1
RC COLLEGES & INSTITUTES AT YANBU
(Yanbu Industrial College)
Centralized Committee for Coop and Summer Training
Cooperat...
2
Acknowledgement
First of all, I would like to thank Allah for his blessing and protection that he gives them to me
throu...
3
Table of Content
Chapter 1
1. INTRODUCTON
1.1. About NATPET………………………………………………………………………...1
1.2. NATPET Product and its u...
4
3.2.2. Work Objective & Goal…………………………………………………….……14
Case I
3.2.3. Work Details……………………………………………………………………..14
3.2.3.1. ...
5
3.5.3. Work Details……………………………………………………………………..28
3.5.3.1. Problem Description…………………………………………………….28
3.5.3.2. Observati...
6
List of Tables
Table 1.1: NATPET Raw Materials & Sources…………………..………………………………….2
Table 3.1: Clearance Readings…………………………...
7
Figure 3.24: Pitting Marks on the Compressor’s Diaphragm......................................................…...21
Fig...
8
Abstract
On the 7th
of June, I have started my coop training program at National Petrochemical Industrial
Company (NATPE...
9
CHAPTER.1
INTRODUCTION
10
1.1. About NATPET
National Petrochemical Industrial Company (NATPET) is a joint
stock Saudi company, it was established...
11
PP- Polypropylene
PP plant uses Basell’s Spheripol technology to produce 400KT/Y of Polypropylene pellets from
Propylen...
12
CHAPTER.2
SAFETY
13
2.3. General Safety Rules that Should be Followed in NATPET Company:
 Ensure your own safety and health at work.
 Avo...
14
2.4.3. Confined Space Entry Permit
Any type of work that involve entering into a confined, deep or small area that does...
15
2.5.2. Eye Protection: Safety Glasses and Safety Goggles are used
to protect the worker’s eyes from any chemical splash...
16
CHAPTER.3
FIELD EXPERIENCES
17
3.1. Work Order No.1
Plant: PP (Polypropylene)
3.1.1. Equipment Name & Type
Equipment: Blower (GM 90 S)
Type: Rotary Po...
18
3.1.2. Work Objective & goal
 To do corrective maintenance on the Blower.
 To make the Equipment running normally and...
19
3.1.3.3. Recommendations:
- Replace the old oil seal by a new one to prevent oil loss (If you kept the damaged seal for...
20
- Damaged oil seal replaced by new one, adjusting the rotors timing from the gear side
Taking clearances between the tw...
21
Clearance Reading:
Cylinder Side plate Timing Rotors Backl
ash
Bearing
Clearance
GM
90S
Dis. Suc. Timing
Gear
Pulley Di...
22
3.2. Work Order No.2
Plant: PDH (Polypropylene)
3.2.1. Equipment Name & Type
Equipment: Feed Drier Regenerate Pump (P50...
23
3.2.2. Work Objective & Goal
 To perform corrective maintenance on the centrifugal pump.
 To replace and change any d...
24
3.2.3.2. Observations:
We brought the equipment to the workshop to see what the problem is. When we opened the pump,
we...
25
3.2.3.4. Work Procedure:
1. Disassemble the equipment by taking off all the bolts & nuts using different tools.
2. Take...
26
.
3.2.4. Manpower & Duration:
- Manpower: 3 Workers
- Duration: 20 hours.
3.2.5. Result & Conclusion
When we brought ba...
27
--------------------------------------------------- [Case II] -----------------------------------------------------
3.2...
28
3.2.3.4. Work Procedure:
- Preforming the same procedures that we did in [Case I] by changing only the mechanical
seal....
29
3.3. Work Order No.3
Plant: PDH (Propane Dehydrogenation)
3.3.1. Equipment Name & Type
Equipment: Hydrogen Diaphragm Co...
30
3.3.2. Work Objective & Goal
 To prevent the equipment from being damaged.
 To do corrective maintenance on the compr...
31
3.3.3.3. Possible Causes:
- The diaphragms were losing their efficiency because there were already passing their
lifeti...
32
3.3.3.5. Action Performed:
- Diaphragms have been changed with new ones.
- Suction & discharge valves and gaskets have ...
33
3.4. Work Order No.4
Plant: PP (Polypropylene)
3.4.1. Equipment Name & Type
Equipment: Rotary Feeder
Type: Rotary Lock ...
34
3.4.3. Work Details
3.4.3.1. Problem Description:
Workers in the PP plant told us to check the Rotary Feeder equipment ...
35
3.4.3.4. Work Procedure:
1. Remove the socket head cap screws.
2. Remove the cover.
3. Remove the two ball bearings and...
36
3.5. Work Order No.5
Plant: PP (Polypropylene)
3.5.1. Equipment Name & Type
Equipment: Vertical Pump (P-9803 A/B)
Type:...
37
3.5.2. Work Objective & Goal
 To run the equipment without any problem.
 To prevent the equipment from being damaged ...
38
Figure.3.38 Damaged Sleeves
Figure.3.37 Worn out Marks on the Sleeve & Pushing
Figure.3.39 Damaged Pushing
39
3.5.3.3. Recommendations:
- Remove all sleeves and pushing and replace them by new ones.
- Change the coupling that hol...
40
3.5.3.5. Action Performed:
- All pushing & sleeves have been replaced.
- The coupling part the connect the two shafts t...
41
3.5.4. Manpower & Duration:
- Manpower: 3 workers.
- Duration: 60 hours.
3.5.5. Result & Conclusion
The equipment was h...
42
Chapter.4
Theoretical Background
43
4.1. Introduction to Mechanical Maintenance
During the 8 months of my co-op training period, I was assigned to the Mech...
44
4.1.2. Objectives of Maintenance:
 To achieve the best performance for the industry’s equipment, devices, and differen...
45
o Breakdown Maintenance
Meaning that people waits for the equipment until it fails and then repair it. This type of
mai...
46
4.1.4. Common Machinery Problems
When some components parts are broken-down, they will often cause a further damage whi...
47
- Reciprocating Pump:
There are two general types of reciprocating pumps: The Piston Pump & the Diaphragm Pump.
These t...
48
4.1.5.2. Compressors:
Compressors are the mechanical equipment that increases the gas pressure by reducing its volume.
...
49
Lobe: this type of compressor is using two rotary lobes that are mounted on the shaft. One lobe is
rotating clockwise a...
50
Chapter 5
Conclusion, References &
Appendix
51
5.1. Conclusion
In this report, I have talked about an introduction to NATPET Company. In addition, I have
discussed di...
52
5.2. References
 Jim Henderson. (2011). Maintenance, Repair, and Operations. Wikipedia. Accessed on July 22,2015,
from...
