PREVENTION OF HIV
TRANSMISSION
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
 At
the end of this session, you will be able
to:
 Explain the different prevention measures
 Dem...
PREVENTION OF BLOOD
TRANSMISSION






Transfuse only fully screened blood and blood
products
Avoid sharing skin pi...
PREVENTION OF MOTHER-TO-CHILDTRANSMISSION (PMTCT) OF HIV





HCT plays a vital role in reducing MTCT by helping...
PREVENTION OF SEXUAL TRANSMISSION

Abstinence: Abstaining from sex will help people not
to be infected with HIV and AIDS...
 Faithfulness:
Being faithful in this context
refers to an individual having sexual
relationship with one partner and vi...
 Condom
Use/ Safer Sex: Safer sex is any
sexual practice that prevents exchange of
semen, vaginal fluids or blood betwee...
 REMEMBER
CORRECT AND CONSISTENT
USE OF CONDOMS DURING SEXUAL
INTERCOURSE IS EFFECTIVE IN
REDUCING THE RISK OF HIV
TRANS...
COUNSELLING FOR PREVENTION IS THE CORE
BUSINESS IN HCT.
 Once a person has known his/her HIV status, whether
positive or ...
Male Condom demonstration
Female condom insertion demonstration
1
4
2
3
5
6
7
9
8
10
MAIN BARRIERS TO CONDOM USE AND EFFECTIVE RESPONSES
BARRIERS
EFFECTIVE RESPONSES
Societal, cultural and religious
disapp...
MAIN BARRIERS TO CONDOM USE AND EFFECTIVE
RESPONSES cont…
Implications for trust and fidelity in
stable partnerships espe...
Dual Protection
This is protecting ones self from both unwanted pregnancy and STI/HIV at
the same time.
Dual protection ca...
Thanks for Listening
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Prevention of hiv transmission

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Health & Medicine      Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Prevention of hiv transmission

