Native Americana in ModernNative Americana in Modern
Western Nature SpiritualitiesWestern Nature Spiritualities
Andrei A. ...
What I want to address in this paper?What I want to address in this paper?
 The heavy presence of Native Americana inThe ...
Native Americana: ExamplesNative Americana: Examples
 Concepts: Mother Earth, Great Spirit, FourConcepts: Mother Earth, G...
Heavy presence of Native Americana inHeavy presence of Native Americana in
Nature Spiritualities, 1960s-1990sNature Spirit...
Popular Perception: NativePopular Perception: Native
American are Stewards of NatureAmerican are Stewards of Nature
From the United States to EuropeFrom the United States to Europe
 US is the motherlandUS is the motherland
of the “New Ag...
Neo-shamanic group in GermanyNeo-shamanic group in Germany
 American Indian style tepees at the paganAmerican Indian style tepees at the pagan
festival in Glastonbury (UK), 2003fes...
Erecting a sweat lodge and a tepee in the vicinityErecting a sweat lodge and a tepee in the vicinity
of Johanennsburg, Sou...
 Construction of a sweat lodge during anConstruction of a sweat lodge during an
international gathering of seekers of tri...
 In her rituals “CelticIn her rituals “Celtic
shaman” Light Hawkshaman” Light Hawk
still uses a rattlestill uses a rattle...
Identity Issue: Native American ViewIdentity Issue: Native American View
 Native Americana is a collective resource to be...
Identity Issue: Western seekers’ viewIdentity Issue: Western seekers’ view
 Identity is a matter of individual choiceIden...
 Many NativeMany Native
American spiritualAmerican spiritual
practitioners, like thepractitioners, like the
late Archie F...
Is the spiritual appropriation of Native AmericanaIs the spiritual appropriation of Native Americana
not authentic and “No...
““Merlin’s call”: from Native Americana toMerlin’s call”: from Native Americana to
ancient European folkloreancient Europe...
A dream of Jungian analyst Fred Gustafson:A dream of Jungian analyst Fred Gustafson:
ambivalence about the use of Native A...
Neo-shamanism Print Culture: Castaneda’sNeo-shamanism Print Culture: Castaneda’s
Don Juan to Bates’ Anglo-Saxon sorcererDo...
Some new spiritual archetypes invoked bySome new spiritual archetypes invoked by
Western neo-shamansWestern neo-shamans
Me...
Celtic shaman Tira Brandon Evans: from readingCeltic shaman Tira Brandon Evans: from reading
books about Indians shamans t...
Enlightening about ABCs of Nordic Spirituality,Enlightening about ABCs of Nordic Spirituality,
Savannah, GASavannah, GA
Incorporating Wicca rituals into Neo-ShamanismIncorporating Wicca rituals into Neo-Shamanism
ConclusionsConclusions
 In matters of religion/spirituality such verdicts asIn matters of religion/spirituality such verd...