53
5.3. Appendix
YIC Training Letter:
Figure.5.1 YIC Training Letter
54
Training Plan:
Figure.5.2 Training Plan
55
Attendance Sheet:
Figure.5.3 Attendance Sheet
56
Progress Report:
Figure.5.4 Progress Report
57
Plagiarism Report from Turnitin:
Figure.5.5 Plagiarism Report from Turnitin
of 57

NATPET Report

Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - NATPET Report

  • 1. 1 RC COLLEGES & INSTITUTES AT YANBU (Yanbu Industrial College) Centralized Committee for Coop and Summer Training Cooperative Training Report (MET 400) National Petrochemical Industrial Company Prepared By Anas Marwan Kaaki 3424012 Supervised By Turki Fikri Kutbi Summer, 2014-15
  • 2. 2 Acknowledgement First of all, I would like to thank Allah for his blessing and protection that he gives them to me throughout my scientific & practical life and for helping me to finish my coop final report and for completing most of my courses successfully. Furthermore, I would like to give a big thank to Yanbu Industrial College specially Mechanical Engineering Department for providing to me this great opportunity to have an experience in dealing and communicating with other people from different nationalities and to be able to work in the field under high pressure and also for supporting me during the 8 weeks of my coop training period. A special thanks to Engr. Sarwar Pasha for his support and help throughout all my training period. In addition, I would like to thank Natural Petrochemical Industrial Company (NATPET) and all the employees that are working there for having me with them as a training student. Huge thanks to the people who are working in the mechanical department, maintenance section. They were very supportive and helpful during the training. Of Corse, I can’t forget my supervisor Engr. Turki Kutbi for helping me a lot and giving me such a support. At the end, I would like to thank my friends for their support and help during my studies. A special thank goes to my parents for their kindness and support throughout my educational life.
  • 3. 3 Table of Content Chapter 1 1. INTRODUCTON 1.1. About NATPET………………………………………………………………………...1 1.2. NATPET Product and its uses………………………………………………………….1 1.3. NATPET Plants……………………………………………………………………….. 1 1.4. NATPET Raw Materials and sources…………………………………………………..2 1.5. NATPET Vision, Mission & Goals…………………………………………………….2 Chapter 2 2. SAFETY 2.3. General Safety Rules that should be Followed in NATPET Company………………….4 2.4. Work Permits………………………………………………………………………….....4 2.4.1. Hot Work Permit………………………………………………………………...4 2.4.2. Cold Work Permit……………………………………………………………......4 2.4.3. Confined Space Entry Permit……………………………………………………5 2.5. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)…………………………………………...………5 2.5.1. Head Protection…………………………………………………………..……...5 2.5.2. Eye Protection………………………………………………………………..….6 2.5.3. Ear Protection…………………………………………………………………....6 2.5.4. Hand Protection………………………………………..………………………...6 2.5.5. Body Protection…………………………………………..……………………...6 2.5.6. Foot Protection……………………………………………..……………………6 Chapter 3 3. FIELD EXPERIENCES 3.1. Work Order No.1 (Blower)…………………………………………………..…………..8 3.1.1. Equipment Name & Type…………………………………………………..……..8 3.1.2. Work Objective & Goal……………………………………………………..…….9 3.1.3. Work Details………………………………………………………………..……..9 3.1.3.1. Problem Description………………………………………………..…….9 3.1.3.2. Observations…………………………………………..………………….9 3.1.3.3. Recommendations………………………………………........................10 3.1.3.4. Work Procedure…………………………………………………………10 3.1.3.5. Action Performed……………………………………………………….10 3.1.4. Manpower & Duration…………………………………………………………..12 3.1.5. Result & Conclusion……………………………………………………………..12 3.2. Work Order No.2 (Feed Drier Regenerate Pump)……………………………………...13 3.2.1. Equipment Name & Type………………………………………………………..13
  • 4. 4 3.2.2. Work Objective & Goal…………………………………………………….……14 Case I 3.2.3. Work Details……………………………………………………………………..14 3.2.3.1. Problem Description…………………………………………………….14 3.2.3.2. Observations…………………………………………………………….15 3.2.3.3. Recommendations………………………………………………………15 3.2.3.4. Work Procedure…………………………………………………………16 3.2.3.5. Action Performed……………………………………………………….16 3.2.4. Manpower & Duration…………………………………………………………..17 3.2.5. Result & Conclusion……………………………………………………………..17 Case II 3.2.3. Work Details……………………………………………………………………..18 3.2.3.1. Problem Description…………………………………………………….18 3.2.3.2. Observations…………………………………………………………….18 3.2.3.3. Recommendations……………………………………………………....18 3.2.3.4. Work Procedure…………………………………………………………19 3.2.3.5. Action Performed……………………………………………………….19 3.2.4. Manpower & Duration…………….…………………………………………….19 3.2.5. Result & Conclusion……………………………………………………………..19 3.3. Work Order No.3 (Hydrogen Diaphragm Compressor)………………………………..20 3.3.1. Equipment Name & Type………………………………………………………..20 3.3.2. Work Objective & Goal………………………………………………………….21 3.3.3. Work Details……………………………………………………………………..21 3.3.3.1. Problem Description…………………………………………………….21 3.3.3.2. Observations…………………………………………………………….21 3.3.3.3. Possible Causes…………………………………………………............22 3.3.3.4. Recommendations………………………………………………………22 3.3.3.5. Action Performed……………………………………………………….23 3.3.4. Manpower & Duration…..………………………………………………………23 3.3.5. Result & Conclusion……………………………………………………………..23 3.4. Work Order No.4 (Rotary Feeder)……………………………………………………..24 3.4.1. Equipment Name & Type………………………………………………………..24 3.4.2. Work Objective & Goal………………………………………………………….24 3.4.3. Work Details……………………………………………………………………..25 3.4.3.1. Problem Description…………………………………………………….25 3.4.3.2. Observations…………………………………………………………….25 3.4.3.3. Recommendations………………………………………………………25 3.4.3.4. Work Procedure…………………………………………………………26 3.4.3.5. Action Performed……………………………………………………….26 3.4.4. Manpower & Duration…………………………………………………………..26 3.4.5. Result & Conclusion……………………………………………………………..26 3.5. Work Order No.5 (Vertical Pump)……………………………………………………..27 3.5.1. Equipment Name & Type………………………………………………………..27 3.5.2. Work Objective & Goal………………………………………………………….28
  • 5. 5 3.5.3. Work Details……………………………………………………………………..28 3.5.3.1. Problem Description…………………………………………………….28 3.5.3.2. Observations…………………………………………………………….28 3.5.3.3. Recommendations………………………………………………………30 3.5.3.4. Work Procedure…………………………………………………………30 3.5.3.5. Action Performed……………………………………………………….31 3.5.4. Manpower & Duration…………………………………………………………..32 3.5.5. Result & Conclusion……………………………………………………………..32 3.6. Tools Used……………………………………………………………………………...32 Chapter 4 4. Theoretical Background 4.1. Introduction to Mechanical Maintenance……………………………………………....34 4.1.1. What is Maintenance? …………………………………………………………34 4.1.2. Objectives of Maintenance………………………………………………………35 4.1.3. Types of Maintenance…………………………………………………………...35 4.1.4. Common Machinery Problems…………………………………………………..37 4.1.5. Description & Work Performance of Different Equipment………………………………….37 4.1.5.1. Pumps…………………………………………………………………...37 4.1.5.2. Compressors…………………………………………………………….39 4.1.5.3. Rotary Feeder…………………………………………………………...40 Chapter 5 5. Conclusion, References & Appendix 5.1. Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………...42 5.2. References……………………………………………………………………………...43 5.3. Appendix……………………………………………………………………………….44
