Dent Clin N Am 51 (2007) 399–417 Porcelain Laminate Veneers: Reasons for 25 Years of Success ...
400 CALAMIA & CALAMIA The first part of the equationdthe underlying toothdcan play a crucialrole...
PORCELAIN LAMINATE VENEERS 401products [9–11]. Dual cure resin cement use should be limited to poste...
402 CALAMIA & CALAMIAFig. 1. Clinical view of discolored line that results from improper fi...
PORCELAIN LAMINATE VENEERS 403Fig. 2. Delamination of tooth #24 is caused by poor cementa...
404 CALAMIA & CALAMIAFig. 4. Improperly placed laminates are positioned too cervically, ...
PORCELAIN LAMINATE VENEERS 405Fig. 6. Buccal view of fractured tooth with large access ...
406 CALAMIA & CALAMIAthe other is 8 years old. Since we began using high-strength porcela...
PORCELAIN LAMINATE VENEERS 407Fig. 9. The acids are removed with a water spray and dried. ...
408 CALAMIA & CALAMIAonly in vertical occlusion but also in lateral and protrusive movem...
PORCELAIN LAMINATE VENEERS 409Fig. 12. In this tetracycline case, the existing composite b...
410 CALAMIA & CALAMIAelasticity than porcelain, has provided a less rigid base or foundatio...
PORCELAIN LAMINATE VENEERS 411 Fig. 16. Right lateral view. Fig. 17. Direct frontal view.Fig....
412 CALAMIA & CALAMIA Fig. 19. Maxillary incisal/occlusal view. Based o...
PORCELAIN LAMINATE VENEERS 413Fig. 21. NYU student prepares teeth while another student assi...
414 CALAMIA & CALAMIA Fig. 24. Finished restorations on working cast, palatal view. Fig...
PORCELAIN LAMINATE VENEERS 415Fig. 27. Finished restorations, left lateral view. Fig. 28. Finished resto...
416 CALAMIA & CALAMIA Fig. 30. Improved smile. All pre...
PORCELAIN LAMINATE VENEERS 417 [6] Friedman MJ. A 15 year review of porcelain veneer fail...
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Porcelain laminate veneers reasons for 25 years of success

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  • 1. Dent Clin N Am 51 (2007) 399–417 Porcelain Laminate Veneers: Reasons for 25 Years of Success John R. Calamia, DMDa,*, Christine S. Calamia, DDSb a Department of Cariology and Comprehensive Care, New York University College of Dentistry, 345 East 24th Street, New York, NY 10010-4086, USA b Department of Biomaterials and Biomemetics, New York University College of Dentistry, New York, NY Since its introduction more than two decades ago [1,2], etched porcelainveneer restoration has proved to be a durable and aesthetic modality oftreatment [3–6]. These past 25 years of success can be attributed to great at-tention to detail in the following areas: (1) planning the case, (2) conserva-tive (enamel saving) preparation of teeth, (3) proper selection of ceramics touse, (4) proper selection of the materials and methods of cementation ofthese restorations, (5) proper finishing and polishing of the restorations,and (6) proper planning for the continuing maintenance of these restora-tions. This article discusses failures that could occur if meticulous attentionis not given to such details. Failures that did occur structurally and aesthet-ically warned individuals who were learning the procedure what to watchfor. Some concerns as to newer products and methods and their effect onthe continued success of this modality of treatment are also addressed.Shade matching Aesthetic shade matching and masking with thin porcelain veneer resto-rations are arguably the most demanding facets of this procedure. The keyto success is understanding that the final color obtained is a combined me-tamerism of the tooth, the resin cement selected, and the porcelain used forthe restoration. * Corresponding author. E-mail address: jrc1@nyu.edu (J.R. Calamia).0011-8532/07/$ - see front matter Ó 2007 Published by Elsevier Inc.doi:10.1016/j.cden.2007.03.008 dental.theclinics.com
  • 2. 400 CALAMIA & CALAMIA The first part of the equationdthe underlying toothdcan play a crucialrole in the final appearance of the restoration. Imperfections should beminimized, and existing restorations should be changed either beforepreparation and impression making or at the time of insertion. The clini-cian also may try to change the color of the teeth to be veneered (ie, tet-racycline-stained case) with the use of modern bleaching techniques [7].The final opacity, translucency, and distribution of color of the existingtooth (the stump shade) should be communicated thoroughly to the tech-nician by intraoral photographs, shade drawings, and custom shadeguides to allow the technician to plan the most important part of theequation, the final restoration. Masking undesirable discolorations with-out sacrificing natural translucency in the final restoration requires tech-nical skills and experienced workmanship that can only be tapped if thetechnician receives enough information about the case. Using contempo-rary feldspathic porcelain (Omega900, Vident, Brea, CA; Finesse, Dents-ply Prosthetic, York, PA; IPS, D.Sign, Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY)and