Native Americana in Modern Western Nature Spiritualities
Native Americana in Modern Western Nature Spiritualities
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Native Americana in Modern Western Nature Spiritualities

Dr. Andrei Znamenski paper presentation, Portland, OR, October 21, 2006
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Spiritual      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Native Americana in Modern Western Nature Spiritualities

  • 1. Native Americana in ModernNative Americana in Modern Western Nature SpiritualitiesWestern Nature Spiritualities Andrei A. ZnamenskiAndrei A. Znamenski
  • 2. What I want to address in this paper?What I want to address in this paper?  The heavy presence of Native Americana inThe heavy presence of Native Americana in Western New Age/nature communitiesWestern New Age/nature communities  Different approaches to the identity formationDifferent approaches to the identity formation among the Native Americans and the Newamong the Native Americans and the New Age/nature communitiesAge/nature communities  The issue of “traditional” and “non-traditional”The issue of “traditional” and “non-traditional” spiritualityspirituality  The current drift away from Native AmericanaThe current drift away from Native Americana among the New Age/nature communitiesamong the New Age/nature communities
  • 3. Native Americana: ExamplesNative Americana: Examples  Concepts: Mother Earth, Great Spirit, FourConcepts: Mother Earth, Great Spirit, Four Directions, tribe, and sacred circleDirections, tribe, and sacred circle  Rituals: sweat lodge, sun dance, and visionRituals: sweat lodge, sun dance, and vision questquest  Artifacts: sacred pipe, eagle feather, dreamArtifacts: sacred pipe, eagle feather, dream catcher, sage, and medicine wheelcatcher, sage, and medicine wheel  Print culture:Print culture: Black Elk SpeaksBlack Elk Speaks (1931),(1931), Carlos Castaneda’s novels,Carlos Castaneda’s novels, Book of theBook of the HopiHopi (1969) by Frank Waters, and Native(1969) by Frank Waters, and Native American “medicine cards”American “medicine cards”
  • 4. Heavy presence of Native Americana inHeavy presence of Native Americana in Nature Spiritualities, 1960s-1990sNature Spiritualities, 1960s-1990s  The American Indian asThe American Indian as an antidote to modernityan antidote to modernity and Western Civilizationand Western Civilization  Joseph Campbell:Joseph Campbell: American Indians are “theAmerican Indians are “the most spiritual people onmost spiritual people on earth”earth”  Native Americans as theNative Americans as the archetype of the ancient,archetype of the ancient, ecological and spiritualecological and spiritual
  • 5. Popular Perception: NativePopular Perception: Native American are Stewards of NatureAmerican are Stewards of Nature
  • 6. From the United States to EuropeFrom the United States to Europe  US is the motherlandUS is the motherland of the “New Age”of the “New Age”  Dominant position ofDominant position of English languageEnglish language  America “flood ofAmerica “flood of printed matter” andprinted matter” and “Native American”“Native American” traveling “shamans”traveling “shamans” as inspirations foras inspirations for European spiritualEuropean spiritual seekersseekers
  • 7. Neo-shamanic group in GermanyNeo-shamanic group in Germany
  • 8.  American Indian style tepees at the paganAmerican Indian style tepees at the pagan festival in Glastonbury (UK), 2003festival in Glastonbury (UK), 2003
  • 9. Erecting a sweat lodge and a tepee in the vicinityErecting a sweat lodge and a tepee in the vicinity of Johanennsburg, South Africaof Johanennsburg, South Africa
  • 10.  Construction of a sweat lodge during anConstruction of a sweat lodge during an international gathering of seekers of tribalinternational gathering of seekers of tribal spirituality (Siberia, Russia), 2003spirituality (Siberia, Russia), 2003
  • 11.  In her rituals “CelticIn her rituals “Celtic shaman” Light Hawkshaman” Light Hawk still uses a rattlestill uses a rattle made by a Hopimade by a Hopi Indian friend whenIndian friend when she pursued Nativeshe pursued Native American spiritualityAmerican spirituality in the 1980sin the 1980s
  • 12. Identity Issue: Native American ViewIdentity Issue: Native American View  Native Americana is a collective resource to beNative Americana is a collective resource to be used by the Native Americans in their culturalused by the Native Americans in their cultural constructionconstruction  The use of Native Americana by surroundingThe use of Native Americana by surrounding society waters down Indian identitysociety waters down Indian identity  The use of “traditional” Indian rituals by WesternThe use of “traditional” Indian rituals by Western seekers is a fraud, “shamanic neo-imperialism,”seekers is a fraud, “shamanic neo-imperialism,” and “cultural genocide”and “cultural genocide”  Extreme view: native communities must sanctionExtreme view: native communities must sanction particular ceremonies and approve books on theparticular ceremonies and approve books on the IndiansIndians