  • 6. 6 List of Tables Table 1.1: NATPET Raw Materials & Sources…………………..………………………………….2 Table 3.1: Clearance Readings…………………………………….………………………………..12 List of Figures Figure 1.1: NATPET Company……………………………………..………………………………..1 Figure 2.1: Hot Work Permit………………………………………..………………..........................5 Figure 2.2: Cold Work Permit………………………………………..……………………………....5 Figure 2.3: Confined Space Entry Permit……………………………..………………….................. 5 Figure 2.4: Head Protection……………………………………………..…………………….……...5 Figure 2.5: Eye Protection………………………………………………..…………………….…….6 Figure 2.6: Hearing Protection……………………………………………..………………….……..6 Figure 2.7: Hand Protection…………………………………………………..…………………...…6 Figure 2.8: Body Protection……………………………………………………..……………...……6 Figure 2.9: Foot Protection………………………………………………………...……………..…. 6 Figure 3.1: Blower Equipment from Shaft Side……………………………………..…………….…8 Figure 3.2: Blower Equipment from Gears Side……………………………………..……………....8 Figure 3.3: Blower Equipment Diagram………………………………………………..……………8 Figure 3.4: Damaged Oil Seal on the Blower’s Shaft Side...........................................................…...9 Figure 3.5: New Oil Seal on The Blower’s Shaft Side…………………………………...…………11 Figure 3.6: Blower’s Rotor Timing Adjustment.........................................................................…...11 Figure 3.7: Measuring The Blower’s Lobes clearances…………………………………………….11 Figure 3.8: Blower Rotary Lobes……………………………………………………..…………….11 Figure 3.9: Clearance Readings……………………………………………………….…………….12 Figure 3.10: Feed Drier Regenerate Pump Pic.1.........................................................................…...13 Figure 3.11: Feed Drier Regenerate Pump Pic.2……………………………………………………13 Figure 3.12: Feed Drier Regenerate pump Diagram………………………………….…………….13 Figure 3.13: Isolation Blinds………………………………………………………………….…….14 Figure 3.14: Leaked Mechanical Seal on the Regenerate Pump……………………………...…….15 Figure 3.15: Suction Flange Oil Observation on the Regenerate Pump……………………….……15 Figure 3.16: New Mechanical Seal on the Regenerate Pump.....................................................…...16 Figure 3.17: New O-ring on the Regenerate Pump’s Flange…………………………….…………16 Figure 3.18: New Ball Bearing Fixed on the Regenerate pump’s Shaft…………………….……...17 Figure 3.19: New Cylindrical Bearing Fixed on the Regenerate Pump’s Shaft………………….…17 Figure 3.20: Broken Mechanical Seal’s Stationary Ring……………………………………...……18 Figure 3.21: Repaired Mechanical Seal Fixed on the Regenerate Pump…………………….……..19 Figure 3.22: Hydrogen Compressor Equipment…………………………………………………….20 Figure 3.23: Hydrogen Compressor Diagram………………………………………………...…….20
  • 7. 7 Figure 3.24: Pitting Marks on the Compressor’s Diaphragm......................................................…...21 Figure 3.25: Worn out Marks on the Compressor’s Valves…………………………..…………….22 Figure 3.26: New Valves for the Compressor………………………………………………………23 Figure 3.27: Three New Diaphragms for the Compressor………………………………….………23 Figure 3.28: Rotary Feeder Equipment………………………………………………….………….24 Figure 3.29: Rotary Feeder Diagram……………………………………………………..…………24 Figure 3.30: Damaged Radial Shaft Seal on the Rotary Feeder..................................................…...25 Figure 3.31: Damaged Labyrinth Seal on the Rotary Feeder......................................................…...25 Figure 3.32: New Radial Shaft Seal for the Rotary Feeder…………………………...…………….26 Figure 3.33: New Labyrinth Seal for the Rotary Feeder……………………………………………26 Figure 3.34: Vertical Pump Equipment.......................................................................................…...27 Figure 3.35: Vertical Pump Diagram…………………………………………….…………………27 Figure 3.36: Vertical Pump’s Shafts………………………………………………………………..28 Figure 3.37: Worn out Marks on the Sleeves & Pushing of the Pump’s Shaft…………………..…29 Figure 3.38: Damaged Sleeves on the Pump’s Shafts.................................................................…...29 Figure 3.39: Damaged Pushing on the Shaft’s sleeves………………………………..…………….29 Figure 3.40: New Sleeve for the Shaft…………………………………………………..………….31 Figure 3.41: New Pushing for the Sleeve…………………………………………………………...31 Figure 3.42: New Coupling to Couple the Pump’s Shafts………………………………………….31 Figure 3.43: New Circlip to Lock the Sleeve on the Shaft..........................................................…...31 Figure 3.44: Tools Used..............................................................................................................…...32 Figure 4.1: Component Failure Rate Over Time for Component Population………………………34 Figure 4.2: Maintenance Types…………………………………………………………..…………35 Figure 5.1: YIC Training Letter……………………………………………………………….........44 Figure 5.2: Training Plan……………………………………………………………………………45 Figure 5.3: Attendance Sheet……………………………………………………………………….46 Figure 5.4: Progress Report…………………………………………………………………………47 Figure 5.5: Plagiarism Report from Turnitin………………………………………………………..48
  • 8. 8 Abstract On the 7th of June, I have started my coop training program at National Petrochemical Industrial Company (NATPET) that was for 8 weeks. Therefore, I have to submit a final report to my college, Yanbu Industrial College (YIC) that discusses the important activities that I have earned and learned during the training in NATPET Company. However, I have written a report that includes five chapters. The first chapter provides an introduction to NATPET Company, such as information about NATPET, production of NATPET and its uses, NATPET plants, raw materials and sources of NATPET, NATPET vision, mission and goals, operation & management departments of NATPET, and NATPET quality policy. The second chapter gives an overview about safety, such as safety rules, permits of work, and focusses mostly on the Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). The third chapter describes the different work activities that I have faced during my training period in NATPET Company. It describes different things, such as the work objective and goal of this work order, the work details, and the tools that have been used during the work. The fourth chapter gives a theoretical background about the mechanical maintenance department, such as the definition of maintenance, objectives of maintenance, maintenance types, common machinery problems, and some working principles of different equipment. The last chapter is about the conclusion & references.