metal-free, high-strength restorations (IPS Empress, D.Sign, IvoclarVivadent, Amherst, NY; OPC, Pentron Laboratories, Wallingford, CT),which are developed specifically for bonded restorations, dental labora-tory professionals are able to vary translucency and internal characteriza-tions in the fabrication of aesthetic restorations. The technician’sexperience and ability are of vital importance to a successful case. The last component of the equation is the luting cement. Undernormal circumstances, the cement is probably the least responsible forthe final result obtained, contributing less than 10% of the final colorof the restoration. There is an important contribution, however. Gener-ally, the higher the filler content of cement, the more refractive andopaque the final color of the restoration. If the laboratory technician in-corporates a spacer on the die on which the veneer is fabricated, this im-portant component of the process can be addressed. The resultantincrease in distance between the tooth and the veneer allows for increasedcontrol of the restoration color with resin cement. The value and opacityof the underlying cement are generally more important than the hue orchroma selected [8]. It is the authors’ experience that thin viscosity,highly filled resin cements cause fewer long-term problems with marginaldiscoloration and air entrapment than do more viscous resin formula-tions. Recent-generation resin cements (eg, Calibra, Dentsply Caulk, Mil-ford, DE; Choice II, Bisco, Schaumburg, IL; Lutelt, Pentron Corp.,Wallingford, CT; Variolink I and Appeal, Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst,NY; Ultra Bond Improved, Den-Mat Corp., Santa Monica, CA) canbe light cured or, if used with thick restorations such as inlays, onlays,or crowns, dual cured with the addition of catalyst added to the base ce-ment. It should be noted that once the dual-cure component is added, thelikelihood exists that the restoration may change slightly in color overtime because of the aromatic tertiary amine component of dual-cure
  • 3. PORCELAIN LAMINATE VENEERS 401products [9–11]. Dual cure resin cement use should be limited to poste-rior restorations outside the smile line. In instances in which classes III and IV restorations that require replace-ment are in contact with the veneer preparation, the authors also had successwith microhybrid restorative resins used as cements (ie, TPH Spectrum,Dentsply Caulk, Milford, DE; Venus, Heraeus Kulzer, Armonk, NY; Point4 Sybron/Kerr, Orange, CA). These resin cements are opaque enough thatthey are also useful in masking stained teeth (ie, tetracycline-stained cases).Clinicians should take care to properly provide a better contact angle ofthese more highly viscose materials to the veneer. This is accomplished byfirst applying a thin layer of a light-cured unfilled resin to the veneer andthen syringing the hybrid directly on the intaglio (ie, internal surface) ofthe restoration. A composite instrument is used to flatten the hybrid overthe surface so that no air is trapped. The restoration should be seated slowlyand with pressure to ensure complete seating. Any excess resin cement is re-moved with a microbrush soaked with unfilled resin. Finally, the veneer ispushed into place one last time. Excess resin is left in place to ensure thatthere are no voids at the margins. While slight finger pressure is applied,the restoration is cured for at least 5 seconds with a standard halogen orLED light, after which finger pressure is no longer needed and the curingof the resin cement is continued for additional 40 seconds. These restorationscannot be overcured, so more curing time is better than less curing time.Marginal discoloration and loss of color stability The least common problems associated with porcelain laminate veneersare marginal discoloration and loss of color stability. These problems sel-dom occur because (1) all margins are in cleansable areas often easily fin-ished and polished at the time of cementation and (2) the glazed porcelainsurface, which is mostly impervious to extrinsic stain, also protects underly-ing light-cured (more color stable) resin cement [10]. If a well-fitted restoration has been returned and a thin viscosity, buthighly filled, resin cement has been used with proper finishing and polishingtechniques, immediate marginal discoloration is rare, and little or no mar-ginal discoloration is usually seen at long-term follow-up. However, ill-fitting veneers, which expose inappropriate amounts of resin cement at theirmargins, or well-fitting but poorly seated restorations caused by the use ofhighly viscous cements often show a dark line stain at the margins(Fig. 1). Only refinishing and repolishing can remove these dark lines. Ifthese lines are too deep, then a replacement restoration may be necessary.To remove excess cement, the author uses a series of trimming diamonds(ie, ET, Brasseler USA, Savannah, GA) in a 30-mm, 15-mm, and 8-mm se-quence of finishing diamonds. (The Two-Striper MFS, another kit of dia-mond finishing instruments by Premier Dental, Plymouth Meeting, PA,comes in 40-mm, 20-mm, and 10-mm series.) This process is followed by
