Political Development of the Presidents from Roxas to Marcos (1946-1986)
PHILHistory - a report of Group 7
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Political Development of the Presidents from Roxas to Marcos (1946-1986)
A Report of the Group 7…
Leader: Ananda Wisely
Asst. Leader: Jayson Rey Convicto
John Michael Santamena
Mary Louise Sadornas
Franz Hadrian Gungon
Patrick John Manalo
Topics Defined in this Module:
I. The Administration of Manuel A. Roxas (1946-1948)
II. The Administration of Elpidio Quirino (1948-1953)
III. The Administration of Ramon Magsaysay (1954-1957)
IV. The Administration of Carlos P. Garcia (1957-1961)
V. The Administration of Diosdado Macapagal (1962-1965)
VI. The Administration of Ferdinand E. Marcos (1965-1986)
VII. Civil Disobedience, Snap Election and Military Defection
VIII. The Administration of Corazon C. Aquino (1986-1992)
IX. Introduction to the Study of State, Government and Constitution
X. The 1973 Constitution
The Administration of Manuel A. Roxas( 1946-1948 )
April 23, 1946 – Roxas,
together with his running
mate won swiftly as
President and Vice President
They took office on May 26,
1946 and two months later, the
Philippine Independence was
proclaimed on July 04, 1946 and
Roxas became the first
President of the Republic.
Political Developments Achieved:
1. Passage of the Treaty of General Relations
– stated that America withdrew and surrendered
“all rights of possession, supervision,
jurisdiction, control or sovereignty over the
Philippines except the military bases
2. The approval of the Tydings Rehabilitation
Act of 1946 ( amounting to $120,000,000.)
3. The passing of the Parity Rights – gave the Americans the equal rights to
the Filipinos in exploiting the Philippine natural resources
4. Approved the Bell Trades Relations Act – free trade relations between the
United States and the Philippines for 8 years until 1954
5. Proclaimed the General Amnesty Program of 1946 to end the guerilla
problem in the country
The Administration of Elpidio Quirino( 1948-1953 )
Quirino targeted the elimination of
He appointed a former Japanese guerilla
named Ramon Magsaysay as his National
Defense Secretary. Magsaysay’s proper
handling of the problem brought back the
people’s faith in the government.
In his re-election bid on November 10, 1953,
Quirino lost against his Defense Secretary,
Achievements of the Quirino Administration:
1. Passed the Economic Mobilization Program in industrializing the
country through the opening of some industries.
2. Established the Central Bank of the Philippines in order to
stabilize the currency of our country.
3. Created the President’s Action Committee on Social
Amelioration to alleviate the life condition of the poor, especially the
The Administration of Ramon Magsaysay( 1954-1957 )
Ramon Magsaysay was the Defense
Secretary during the Quirino
Administration. He stopped the HUKS
in terrorizing the people and became
popular to the masses.
Considered as the most beloved man of
our country, Ramon Magsaysay served
his people at his very best until his plane
crashed in Mt. Manunggal, Cebu.
In the 1953, elections, he defeated his
Chief, Elpidio Quirino and became the
third President of the Republic.
Achievements of the Magsaysay Administration:
1. Passed the Agricultural Tenancy Act of 1954
“which provides for greater protection to the
tenants by granting them the freedom to choose
the system of tenancy”
2. Established the National Resettlement
Rehabilitation Administration (NARRA) in
1955 to resettle the many landless Filipinos
3. Created the Agricultural Credit and
Cooperative Financing Administration and
the Farmers Cooperative and Marketing
Association to strengthen the agricultural
capability of the country
4. Created the Presidential Complaints and
Action Committee to hear the problems of the
The Administration of Carlos P. Garcia( 1957-1961)
March 18, 1957 – then Vice President Carlos P.
Garcia took over as President after the death of
Carlos P. Garcia continued the economic policies
of Ramon Magsaysay. Unfortunately, his
administration was toppled with issues of
graft and corruption.
In the 1961 elections, he lost his re-election bid
to Vice President Diosdado Macapagal
Achievements of the Garcia Administration:
1. Proposed the “Filipino First Policy” that carried the slogan “Buy
Filipino” which highlighted Filipino products rather than American
2. Advocated the “Austerity Program” as a policy of temperate spending
which signifies “more work, more thrift, more productive investment and
more efficiency. It means less imports and less extravagant
3. Strengthened Filipino culture by sending dance groups abroad such
as the Bayanihan Dance Troupe that revived Filipino cultural dances
The Administration of Diosdado Macapagal( 1962-1965)
Known in his presidential campaign as the
“poor boy from Lubao”
His administration was hampered with many
cases of graft and corruption.