  • 9. 9 CHAPTER.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 10. 10 1.1. About NATPET National Petrochemical Industrial Company (NATPET) is a joint stock Saudi company, it was established since 1999. Its location is on Saudi Arabia’s west coast in Yanbu Industrial City. NATPET Company produces a large quantity of Polypropylene that is suitable for different applications. NATPET produces a capacity of 400,000 Metric Ton per Year of Polypropylene & Propylene since the year of 2008. The company is divided into two plants. These are: Polypropylene Plant (PP). Propane Dehydrogenation Pant (PDH). In the PDH plant, the company uses the technology of UOP’s Oleflex in order to convert Propane gas into Propylene gas. In the PP plant, the company uses the technology of the state of the art Lyondell Basel’s Spheripol to convert Propylene gas into polypropylene pellets. 1.2. NATPET Product and its Uses NATPET produces many different grades of Polypropylene product that are mixed of (Random Terpolymers, Homopolymers, Random Copolymers, and specialty Impact copolymers) and selling these products under name of Teldene. Polypropylene (PP) product is a thermoplastic crystalline. It is the lightest in weight polymer compared to the other thermoplastics. When this polypropylene is ignited, it burns with an acidic smell and non-smoky flame. Actually, this product is tasteless and non-toxic. Polypropylene has different properties, such as rigidity, light weight, high surface gloss, heat resistance, toughness, and chemical resistance). Polypropylene product has different applications, such as food packaging house ware, cosmetic, medical, hosiery, films & sheets, fiber, caps & closures, engineering parts & tools, and automotive. 1.3. NATPET Plants PDH- Propane Dehydrogenation PDH plant uses UOP’s Oleflex technology to produce 400 KT/Y of Propylene gas from Propane gas that is received from Aramco. Figure.1.1 NATPET Company
  • 11. 11 PP- Polypropylene PP plant uses Basell’s Spheripol technology to produce 400KT/Y of Polypropylene pellets from Propylene gas that is received from PDH plant. 1.4. NATPET Raw Materials & Sources Raw Material Source Propane & Natural Gas Saudi Aramco Refinery Ethylene SABIC - YANPET Nitrogen SABIC - GAS Water Royal Commission Power (electricity) MARAFIQ Hydrogen Own Generation Catalyst & Chemicals Global Vendor 1.5. NATPET Vision, Mission & Goals Vision To be known as one of the major universal players in producing and selling the best top quality and quantity of Polypropylene product. Mission NATPET militates & strives to be a company of the best and preferred choice in relation to its society, employees, suppliers, customers, and stakeholders. Goals - To meet development needs of the Saudi’s society. - To make the community richer through out each activity. - To become the “employer of choice”. - To provide opportunities for learning and growth to all the employees. - To operate and work at the highest safety standards for our, assets, employees and environment. - To exceed the expectations of our customers. - To add value to the needs of the shareholders. Table 1.1 NATPET Raw Materials & Sources
  • 12. 12 CHAPTER.2 SAFETY
  • 13. 13 2.3. General Safety Rules that Should be Followed in NATPET Company:  Ensure your own safety and health at work.  Avoid putting any other person in danger.  Respect the traffic signs inside the plant.  Mobile phones are not allowed inside NATPET Company.  Don’t forget to put on your seat belt while driving.  Smoking is prohibited, except in demarcated and allocated smoking areas.  Eating and drinking inside the plant is not allowed, except in allocated areas.  Response to plant emergency alarm.  You must have permit to perform any activity inside the plant.  Full body harness with lanyards must be worn when working at height.  Proper Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) must be worn for the required work.  Follow proper and safe techniques when lifting heavy objects.  Use the right tool for the job. 2.4. Work Permits The objective of the work permit is to ensure adequate safety precautions in non-routine and maintenance activities. Work permit must be given when any type of work need to be done. There are a number of different permits used on different jobs, these are: 1. Hot Work Permit. 2. Cold Work Permit. 3. Confined Space Entry Permit. 2.4.1. Hot Work Permit Any heat source that is capable of creating and causing spark or ignition. Examples of works that needs this type of permit: Welding, Grinding, Grilling, Burning, Chipping, Sandblasting, All open flames, Soldering & Brazing. 2.4.2. Cold Work Permit Any type of work activity that does not creates and cause spark or ignition. Examples of works that needs this type of permit: Scaffolding, Painting, insulation work, use of hand tools, Housekeeping, Lock-out & Tag-out.
  • 14. 14 2.4.3. Confined Space Entry Permit Any type of work that involve entering into a confined, deep or small area that does not have enough ventilation. Example of works that needs this type of permit: working inside Tanks, Vessels, Reactors, Towers, Drums, Excavation areas, Pipes & Boilers. 2.5. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Personal Protective Equipment is used to prevent or reduce injuries to workers. It can protect us from different workplace hazards (Mechanical, Electrical, and Chemical). Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Requirements:- Head Protection, Eye Protection, Hearing Protection, Hand Protection, Body Protection, Foot Protection, Breathing Protection. 2.5.1. Head Protection: Hard Hat is used to protect the workers from impacts that can injure them. It can protect our head from falling objects, fixed objects, and sharp edges. It must be at a good condition and must be worn all the time when you are in the field or the workshop. Figure 2.1 Hot Permit Permir Figure 2.2 Cold Permit Figure 2.3 Confined Space Permit Figure 2.4 Head Protection
  • 15. 15 2.5.2. Eye Protection: Safety Glasses and Safety Goggles are used to protect the worker’s eyes from any chemical splashes, dirt, small chips and flying particles that may exist in the air. In addition, face shield must be used when dealing with hot work activities, such as welding, to protect the eyes from flame’s radiation. These protections are used to prevent or reduce injuries to the worker’s eyes. They must be worn at all the time when working inside the plant. 2.5.3. Hearing Protection: Earplugs or Earmuffs are used to protect the worker’s ears from being damaged by high sound of machines and equipment. They must be used at all times inside the field especially at high noise situations. 2.5.4. Hand Protection: Safety gloves are used to protect the worker’s hands from injuries. By wearing gloves, you will be able to handle sharp edges, hot parts, and chemicals without injuring your hands. These gloves can be from different materials, such as cotton, cloth or leather. 2.5.5. Body Protection: It is used to protect the worker’s body from any danger or hazards. It can be whether as a one piece (coverall) or as two pieces. It must be worn all the time inside the company. 2.5.6. Foot Protection: Safety shoes or boots are used to protect the worker’s feet from any hazards that can injure them. These hazards can be in the form of electrical shocks, falling of heavy tools or equipment over your feet, injuries from splashes liquids. Figure 2.9 Foot Protection Figure 2.7 Hand Protection Figure 2.8 Body Protection Figure 2.6 Hearing Protection Figure 2.5 Eye Protection
  • 16. 16 CHAPTER.3 FIELD EXPERIENCES
  • 17. 17 3.1. Work Order No.1 Plant: PP (Polypropylene) 3.1.1. Equipment Name & Type Equipment: Blower (GM 90 S) Type: Rotary Positive Displacement Compressor (Lobe Type) Figure.3.1 Blower Equipment from Shaft Side Figure.3.2 Blower Equipment from Gears Side Figure.3.3 Blower Equipment Diagram
  • 18. 18 3.1.2. Work Objective & goal  To do corrective maintenance on the Blower.  To make the Equipment running normally and without any problem. 3.1.3. Work Details 3.1.3.1. Problem Description: The guys who are working in the PP plant noticed that the Blower equipment was not running normally. So, they told us (Mechanical Maintenance Department) to check what went wrong. After we checked the equipment, we noticed three problems that caused this abnormal running. These are: - Abnormal sound. - Oil level reduced. - Oil leak from shaft seal. 3.1.3.2. Observations: We took the Blower into the workshop to see what cause that leaking and that high abnormal sound. So after we opened the equipment, we observed the following: - Seal edge of the shaft seal worn out (Oil seal is damaged). - Wear in the internal ring. - Changing in rotors timing. Figure.3.4 Damaged Oil Seal on the Blower’s Shaft Side
  • 19. 19 3.1.3.3. Recommendations: - Replace the old oil seal by a new one to prevent oil loss (If you kept the damaged seal for a longer time, the oil will get fewer and that will make the inside components to run roughly which will cause heat. As a result of that, many components will get damaged). - Check the oil level weekly. - Adjust the timing between blower rotors. - Yearly check the machine clearances. 3.1.3.4. Work Procedure: 1. Bring the equipment to the workshop and remove the front & back cover by taking off all the bolts & nuts using different tools. 2. Clean the two covers from inside and outside and also clean the shaft by using a spray, rough paper & sharp tool to clean the edges. 3. Dry the equipment from oil by using air. 4. Removed the shaft’s key so that you can take off the bearings to make it easier for changing the oil seal. 5. Change the damaged oil seal and the internal ring by new ones. 6. Insert the bearings back into the shaft by heating them using a special device (heater). 7. Fix the key back into the shaft. 8. Adjust the rotors timing (lobes) from the gear side by injecting some oil inside the gear so that keeping a small distance between them to be rotated and adjusted freely. 9. Check the clearances of the two lobes inside the blower (suction & discharge) by using different sizes of filler gauge tool. 10. Reassemble the equipment. 3.1.3.5. Actions Performed: - All bearing visually inspected. - Internal ring and shaft seal have been replaced by new parts. - Timing between blower rotors has been adjusted. - All the clearances of the two lobes inside the blower have been checked.