  • 4. 402 CALAMIA & CALAMIAFig. 1. Clinical view of discolored line that results from improper finishing or an undercon-toured margin.finishing and polishing with strips and disks (ie, Sof-Lex, 3M Espe, St. Paul,MN) and then by porcelain diamond polishing paste applied with rubbercups.Breakdown in bonds A possible cause of marginal discoloration and the loss of color stabilityof the restoration is marginal leakage or a breakdown of the bond either be-tween the cement and the tooth or between the cement and the veneer. Thisdiscoloration starts as a dark line but eventually works its way under the res-toration, with a resultant diffused discoloration that spreads from the in-volved margin. This phenomenon was common with acrylic laminateveneers as a result of the poor bond strength at the cement and acrylic ve-neer interface. This separation is uncommon for porcelain veneers becauseunder normal circumstances, the bond to porcelain by the cement and thebond of composite cement to tooth is more than acceptable to retain the ve-neer over the long-term [12,13]. However, if the veneer is not properly etched or if the veneer and toothare in some way contaminated during the bonding process (ie, water or oil inthe air lines), it is possible to experience this problem or worsedthe com-plete delamination of the veneer. This occurrence is rare, and it is usuallyimportant to pay close attention to the porcelain, composite, and tooth in-terfaces (Figs. 2 and 3). Organization of steps at the time of bonding usuallyeliminates this concern. If a debonded but good-fitting restoration is recov-ered, the tooth may be cleaned of all old composite using magnification. Theintaglio of the restoration intern can be delicately sandblasted and re-etchedusing hydrofluoric acid and then cleaned, silanated, and recemented.Air bubble entrapment Air bubbles can become entrapped near the margin of the restoration,which eventually becomes exposed. Food and other debris may be packed
  • 5. PORCELAIN LAMINATE VENEERS 403Fig. 2. Delamination of tooth #24 is caused by poor cementation. Excess resin cement is alsopresent at the cervical margin of tooth #27 and is subgingival on teeth #23 through #25, causingexcessive gingival irritation.into the small space between the restoration and the tooth. Although this isa rare occurrence, the best treatment is first gaining proper access to thisvoid with a pointed diamond and thoroughly removing any food and debrisimpaction. The porcelain can be etched with mild hydrofluoric acid and si-lanated, the tooth can be etched with 37% phosphoric acid, and a new resincement can be introduced with a thin syringe tip or compule. Leaking, old restorations or an uncovered surface of the veneered toothalso may cause generalized discoloration. This possibility should be exam-ined, and if it is found to be the cause of any discoloration, the restorationshould be removed and restored (Figs. 4 and 5). There has been some spec-ulation that dual-cured or chemically cured composite resins used as ce-ments for veneers eventually can discolor over time, with resultant changeof veneer color. Modern porcelain veneer cements are generally packagedas base shades only and are light cured. Some of these cements can beused in conjunction with the appropriate catalyst to be used as dual cements,Fig. 3. It is evident from this debonded restoration that contamination occurred at the interfacebetween the cement and the tooth surface. Almost all of the cement is still attached to theveneer.
  • 6. 404 CALAMIA & CALAMIAFig. 4. Improperly placed laminates are positioned too cervically, which is primarily caused bylittle or no preparation of the teeth and no positive lock into place.but they should have limited use on posterior restorations outside the smileline.Cohesive failure and repair Another rare occurrence is the cohesive failure of either the tooth or theporcelain. In the first instance, the fracture of the underlying tooth is usuallythe result of poor judgment in selection of the tooth to be veneered. Vitalanterior teeth with large existing restorations on the mesial and distal sur-faces might be better served with full-coverage porcelain restorationsbonded to the additional surface area of the crown preparation on dentin.Nonvital anterior teeth that have at least one surface with large existing res-toration and an average-to-large lingual access from root canal therapyshould be considered for post core and full-coverage porcelain crowns(Figs. 6 and 7) [2,3].Fig. 5. Leakage of a restoration on the mesiolingual surface of tooth #10 resulted in a discolor-ation of its mesiofacial surface. Excess cement is also visible at the mesiocervical of tooth #6.Poor axial inclination is also evident on teeth #9, 10, 11.