  • 1. PREVENTION OF HIV TRANSMISSION
  • 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES  At the end of this session, you will be able to:  Explain the different prevention measures  Demonstrate correct use of condoms  Explain dual protection  Demonstrate ability to counsel for prevention
  • 3. PREVENTION OF BLOOD TRANSMISSION       Transfuse only fully screened blood and blood products Avoid sharing skin piercing objects or sharps e.g. razor blades, needles, intravenous drug injection. Avoid unnecessary blood transfusion Avoid touching all body fluids with bare hands Always use gloves when handling blood and body fluids If skin-piercing instruments must be re-used, disinfect in bleach
  • 4. PREVENTION OF MOTHER-TO-CHILDTRANSMISSION (PMTCT) OF HIV      HCT plays a vital role in reducing MTCT by helping to identify mothers who are HIV positive for treatment, care and support. The following PMTCT options are available: Short-course antiretroviral treatment: to the mother during pregnancy and labour and sometimes also to the baby and mother afterwards Highly Active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART): the use of a full course anti-retroviral therapy (ART) for a positive pregnant woman can also be used in place of short-course anti-retroviral drugs Planned Caesarean section: this reduces the risk of transmission during birth, but it is not an option to use widely because of the high cost and possible risks to the mother Changed breastfeeding practice: total replacement feeding from birth, or exclusive breastfeeding followed by abrupt weaning at 3-6 months, or heat-treating expressed breast milk has been demonstrated to reduce MTCT
  • 5. PREVENTION OF SEXUAL TRANSMISSION  Abstinence: Abstaining from sex will help people not to be infected with HIV and AIDS. This needs a lot of targeted messages for behavioural change. It requires a strong decision to reach to conclusion of abstinence. Youths require education on relevant life skills that will help them not to indulge in sex before marriage and remain faithful in marriage. The more people you have unprotected penetrative sex with, the more likely you are to meet someone with HIV and become infected yourself. The same applies to your partner. Some ways of having sex carry a higher risk than others e.g. anal sex
  • 6.  Faithfulness: Being faithful in this context refers to an individual having sexual relationship with one partner and vice versa. If such faithful partners have tested HIV negative, they do not have to use condoms unless advised by the doctor or a family planning specialist.
  • 7.  Condom Use/ Safer Sex: Safer sex is any sexual practice that prevents exchange of semen, vaginal fluids or blood between partners. Correct use of condom will prevent HIV transmission from one partner to another during sexual intercourse. Currently there are male and female condoms available which when properly used, can help protect against many sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. Even if a woman uses another contraceptive method, such as the pill, the couple still needs to use a condom to protect each other from HIV.
  • 8.  REMEMBER CORRECT AND CONSISTENT USE OF CONDOMS DURING SEXUAL INTERCOURSE IS EFFECTIVE IN REDUCING THE RISK OF HIV TRANSMISSION AS WELL AS OTHER SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS
  • 9. COUNSELLING FOR PREVENTION IS THE CORE BUSINESS IN HCT.  Once a person has known his/her HIV status, whether positive or negative it is important that they prevent either transmission of HIV to other people or contracting HIV themselves.  Usually the most challenged prevention method is the use of condoms as there are many socio–cultural obstacles to their use. the table below identifies some of these and what effective responses can be used for these obstacles
  • 10. Male Condom demonstration
  • 11. Female condom insertion demonstration 1 4 2 3 5 6
  • 12. 7 9 8 10
  • 13. MAIN BARRIERS TO CONDOM USE AND EFFECTIVE RESPONSES BARRIERS EFFECTIVE RESPONSES Societal, cultural and religious disapproval including stigma Stress cultural and societal benefits; include condoms as one of the approaches to HIV and STI prevention, educate on widespread evidence that condoms do not increase promiscuity. Lack of awareness, especially among the young, about HIV, STIs, and condom’s effectiveness, myths, Multiple strategies for information misinformation, including peer education and participatory behaviour change communication. Teach how to use misconceptions and misinformation Lack of control over condom use condoms correctly Promote negotiation skills, particularly for women and work towards greater gender equality in education, work and relationships to build self esteem and social skills.
  • 14. MAIN BARRIERS TO CONDOM USE AND EFFECTIVE RESPONSES cont… Implications for trust and fidelity in stable partnerships especially marriage. De-stigmatise condom use, promote the link between condom use and respect, care, love and the desire to protect; promote condom use for contraception as well as HIV/STI prevention; encourage communication between couples Lack of availability of condoms due to: cost, access, lack of privacy at points of sale or distribution, inadequate promotion. Social marketing and free government distribution, including distribution through shops, hotels, bars, markets, workplaces, schools, colleges, and prisons; vending machines or placing boxes of condoms in washrooms can prevent embarrassment in obtaining condoms. Personal dislikes of condoms or condom failure (particularly where dry sex is practised or other activity that puts high stress on the condom) Poor quality or design of condoms, poor storage Market condoms as trendy and recommend use of water-based lubricant to avoid breakage. Extra strong condom can be used if possible; educate people about the risks in sexual practices such as dry sex or severe genital rubbing. Enforce strict guidelines for condom promotion and for quality control
  • 15. Dual Protection This is protecting ones self from both unwanted pregnancy and STI/HIV at the same time. Dual protection can be achieved by: 1. Using a male or female condom correctly every time one has sex OR 2. Using a condom AND another family planning method in addition OR 3. Abstinence OR 4. Avoiding all types of penetrative sex OR 5. Using any contraceptive method AND mutual monogamy (absolute faithfulness) among uninfected partners Dual protection is important for ALL OF US, especially: *Sexually active young persons *Men who put themselves and their partners at risk because of their sexual behavior *Women or men who are at risk because of the high-risk sexual behaviors of their partners *Individuals or partners of those who have an STI and/or HIV *Sexually active people in settings where the prevalence of STIs and/or HIV is high. *Commercial sex workers
  • 16. Thanks for Listening

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