  • 20. 20 - Damaged oil seal replaced by new one, adjusting the rotors timing from the gear side Taking clearances between the two lobes (Suction & Discharge) Figure.3.6 Blower’s Rotor Timing AdjustmentFigure.3.5 New Oil Seal on the Blower’s Shaft Side Figure.3.7 Measuring the Blower’s Lobes Clearances Figure.3.8 Blower Rotary Lobes
  • 21. 21 Clearance Reading: Cylinder Side plate Timing Rotors Backl ash Bearing Clearance GM 90S Dis. Suc. Timing Gear Pulley Dis. Suc. Axial Range 10-12 33-37 18-21 39-51 14-22 39-52 6-12 9-14 As found 11 35 20 40 28 30 10 10 Final 11 35 20 40 16 50 10 10 3.1.4. Manpower & Duration: - Manpower: 3 workers. - Duration: 24 hours. 3.1.5. Result & Conclusion: The Blower equipment was running normally and without any leakage or abnormal sound. In addition, the work was performed successfully and without any incidents. Table 3.1 Clearance Readings Figure.3.9 Clearance Readings
  • 22. 22 3.2. Work Order No.2 Plant: PDH (Polypropylene) 3.2.1. Equipment Name & Type Equipment: Feed Drier Regenerate Pump (P5001A/B) Type: Centrifugal Pump Figure.3.10 Feed Drier Regenerate Pump Pic.1 Figure.3.12 Feed Drier Regenerate Pump Diagram Figure.3.11 Feed Drier Regenerate Pump Pic.2
  • 23. 23 3.2.2. Work Objective & Goal  To perform corrective maintenance on the centrifugal pump.  To replace and change any damaged parts that can cause the equipment to be damaged completely.  Overhauling the equipment. ------------------------------------------------------- [Case I] -------------------------------------------------- 3.2.3. Work Details 3.2.3.1. Problem Description: People from the PDH plant called us and told us that the feed drier pump does not work properly and does not give the required operation. So when we went there to see what the problem is, we noticed the following: - An Abnormal noise. - Produce high vibration. - A serious leaking from the bearing house side. The moment we removed the pump to the workshop to be repaired, we put some blinds between the flanges to isolate the system, see the figure. Figure.3.13 Isolation Blinds
  • 24. 24 3.2.3.2. Observations: We brought the equipment to the workshop to see what the problem is. When we opened the pump, we observed the following: - A gap between the stationary ring and the rotating ring of the mechanical seal that cause the oil to leak through the drain. So, that is an indication of a mechanical seal (primary seal) leakage. - We observed that the bearings (ball & cylindrical), oil seals, O rings, and gaskets were not changed or replaced since a long time. 3.2.3.3. Recommendations: - Send the damaged mechanical seal to the manufacturer for repair. At the meantime, use a new mechanical seal until the old one get back from the manufacturer. - Replace all bearings, oil seals, O rings, and gaskets by new ones (overhaul the equipment). Figure.3.14 Leaked Mechanical Seal on the Regenerate Pump Figure.3.15 Suction Flange Oil Observation
  • 25. 25 3.2.3.4. Work Procedure: 1. Disassemble the equipment by taking off all the bolts & nuts using different tools. 2. Take off the cover which is mounted on the shaft from the motor side, actually it was stuck, so we heated it until it expands after that we removed it. 3. Remove both covers DE (Drive End) & NDE (Non Drive End). 4. Take off all (Gaskets, O rings, and Oil seals) and change them by new ones. 5. Dry the oil that has leaked from the bearing house side (suction flange). 6. Remove the impeller which is fixed on the NDE side and clean it. 7. Take off the shaft. 8. Remove the mechanical seal to inspect it. 9. Remove all the bearings (hit them by hammer if they were stuck). 10. Change all the bearings (ball & roller) by new ones. 11. Insert all the three ball bearings back into the shaft from one side and the roller bearing from the other side by heating them using a heater device. 12. Replace the damaged mechanical seal by new one. 13. Reassemble the equipment. 3.2.3.5. Action Performed: - The damaged mechanical seal has been changed by new one and the old one has been sent for repair. - All bearings, oil seals, O rings, and Gaskets have been changed by new ones. Figure.3.16 New Mechanical Seal on the Regenerate Pump Figure.3.17 New O-ring on the Regenerate Pump’s Flange
  • 26. 26 . 3.2.4. Manpower & Duration: - Manpower: 3 Workers - Duration: 20 hours. 3.2.5. Result & Conclusion When we brought back the pump to the field, we wanted to fix it in its original place and remove all the blinds. After we fixed the pump, we noticed that the pressure still high. So, we couldn’t remove the blinds until the pressure is getting lower. We used a hose to suck some of the pressure and move it to another area. Now, the pressure is at zero. So, we closed the valve to stop the flow and remove all the blinds. Unfortunately, there was a problem with the valve. The fluid (Hydrocarbon) was still flowing (passing). So when we tried to open the flange bolts, the fluid was going out. Then we closed the valve and told the workers who are working in the PDH plant to repair it and inform us when they finish. (The pump was not operating at that time). Figure.3.18 New Ball Bearings Fixed Shaft Figure.3.19 New Cylindrical Bearing Fixed on the Shaft
  • 27. 27 --------------------------------------------------- [Case II] ----------------------------------------------------- 3.2.3. Work Details 3.2.3.1. Problem Description: People at the PDH plant informed us that they finished repairing the valve. So we went back to the field to see the pump. Actually, we noticed some leaking from the same side that was leaking before. So we have to take it back again to the workshop to inspect it and see what the problem is. 3.2.3.2. Observations: When we opened the equipment, we found that the leaking was from the suction flange. Unfortunately, the problem of this leaking was from the mechanical seal. We found the stationary carbon ring of the mechanical seal broken and that caused by uneven press on the mechanical seal to squeeze the springs inside. * NOTE: - At that time, the old mechanical seal that was sent to the manufacturer has already been repaired and received by the company. 3.2.3.3. Recommendations: - Change the damaged mechanical seal by the one that has been repaired by the manufacturer. - Check the oil level. Figure.3.20 Broken Mechanical Seal’s Stationary Ring
  • 28. 28 3.2.3.4. Work Procedure: - Preforming the same procedures that we did in [Case I] by changing only the mechanical seal. 3.2.3.5. Action Performed: - The damaged mechanical seal has been replaced by the one that was repaired by the manufacturer. - Oil level has been checked. 3.2.4. Manpower & Duration: - Manpower: 2 People. - Duration: 10 hours. 3.2.5. Results & conclusion: - The valves was working successfully without any passing and the blinds was removed without any fluid going out. - The equipment was aligned using special tools and devices. - The equipment was working normally without any leaking. - The work performed successfully and without any injuries. Figure.3.21 Repaired Mechanical Seal Fixed on the Pump
  • 29. 29 3.3. Work Order No.3 Plant: PDH (Propane Dehydrogenation) 3.3.1. Equipment Name & Type Equipment: Hydrogen Diaphragm Compressor (C-4502) Type: Reciprocating Positive Displacement Compressor-Diaphragm Type (Three-Diaphragms) Figure.3.22 Hydrogen Compressor Equipment Figure.3.23 Hydrogen Compressor Diagram
  • 30. 30 3.3.2. Work Objective & Goal  To prevent the equipment from being damaged.  To do corrective maintenance on the compressor.  To avoid unexpected shutdown. 3.3.3. Work Details 3.3.3.1. Problem Description: The people who are working in the PDH plant told us that there is a problem with the Hydrogen Compressor while operating. The flow rate of the compressor was not enough through the discharge. The compressor was giving less flow ranged between 4.5 to 6.5 Kg/hr. actually; the required flow rate should be between 7 to 9 Kg/hr. abnormal sound was also observed with no sign of any leakage. 3.3.3.2. Observations: After we opened the top cover of the compressor, the following were observed: - Pitting marks were observed on the three diaphragm’s surfaces. - Some worn out marks were found in the suction & discharge valves and gaskets. Figure.3.24 Pitting Marks on the Compressor’s Diaphragms