  • 7. PORCELAIN LAMINATE VENEERS 405Fig. 6. Buccal view of fractured tooth with large access opening for root canal therapy anda large mesiolingual class III restoration. Placement of an esthetic post and full coverage mighthave been a better choice. A more common problem is the cohesive failure of the porcelain itself,which may occur during cementation as a result of a poor-fitting restoration,a resin that is too thick (viscous), or a resin that has gone through some ini-tial setting. The latter can result if the resin is left too long in ambient lightor unit light. Cohesive failure also may occur after cementation as the resultof poorly planned occlusion or traumatic injury. It is important to note thatthese fractures, after cementation, occur almost exclusively within porcelainand rarely extend to the junction of porcelain and cement. In the case of ve-neer fractured at the time of placement, the restoration still may be placedtemporarily because of the usual intimate fit of the pieces. The patient is in-formed of the problem and an appointment is made for removal of the frac-tured veneer and creation of an impression for its final replacement. Thisscenario has occurred twice in the authors’ experience, and in both instancesthe patients did not see any aesthetic difference in the fractured restorationcompared with other restorations. To date, both patients have not elected tohave the fractured restorations replaced. One such case is 12 years old andFig. 7. It is interesting that the resulting fracture occurred totally within the tooth and the bondbetween the veneer and the facial enamel remains intact.
  • 8. 406 CALAMIA & CALAMIAthe other is 8 years old. Since we began using high-strength porcelains, nofurther fractures on placement have been experienced. In the case of restorations that experience cohesive failure after cementa-tion, repair may be attempted depending on the extent of the fracture. Thefollowing steps are suggested to follow for this type of repair. 1. A rubber dam should be applied. Resin block-out materials, similar to those used to protect gingival tissue during bleaching procedures, also can be used if a small area is involved but control of the field is neces- sary. At least cotton roll isolation and high-speed evacuation are warranted. 2. Sandblasting of the area to be etched is suggested, generally with 50-mm aluminum oxide particles. Roughening of the porcelain at the margin with a coarse diamond may suffice. 3. Hydrofluoric acid is applied to the roughened porcelain surface (Fig. 8), which is followed by the placement of phosphoric acid on exposed den- tin and/or enamel. 4. After following the manufacturer’s directions on etch time, one should rinse and dry the surface. 5. A suitable silane coupling agent is applied to the porcelain only (Fig. 9). Premixed silanes generally have a short shelf life and should be used assoon as possible. Silanes that come in two bottles that require mixing aregenerally best. Silanes are transferred to the surface of the porcelain ina chemical vehicle that dissipates on drying. Care should be used to en-sure that the treated surface is dried properly. If the chemical vehicle isstill present (usually indicated by a wet appearance on the surface), itcould act as a separating medium and, rather than boost the bondstrength, cause delamination. It is important to follow manufacturer in-structions exactly [14–16].Fig. 8. Repair of the porcelain restoration is performed conservatively using an adhesive bond-ing protocol. Here the porcelain has been roughened, and hydrofluoric acid was placed to etchporcelain intraorally. Exposed tooth is etched with phosphoric acid.
  • 9. PORCELAIN LAMINATE VENEERS 407Fig. 9. The acids are removed with a water spray and dried. A silane coupling agent is appliedand allowed to dry thoroughly. The properly etched and silanated surface is evident. After the silane has been added and dried, an appropriate unfilled resin ordentin bonding agent may be added to the porcelain/tooth interface and theexcess is blown off the surface to be repaired. This process prevents the pool-ing of unfilled resin, which weakens the repair. This unfilled resin-coveredsurface is then light cured for at least 20 seconds. Finally, a filled hybridor micro-filled composite is placed, appropriately contoured, and cured asthe repair material. It may be finished and polished to provide a smooth sur-face (Fig. 10). In the short-term, it is difficult to delineate where the repairmaterial has been placed, but in the long-term, a new restoration eventuallymay need to be considered.Improper occlusion and its periodontal implications Because most porcelain veneers are fabricated on the facial surface ofmaxillary anterior teeth, occlusion is often not considered critical to the suc-cess of these cases. On the contrary, occlusion is of vital importance, notFig. 10. An unfilled composite resin is applied, air thinned, and cured. This process is followedby application of microhybrid composite resin for an aestheticdyet durabledrepair.