The most “infamous” corruption case uprooted
during his term involved an American ex-soldier
turned multi-millionaire Harry Stonehill and its
crony, Robert Brooks. It was reported that Stonehill
made many collaboration in regards to secret dealings
with business legislation to government officials,
including members of congress, cabinet members
and even newspaper men.
Macapagal ordered the deportation of the two
Americans saving the case buoyantly in the air.
Achievements of the Diosdado Macapagal
1. Established financial institutions such as the Veterans Bank and
allowed the establishment of the Asian Development Bank in Manila.
2. Changed the Philippine Independence Day from July 4th back to June
3. Claimed North Borneo as part of the Philippine territory,
unfortunately, the claims never prospered due to the intervention of
foreign powers like the United States and Great Britain.
4. Helped to start the MAPHILINDO, a group to bring Malaysia,
Philippines and Indonesia closer which was later on led to the
formation of what is now ASEAN or the Association of Southeast Asian
5. Passed the first land reform law in the country, Republic Act No.
3844 also known as the Agricultural Land Reform Law.
6. Created the National Industry Development Administration to
help small scale businesses in the country.
The Administration of Ferdinand E. Marcos( 1965-1986 )
He was the only and first President to
declare Martial Law and the longest-
serving President of our country.
He was the President who built the
most number of roads, bridges,
schoolhouses and government
To improve the economy and living conditions of his people, Marcos
hired gifted young experts known as technocrats and in the first year of
his administration, Marcos achieved the following:
1. Greater production of rice by
promoting the cultivation of
“miracle rice”, the construction of
more irrigation systems, and giving
financial assistance to the farmers.
2. Effective tax collection and
securing loans from the IMF and the
government agencies which
produced surplus and increased
our Gross National Product
3. Implemented counter insurgency
measures that significantly reduced the
NPA and criminal acts in the country.
4. In 1964, signed the Vietnam
Aid Law to which our country
would send military support to
aid the United States in its war in
5. Held the Manila Summit
Conference in October 1966,
attended by the heads of state of
Australia, South Korea, New
Zealand, South Vietnam,
Thailand and America.
The Filipino people were satisfied by his
performance during his first term and in
1969 elections, Marcos won his second
term. He was the only President of our
country to win re-election unlike his
predecessors who ran for re-election and
Unfortunately, his second term was
commenced by massive economic
problems and opposition from radical
groups and new-emerged political
enemies. Marcos extended his term
beyond the 8-year constitutional
declaration. His political maneuvering
finally took the government through
Terrible incidents which were enough reasons for President Marcos
to put the country into Martial Law:
1. The Bombing of Plaza Miranda (August 21, 1971)
2. Demonstrations and rallies conducted by militant students, intellectuals
and religious groups. One shocking event occured on the night of January
30, 1970 in Mendiola causing the death of five students.
3. The bombings of public properties and private residences which
included the U.S. Embassy, Manila Water System in San Juan Manila, the
Manila City Hall, the Constitutional Convention and a department
store in Carriedo Manila whick killed an innocent customer in August
4. Alleged assassination attempts on President Marcos and other key
national leaders such as the residence of Congressman Eduardo Cojuangco
and Senator Jose Roy and the car ambush of Defense Secretary Juan
Ponce Enrile resulting the death of his driver.
September 21, 1972 – Marcos secretly signed Proclamation
No. 1081 placing the entire archipelago under Martial Law.
The end of Marcos era started when Sen. Benigno Aquino, leading critic of
Marcos was shot by a single bullet as he arrived at the Manila International
Airport on August 21, 1983. After the incident, the goverment insinuated the
name of Rolando Galman being the sole assassin of Aquino.
President Marcos created the “Agrava Commission”, an independent board of jury,
to probe the Aquino murder case. After a year and two months of investigation, the
commission submitted its report stating that the murder of Aquino was a military
conspiracy, composed of 26 men involving the Chief of Staff, two generals, a colonel
and more than a dozen of military men.
Civil Disobedience, Snap Election and Military Defection
After receiving the report submitted by the Agrava Commission,
President Marcos ordered the trial of these people referred to as the
“Trial of the Century”.