  • 31. 31 3.3.3.3. Possible Causes: - The diaphragms were losing their efficiency because there were already passing their lifetime of running hours (6 months). For that reason, the discharge pressure and flow rate were affected. - The suction & discharge valves were passing. They were always in the open state (didn’t close) and that was caused because some of the particles were stuck inside resulting in less discharge flow. - Oil limiter was not calibrated to the desired oil pressure. 3.3.3.4. Recommendations: - Replace all three diaphragms by new ones; diaphragms have to be replaced after every 4000 running hours (6 months). - Check the oil condition for any particles from time to time so that no particles will be stuck in the valves or enter the compressor and damage the diaphragm. - Yearly drain and replace the oil. - Check the oil plate condition. - Adjust the oil limiter. Figure.3.25 Worn out Marks on the Compressor’s Valves
  • 32. 32 3.3.3.5. Action Performed: - Diaphragms have been changed with new ones. - Suction & discharge valves and gaskets have been replaced. - Oil plate has been checked for foreign particles, and no particles were found. - Oil plate’s O-rings have been replaced. - Oil limiter has been adjusted. 3.3.4. Manpower & Duration: - Manpower: 4 workers. - Duration: 5 hours. 3.3.5. Result & Conclusion The Hydrogen Compressor was handed over to operation ant it was started healthy and working normally with a discharge flow ranged between 7 to 9 Kg/hr. Figure.3.26 New Valves for the Compressor Figure.3.27 Three New Diaphragms for the Compressor
  • 33. 33 3.4. Work Order No.4 Plant: PP (Polypropylene) 3.4.1. Equipment Name & Type Equipment: Rotary Feeder Type: Rotary Lock Valves (Nitrogen) 3.4.2. Work Objective & Goal  To be aware of unexpected shutdown.  To make the Rotary Feeder working normally & healthy.  To make corrective maintenance for the equipment. Figure.3.28 Rotary Feeder Equipment Figure.3.29 Rotary Feeder Diagram
  • 34. 34 3.4.3. Work Details 3.4.3.1. Problem Description: Workers in the PP plant told us to check the Rotary Feeder equipment because it was not working normally. They noticed some powder leakage. So, we went there to see what went wrong. Normally, the nitrogen is injected into the rotary feeder to help it while moving the powder resin from one section to another (simplifying the moving of powder) and this nitrogen goes out to the atmosphere. Currently, the nitrogen gas was not going out to the atmosphere alone. Actually, some powder was going out with the gas too. 3.4.3.2. Observations: When we opened the equipment to investigate the problem, the following were observed: - We found that the main cause of this leakage was from the seal (two types of seal were damaged, radial shaft seal & labyrinth seal). - We observed that all ball bearings were not changed for a long time. 3.4.3.3. Recommendations: - Remove all damaged seals and replace them by new seals. - Change all ball bearings with the shim ring between them to avoid unexpected damage. - Remove & clean the powder that was leaked from the equipment. Figure.3.31 Damaged Labyrinth Seal Figure.3.30 Damaged Radial Shaft Seal
  • 35. 35 3.4.3.4. Work Procedure: 1. Remove the socket head cap screws. 2. Remove the cover. 3. Remove the two ball bearings and the shim ring between them. 4. Take off the Hex. Head bolt & washer to remove the second cover. 5. Remove the end plate. 6. Take off both the radial shaft seal and the labyrinth seal. 7. Replace the ball bearings by new ones because we noticed that they were not changed for a long time. 8. Replace both the radial shaft seal and the labyrinth seal. 9. Reassemble the parts to the equipment. 3.4.3.5. Action Performed: - All damaged seals have been replaced with new seals. - All ball bearings with their shim rings have been replaced with new ones. - Leaked powder have been removed & cleaned. 3.4.4. Manpower & Duration: - Manpower: 4 Workers. - Duration: 2 hours. 3.4.5. Result & Conclusion After we changed all damaged parts, the Rotary Feeder was operating and running without any problem and without any powder leaking. Figure.3.33 New Labyrinth SealFigure.3.32 New Radial Shaft Seal
  • 36. 36 3.5. Work Order No.5 Plant: PP (Polypropylene) 3.5.1. Equipment Name & Type Equipment: Vertical Pump (P-9803 A/B) Type: Multi-Stage Centrifugal Pump Figure.3.35 Vertical Pump DiagramFigure.3.34 Vertical Pump Equipment
  • 37. 37 3.5.2. Work Objective & Goal  To run the equipment without any problem.  To prevent the equipment from being damaged completely.  To avoid unplanned shutdown. 3.5.3. Work Details 3.5.3.1. Problem Description: The employees who are working in the condition monitoring department (vibration section) told us that there is an abnormal sound in the vertical pump which is in the PP plant. They told us that they observed very high vibration on the pump. So, we went to the plant to investigate the equipment. Actually when we went there we did not notice any sign of leakage. We believed that the main problem was from one of the rotating parts inside the pump. So, we took the equipment to the workshop to detect the problem. 3.5.3.2. Observations: When we brought the equipment to the workshop to see what cause that high vibration, we disassemble it and observed that the problem was from the shaft. Fortunately, the shaft was not running without protection. There were sleeves that coved that shaft and pushing that covered the sleeves. Also, we observed some worn out marks on the internal wall of the coupling part. So, the damaged parts were the pushing, the sleeves and the coupling. But the shaft was safe. If the shaft was running without protection, it would cost us a very high cost to buy a new one. Figure.3.36 Vertical Pump’s Shafts
  • 38. 38 Figure.3.38 Damaged Sleeves Figure.3.37 Worn out Marks on the Sleeve & Pushing Figure.3.39 Damaged Pushing
  • 39. 39 3.5.3.3. Recommendations: - Remove all sleeves and pushing and replace them by new ones. - Change the coupling that holds the two shafts together and replace it by new one. - Check the shaft’s runout and make sure that it is straight. - Make sure to use the correct sleeve & pushing, by measuring their diameters with reference to the shaft diameter. - Replace all circlips with new ones. 3.5.3.4. Work Procedure: 1. Remove the two covers (Brackets) from both sides. 2. Disassemble the equipment so that yiu can remove the shaft freely. 3. Take off the two shafts the are connected together through a coupling from the pump and carry them carefully by using a movable crane. 4. Remove the dameged coupling from the two shaft and change it by new one. 5. Remove all damaged sleeves & pushing from the shaft and change them by new onse. 6. Heat and hammer all sleeves & pushings if they don’t want to come out (stuck). 7. Clean the shaft by using a rough paper. 8. Check the shaft’s runout by using a dial indicator gauge. 9. Measure the dsiameters of all sleeves & pushing with reference to the shaft by using both micrometer & telescopic gauges. 10. Oil the parts to simplify the inserting of sleeves into the shaft and the pushing into the sleeves. 11. Insert all the sleeves into the shaft and make sure that they are engagrd with the shaft through the key. 12. Use new circlips to lock the sleeve so that it connot move. 13. Insert all the pusing into the sleeves. 14. Do the sme steps from 4 to 12 with the other shaft. 15. Couple the two shafts together again by the new coupling part. 16. Reassemble the equipment.