  • 10. 408 CALAMIA & CALAMIAonly in vertical occlusion but also in lateral and protrusive movements. Evena slight lengthening of the maxillary anterior teeth over the incisal edge canhave severe consequences on the unrestored mandibular dentition becauseof the difference in hardness between porcelain and the natural enamel.This difference becomes even more critical in canine and first premolar oc-clusion (Fig. 11). In some isolated cases, the author also has observed un-usual gingival recession patterns in teeth that may have been inadvertentlybrought into increased occlusal stress after lamination. If occlusion is notproperly planned into the final restorations, it likely will result in long-term consequences. All cases should be articulated and checked carefullybefore insertion, and final finishing and polishing should follow occlusalequilibration followed by protective night guard appliances.Discussion The etched porcelain veneer has proved to be one of the most successfulmodalities of treatment that modern dentistry has to offer. Difficulties withthis restoration have been relatively nonexistent over the past 25 years. Theproblems that have arisen seem to involve matters of proper patient selec-tion, attention to details in preparation and final placement, and materialand laboratory selection. The latest resin cements, bonding agents, andhigh-strength ceramics have expanded the etched porcelain technology forinlays, onlays, crowns, and simple bridges (Figs. 12–14). With the advent of new dentin-bonding agents, ceramics that requiredmore room in preparation to allow for processing (ie, pressed ceramics),and failure of many to take advantage of multidisciplinary cases incorpo-rating orthodontics, oral surgery, and endodontics, however, the key con-cept of the preservation of enamel somehow has gone by the wayside orbeen considered less important. This may be a huge mistake. Deeper prep-aration into dentin, a substrate that has a much lower modulus ofFig. 11. Porcelain veneers on facial-incisal teeth #6 and #7 seem to be wearing the facial-incisalof teeth #26 and #27. Restoration of the occluding mandibular teeth should have been consid-ered in this case.
  • 11. PORCELAIN LAMINATE VENEERS 409Fig. 12. In this tetracycline case, the existing composite bonding is removed and the teeth areprepared for porcelain veneers and full-coverage porcelain crowns.Fig. 13. Incisal/occlusal view of seated maxillary restorations. Note the natural arch form andharmony of the definitive restorations.Fig. 14. Postoperative facial view of the definitive all-ceramic veneer and crown restorations.
  • 12. 410 CALAMIA & CALAMIAelasticity than porcelain, has provided a less rigid base or foundation forrestoration placement than enamel. This approach has resulted in reportsof much higher fracture rates than other previous enamel supported resto-rations [17]. This disturbing trend has been further complicated by the useof self-etch bonding agents that may show more long-term degradation ofthe dentinal bond because of water permeations at the adhesive dentin in-terphase [18–22]. Over the past 25 years, the etched porcelain-bonded restoration has dem-onstrated four important criteria, in the opinion of the authors, in determin-ing the ultimate success of this dental restorative system: (1) adequatestrength, hardness, and resistance to abrasion of porcelain exo-skin, whichprotects the resin adhesive undercoating, (2) biocompatibility withdbut re-sistance todthe oral environment of the total restoration, (3) ability to beformed into the necessary shapes and colors while retaining the tooth’snatural translucency, and (4) values for thermal conductivity and coefficientof thermal expansion, similar to that of tooth structure, allowing long-termadhesion of the restoration while still providing the feel of natural toothsurface. These important characteristics must place porcelain laminate veneersamong the most successful restorations that dentistry provides. This modal-ity of treatment has been part of the curriculum in only a few dental schoolsin North America, which has given rise to many privately owned institutesbeing happy to fill this gap in modern education and providing what theyconsider the proper techniques and philosophy of treatment using this res-toration. It is our hope that all dental schools in North America will seevalue in providing the proper training to their students. The following case handled at New York University College of Dentistryby a fourth-year student incorporated 20 all-porcelain restorations. The re-sult was a revitalized smile of a young female executive (Figs. 15–18). Fig. 15. Unattractive smile with leaking restoration and yellow teeth.
  • 13. PORCELAIN LAMINATE VENEERS 411 Fig. 16. Right lateral view. Fig. 17. Direct frontal view.Fig. 18. Left lateral view. Poor crown margin.