December 2, 1985 - The Sandiganbayan headed by Justice Manuel
Pamaran acquitted all 26 accused.
A widespread of protests followed.
To prove that he was still in control of the worsened situation of the
country and to end the doubt of the foreign diplomats, Marcos was
forced to call a special presidential election or “snap election”.
The COMELEC declared Marcos-Tolentino tandem as winners
while the NAMFREL proclaimed Corazon Aquino and Salvador
Laurel as the new President and Vice-President of the Philippines
February 15, 1986 – the Catholic Church issued a pastoral letter to all
Filipino Catholics declaring that the government had lost its moral basis due
to the electoral fraud and urged the people to protest peacefully and for the
gov’t. to make ammends for the irregularities.
February 22, 1986 – Enrile together with AFP Vice- Chief of Staff General
Fidel Ramos hastily gave a press conference to announce their withdrawal of
support from President Marcos.
By February 25, some 85 percent members of the Armed Forces of the
Philippines defected against Marcos. On the same night, President
Marcos and his family fled to Hawaii. It was over.
The Administration and Accomplishments of
President Corazon C. Aquino (1986-1992)
February 25, 1986 – Corazon Aquino was sworn into office as the seventh
President of the Republic. The first thing she did was the restoration of
democracy by appointing a new set of Cabinet members, freeing all political
prisoners and proclaiming a “freedom constitution” to give way for a new
path of governing the country.
After six years of power in the presidency, the following were her
1. Restoration of peace, freedom, justice and democracy in our country;
2. Improvement of the Filipino image in other countries;
3. Creation of the Commission on Human Rights to examine
complaints of criminal acts, labor abuses to children and to check the
government for any violation of human rights;
6. Passage of the General Act of 1988 which provided the use
of generic names of pharmaceutical products in its
prescription and production, in order to lower the price of the
5. Enactment of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law that
benefited almost 2 million farmers throughout the country; and
4. Formation of the Commission on Good Goverment to
recover the ill-gotten wealth of President Marcos, his wife and
Introduction to the Study of State, Government and
“The State, as a concept of political science and public law, is a
community of persons more or less numerous, permanently occupying a
definite portion of territorry, independent or nearly so, of external control,
and possessing an organized government to which the great body of
inhabitants render habitual obedience.”
BASIC ELEMENTS OF THE STATE:
1. People – “Refers to the human beings living within its territory.”
2. Territory – “The fixed portion of the earth in which the people of the state
Modes of acquiring a territory:
a. Discovery and Occupation
3. Government – “The agency through which the will of the state is formulated,
expressed and realized.”
4. Sovereignty – Composed of two parts:
a. Internal Sovereignty
b. External Sovereignty
State Distinguished from Nation
*State – a political and juridical concept, cannot be subjected to
*Nation – ethnic concept based on common social origin, language,
customs and traditions, may be subjected to external control
The 1973 Constitution
March 16, 1967 – Congress in joint session passed Resolution No. 2 of both
Houses authorizing the holding of a constitutional convention in 1971. This
resolution was amended by Resolution No. 4 on June 17, 1969.
On August 4, 1970, Republic Act No. 6132 was approved setting the day of the
election for the 320 delegates to the Constitutional Convention. The delegates
were elected on November 10, 1970 and the Constitutional Convention was
inaugurated on June 1, 1971.
The 1935 Constitution as well as the Malolos Constitution became the
bases for the drafting of amendments to the new Constitution.
On September 21, 1972, President Ferdinand Marcos issued Presidential
Proclamation No. 1081 or An Act Declaring Martial Law. On November 29,
1972, the Constitutional Convention approved the draft Constitution.
President Marcos issued a decree setting the plebiscite for the ratification of
the new Constitution. He also issued an order suspending the effects of
Presidential Proclamation 1081 in order to allow free and open debate on
the proposed Constitution.
On January 17, 1973, the new Constitution was ratified by the people
with 14, 971, 561 voting for its adoption and 743, 869 voting for its rejection.
The 1973 Constitution was amended on four occasions. Among the
important amendments were: a) making the incumbent President , the
regular President and the Prime Minister; b) granting concurrent law
making powers to the President; c) establishing a modified form of
government; d) allowing the grants of land of the public domain to
qualified citizens; e) providing for urban land reform and social
housing program; f) providing new rules for presidential succession;
and g) changing the composition of the Batasang Pambansa.