changing the composition of the Batasang Pambansa. END 