  • 40. 40 3.5.3.5. Action Performed: - All pushing & sleeves have been replaced. - The coupling part the connect the two shafts together has been changed. - All circlips have been changed with new clips. - Diameters of shaft, pushing & sleeves have been checked. - The shaft’s runout has been checked. Figure.3.41 New Pushing for the Sleeve Figure.3.43 New Circlip to Lock the Sleeve on the Shaft Figure.3.40 New Sleeves for the Shaft Figure.3.42 New Coupling to Couple the Pump’s Shafts
  • 41. 41 3.5.4. Manpower & Duration: - Manpower: 3 workers. - Duration: 60 hours. 3.5.5. Result & Conclusion The equipment was handed back to operation and every thing was normal and there was no sign of high vibration. 3.6. Tools Used There are many different tools that were used during the work procedures to accomplish all the work orders that I have mentioned before. These are: Dial indicator, Micrometer, Telescopic gauge, Soft hammer, Hard hammer, Allen key, Chuck key, Spanner, Adjustable spanner, Screw driver, Chipping tool, filler gauge, Wire brush, Bearing heater, Oil injector, Rough paper, and Spray. Figure.3.44 Tools Used
  • 42. 42 Chapter.4 Theoretical Background
  • 43. 43 4.1. Introduction to Mechanical Maintenance During the 8 months of my co-op training period, I was assigned to the Mechanical Maintenance Department to work as a trainee student. As an introduction to mechanical maintenance, there are many things that I would like to discuss in this section. These are: - What is Maintenance? - Objectives of Maintenance. - Types of Maintenance. - Common Machinery Problems. - Description & Work Performance of Different Equipment. - Mechanical Seal Fundamentals. 4.1.1. Definition of Maintenance: It can be defined as “The work of keeping something in good and better condition”. Maintenance is the action of preventing an equipment or component from being damaged & failed, or to repair normal equipment and keep it in a good working condition. Maintenance is like a war. Your enemies are the damages, deterioration and any types of unexpected events. Your soldiers are the workers in the maintenance department, and the tools that used are their weapons. The civilians that you have to protect are the office workers, production workers, drivers, and all the other users of the industry’s equipment. Figure.4.1 Component Failure Rate over Time for component population
  • 44. 44 4.1.2. Objectives of Maintenance:  To achieve the best performance for the industry’s equipment, devices, and different facilities.  To reduce the risks that may result from operation working conditions into lower levels.  To keep the device or equipment in a proper working condition so as to reduce unplanned shutdown.  To protect the equipment from unexpected damages and unplanned events.  Ensuring that the equipment have achieved their full service life time.  To increase functional reliability of the production facilities.  To extend the useful life of the device or equipment.  Minimizing the operating cost of the total production.  Increasing the capacity of production from the equipment resources available.  To enhance the manpower’s safety. 4.1.3. Types of Maintenance:  Breakdown Maintenance.  Preventive Maintenance, include (Periodic Maintenance, Predictive Maintenance).  Corrective Maintenance.  Maintenance Prevention. Figure.4.2 Maintenance Types
  • 45. 45 o Breakdown Maintenance Meaning that people waits for the equipment until it fails and then repair it. This type of maintenance could be used when the failing of the equipment doesn’t create any significant loss or effect on the production and operation accept for the repairing cost. o Preventive Maintenance It is daily process maintenance, such as inspection, oiling, cleaning, and re-tightening). This type of maintenance is designed to keep the equipment running in a healthy condition and to prevent any type of failure through the prevention of damages and deteriorations, condition diagnosis or periodic inspection. This type of maintenance consists of periodic maintenance and predictive maintenance. a. Periodic Maintenance It also called as “Time based maintenance”. This type of maintenance consists of different processes, such as servicing and cleaning equipment, periodically inspecting, and replacement of parts in order to prevent unexpected failure or any problems in process. b. Predictive Maintenance It also called as “Condition Based Maintenance”. The function of this type of maintenance is based on predicting the service life of important parts in the equipment through diagnosis or inspection, so that the parts can be used to their service life’s limits. o Corrective Maintenance It upgrades equipment and its parts and components in order to carry out preventive maintenance reliably. Machines with designed weakness should be redesigned again in order to improve maintainability and reliability. o Maintenance Prevention This type of maintenance is based on indicating the design of new machines. Weakness of different current equipment are studied well enough (easier maintenance and prevents of defects, safety and ease of manufacturing) and are integrated and inserted before dealing out with new equipment.
  • 46. 46 4.1.4. Common Machinery Problems When some components parts are broken-down, they will often cause a further damage which may lead to mechanical failure and after that to equipment shutdown. Some of these common problems are:  Unbalance.  Misalignment.  Looseness.  Defective Bearings.  Resonance.  Eccentricity.  Worn Gears.  Motor Electrical Problems.  Drive Belt Problems.  Distortion. 4.1.5. Description & Work Performance of Different Equipment 4.1.5.1. Pumps: Centrifugal Pump The centrifugal pump uses centrifugal energy, just as its name implies. It uses a rotating device called an impeller to move fluid by steering it faster and faster in a circular motion and then changing its speed into pressure. As the impeller steers the fluid in a rapid circular motion, the centrifugal force is created that gives the pump its name. it has the advantage to move higher volume of fluid. They don’t have the ability to exert as much pressure on the fluid as positive displacement pumps. They usually must be primed. Multi-Stage Pump: this type of pump uses multiple impellers in order to increase the discharge pressure, depending on the requirements. Positive Displacement Pump The positive displacement pumps impart their energy by capturing a given amount of liquid in a chamber and then expelling it. They generally have the ability to exert as high pressure on the fluid.