  • 13. Identity Issue: Western seekers’ viewIdentity Issue: Western seekers’ view  Identity is a matter of individual choiceIdentity is a matter of individual choice  An individual has a right to eclecticallyAn individual has a right to eclectically shop around for his/her spiritualityshop around for his/her spirituality  References to religious freedomReferences to religious freedom  Attempts of Native Americans toAttempts of Native Americans to “copyright” particular rituals/symbols is a“copyright” particular rituals/symbols is a segregationsegregation
  • 14.  Many NativeMany Native American spiritualAmerican spiritual practitioners, like thepractitioners, like the late Archie Fire Lamelate Archie Fire Lame Deer, disagree withDeer, disagree with the Indianthe Indian “fundamentalists” and“fundamentalists” and share their spiritualityshare their spirituality with non-Indianwith non-Indian spiritual seekersspiritual seekers
  • 15. Is the spiritual appropriation of Native AmericanaIs the spiritual appropriation of Native Americana not authentic and “Non-Traditional”?not authentic and “Non-Traditional”?  Imagined New Age/nature communities are notImagined New Age/nature communities are not necessarily imaginary communitiesnecessarily imaginary communities  How much time does it take for a new religiousHow much time does it take for a new religious path to turn from “invented” to “traditional”?path to turn from “invented” to “traditional”?  Religion/spirituality is not less valid if it has beenReligion/spirituality is not less valid if it has been recently minted or contains elements of deceitrecently minted or contains elements of deceit  The argument that cultures are monoliths is aThe argument that cultures are monoliths is a fallacyfallacy
  • 16. ““Merlin’s call”: from Native Americana toMerlin’s call”: from Native Americana to ancient European folkloreancient European folklore  Many New Age/nature communities areMany New Age/nature communities are sensitive to Native American criticismsensitive to Native American criticism  A growing realization that NativeA growing realization that Native Americana cannot make Western seekersAmericana cannot make Western seekers more indigenousmore indigenous  A current drift toward European pre-A current drift toward European pre- Christian folklore (Nordic and CelticChristian folklore (Nordic and Celtic spiritualities)spiritualities)
  • 17. A dream of Jungian analyst Fred Gustafson:A dream of Jungian analyst Fred Gustafson: ambivalence about the use of Native Americanaambivalence about the use of Native Americana ““I saw a fine pair of beadedI saw a fine pair of beaded moccasins that were just likemoccasins that were just like the ones I had been lookingthe ones I had been looking for. They were light-colored, offor. They were light-colored, of a blue-tan tone. I picked thema blue-tan tone. I picked them up and saw the price was $40.up and saw the price was $40. I knew I already had twentyI knew I already had twenty dollars on me. Money was notdollars on me. Money was not the issue though. I needed tothe issue though. I needed to see what size they were butsee what size they were but could not find the marking forcould not find the marking for the size. If anything, I was notthe size. If anything, I was not concerned for the price but Iconcerned for the price but I feared they were too large forfeared they were too large for me.”me.”
  • 18. Neo-shamanism Print Culture: Castaneda’sNeo-shamanism Print Culture: Castaneda’s Don Juan to Bates’ Anglo-Saxon sorcererDon Juan to Bates’ Anglo-Saxon sorcerer
  • 19. Some new spiritual archetypes invoked bySome new spiritual archetypes invoked by Western neo-shamansWestern neo-shamans MerlinMerlin OdinOdin
  • 20. Celtic shaman Tira Brandon Evans: from readingCeltic shaman Tira Brandon Evans: from reading books about Indians shamans to talking withbooks about Indians shamans to talking with “grand farther” Merlin“grand farther” Merlin
  • 21. Enlightening about ABCs of Nordic Spirituality,Enlightening about ABCs of Nordic Spirituality, Savannah, GASavannah, GA
  • 22. Incorporating Wicca rituals into Neo-ShamanismIncorporating Wicca rituals into Neo-Shamanism
  • 23. ConclusionsConclusions  In matters of religion/spirituality such verdicts asIn matters of religion/spirituality such verdicts as “traditional” and “non-traditional” do not make“traditional” and “non-traditional” do not make sense.sense.  Elements of Native Americana became integralElements of Native Americana became integral part of many New Age/nature communities. Aspart of many New Age/nature communities. As such, these elements are authentic andsuch, these elements are authentic and “traditional.”“traditional.”  In current Western nature spiritualities NativeIn current Western nature spiritualities Native Americana now is either mixed with or give wayAmericana now is either mixed with or give way to European pagan folkloreto European pagan folklore

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