  • 47. 47 - Reciprocating Pump: There are two general types of reciprocating pumps: The Piston Pump & the Diaphragm Pump. These types of pumps are operated by using a reciprocating piston or diaphragm. The liquid enters a pumping chamber via an inlet valve and is pushed out via an outlet valve by the action of the piston or diaphragm. Piston: Piston pumps use a plunger or piston to move media through a cylindrical chamber. The piston pump operates with a suction stroke and a discharge stroke. The suction stroke occurs when the piston pulls out of the cylinder; a low pressure vacuum is created causing the suction side to open and the discharge side to close. On the return stroke, the suction valve is closed and the fluid is forced out of the discharge. Diaphragm: the Diaphragm pump operates in a simple manner to the piston pump but it uses a flexible sheet or diaphragm to displace the fluid. An advantage to the diaphragm pump is that it eliminates contact between the media being pumped and the energy source used to operate the pump. As the eccentric wheel turns, the diaphragm moves up & down creating the pumping action required to operate the pump. When the diaphragm is up, the suction valve is open. On the down stroke the suction valve is force shut and the discharge is opened allowing the fluid to pass through. - Rotary Pump: A Rotary Positive Displacement Pump uses the rotating motion of components to create vacuum that captures & draws in the media (liquid), such as gears, screws, and lobes. Gear: Is the pump that moves fluid using a rotary motion of the pumping elements. Mostly it consists of two gears, one is the driving gear and the other is the driven gear. The driving gear gets the motion from the engine through a shaft. This motion will be transmitted to the other gear because of the engagement between them. The flow of fluid happens through the casing portion and trap between the teeth of the gears under high pressure. Screw: Screw pumps carry the media (fluid) in the gaps or spaces between the threads of the screw. The media (fluid) is displaced in an axial way as the screws mesh. Lobe: Fluid is moving between the pumping chamber and the teeth of the rotor. Continuous sealing is created by the rotor’s surfaces. The timing gears synchronize & drive both gears. This type of lobe pump is used in the “Blower Equipment”.
  • 48. 48 4.1.5.2. Compressors: Compressors are the mechanical equipment that increases the gas pressure by reducing its volume. As the gas is compressed, the temperature is increased. Centrifugal Compressor: They are non-positive displacement compressors. Through a rotating impeller, Kinetic Energy (KE) is imparted to the air. As air is passing through the diffuse, it will be converted Potential Energy (PE). Positive Displacement Compressor: Positive Displacement Compressors are used to trap the gas physically between two relative components. Therefore, lowering its volume and increasing its pressure. - Reciprocating Compressor: The reciprocating positive displacement compressors press (compress) the gas in a chamber (cylinder) opposite to a cylinder head by the help of a reciprocating piston; therefore, decreasing the volume and increasing the pressure. Diaphragm: it is a type of the reciprocating positive displacement compressor. It is used to compress different types of gases. The compression process is done by means of a moving piston and a flexible diaphragm. Such as “Hydrogen Diaphragm Compressor” which was already mentioned before in chapter 3. - Rotary Compressor: The function of the Rotary Compressor is to displace a fixed amount of gas with every revolution. It is used to compress different types of gases into a smaller volume between to rotating elements. Screw: it is the compressor that is operated by two rotors (helical type) which move and rotate against each other, and that cause the screw teeth to mesh. One rotor is rotating clockwise and the other rotor is rotating counterclockwise, which will cause the gas to trap in the central cavity between the two rotors.
  • 49. 49 Lobe: this type of compressor is using two rotary lobes that are mounted on the shaft. One lobe is rotating clockwise and the other one is rotating counterclockwise; therefore, decreasing the gas volume and causing it to trap in the central cavity between the two lobes. The two lobes are not in touch with each other. There is a very small clearance between the two lobes and also between the casing and the lobe’s surface. 4.1.5.3. Rotary Feeder: Rotary feeder is also called as Rotary valve or airlock valve. It is an important equipment of pneumatic conveying and batching. The main objective of the rotary feeder is to control the flow of powder resin from silo under gravity, vacuum and pressure conditions; and also move the powder from one section to another with the help of nitrogen gas.
  • 50. 50 Chapter 5 Conclusion, References & Appendix
  • 51. 51 5.1. Conclusion In this report, I have talked about an introduction to NATPET Company. In addition, I have discussed different subjects about safety which must be followed and applied in NATPET Company. After that, I have provided different work activities that have been completed in the mechanical department during my coop training. Furthermore, I have mentioned a brief overview about the mechanical maintenance department. Actually, the training in NATPET Company was a very great experience for me. During training, I have learned how practical work is performed. Also, I have met and communicated with new people from different nationalities. Absolutely, seeing the field’s nature of work and working in a group was a very interesting experience for me. Finally, I would like to thank Allah for his blessing to accomplish my training program and finishing my final coop report successfully. I hope that you enjoyed reading my report and it gained your interest.
  • 52. 52 5.2. References  Jim Henderson. (2011). Maintenance, Repair, and Operations. Wikipedia. Accessed on July 22,2015, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maintenance,_repair,_and_operations  Denver Colorado. (2009). Maintenance Scheduling for Mechanical Equipment. Reclamation. Accessed July 15,2015, from http://www.usbr.gov/power/data/fist/fist4_1a/4-1A.pdf  Diksha Kashyap. (2015). Maintenance Management: Objectives, Costs, and Policies. YOURARTICLELIBRARY. Accessed on July 27,2015, from http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/maintenance-management/maintenance-management- objectives-costs-and-policies/57438/  Abhik Rathod. (2014). Types of Maintenance. Slideshare. Accessed on August 5,2015, from http://www.slideshare.net/AbhikRathod/types-of-maintenance-33037550  Personal Protective Equipment. GoogleImages. Accessed on August 15,2015, from https://www.google.com.sa/search?hl=en&site=imghp&tbm=isch&source=hp&biw=1467&bih=723 &q=personal+protective+equipment&oq=Personal+Protective+&gs_l=img.1.0.0l10.5641.19069.0.2 3841.26.24.1.0.0.1.1240.5548.5-2j4j1.7.0....0...1ac.1.64.img..19.7.4998._re3Hx8Hoic  www.natpet.com  My progress reports.  My daily logbook.
  • 53. 53 5.3. Appendix YIC Training Letter: Figure.5.1 YIC Training Letter
  • 54. 54 Training Plan: Figure.5.2 Training Plan
  • 55. 55 Attendance Sheet: Figure.5.3 Attendance Sheet
  • 56. 56 Progress Report: Figure.5.4 Progress Report
  • 57. 57 Plagiarism Report from Turnitin: Figure.5.5 Plagiarism Report from Turnitin

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