  • 14. 412 CALAMIA & CALAMIA Fig. 19. Maxillary incisal/occlusal view. Based on radiographs and an intraoral examination, it was clear that thepatient is at high risk for caries. All premolars had existing amalgam orcomposite restorations. All incisors had large mesial and distal restorations.Some of these restorations contained open margins. The patient’s maincomplaint was that she would like all her teeth to be the same shade andnot cracked. She did feel that her teeth appeared too small (Figs. 19–21).After exploring all possibilities, a treatment plan was decided on and agreedto by the patient: 1) The premolar restorations would be restored with composite. 2) Tooth #10 had an existing porcelain fused to metal crown that, with time, had caused gingival recession. It would be replaced with an all por- celain crown. 3) Teeth #4–6, 11–13, 20–22, 27–29 would be restored with a feldspathic porcelain (soft spar veneers). 4) Teeth #7–10 and 23–26 would be restored with (soft spare) porcelain crowns to provide full coverage to incisors with large restorations of endodontically treated teeth (Figs. 22–30). Fig. 20. Mandibular incisal/occlusal view.
  • 15. PORCELAIN LAMINATE VENEERS 413Fig. 21. NYU student prepares teeth while another student assists. In this way, two studentscan share the knowledge of one large case. Fig. 22. Prepared maxillary teeth. Fig. 23. Finished restorations on working cast, direct facial view.
  • 16. 414 CALAMIA & CALAMIA Fig. 24. Finished restorations on working cast, palatal view. Fig. 25. Finished maxillary restorations, palatal view. Fig. 26. Finished mandibular restorations, incisal view.
  • 17. PORCELAIN LAMINATE VENEERS 415Fig. 27. Finished restorations, left lateral view. Fig. 28. Finished restorations, direct view.Fig. 29. Finished restorations, left lateral view.
  • 18. 416 CALAMIA & CALAMIA Fig. 30. Improved smile. All prepared teeth were etched with a 35% phosphoric acid, and primeand bond bonding agent was applied. Softspar crowns and veneers weretreated with silane and cemented to teeth with Vario-link transparent baseresin cement. Pogo polishing cones were used to polish the final restorations.Summary Etched porcelain veneer technology has demonstrated long-term clinicalsuccess. It has proved to be one of the most successful modalities of treat-ment that modern dentistry has to offer. The relatively few difficulties thathave been encountered may be circumvented or eliminated if the practi-tioner pays close attention to detail. Development of new products and ma-terials is expected to bring longer term success. Modern-day restorationsoffer great promise for the expanded use of the etched porcelain/resin-bonded system for inlays, onlays, crowns, and simple bridges if the abilityof bonding to dentin is respected and further researched. Evidence basedprincipals need to determined and followed, like what has been done withporcelain veneer bonding to enamel.References[1] Calamia, John R. Etched porcelain facial veneers: a new treatment modality. N Y J Dent Sept 1983;53:255–9.[2] Horn H. A new lamination, porcelain bonded to enamel. N Y State Dent J 1983;49(6):401–3.[3] Nathanson D, Strassler HE. Clinical evaluation of etched porcelain veneers over a period of 18 to 42 months. J Esthet Dent 1984;1(1):21–8.[4] Calamia JR. Clinical evaluation of etched porcelain veneers. Am J Dent Feb 1989;2(1).[5] Strassler HS, Weiner S. Long-term clinical evaluation of etched porcelain veneers [abstract 1017]. J Dent Res (special issue) 1998;233.
  • 19. PORCELAIN LAMINATE VENEERS 417 [6] Friedman MJ. A 15 year review of porcelain veneer failureda clinician’s observations. Com- pend Contin Educ Dent 1998;19:625–36. [7] Strassler HE, Calamia JR, Scherer W. An update on carbamide peroxide at home bleaching agents. N Y State Dent J April 1992;30–5. [8] Calamia JR. Etched porcelain veneers: the current state of the art [abstract 1154]. Quintes- sence Int 1985;16(1):5–12. [9] Noie F, O’Keefe KL, Powers JM. Color stability of resin cements after accelerated aging. Int J Prosthodont 1995;8(1):51–5.[10] Hekimoglu C, Anil N, Etikan I. Effect of accelerated aging on the color stability of cemented laminate veneers. Int J Prosthodont 2000;13(1):29–33.[11] Nathanson D, Bansar F. Color stability of resin cements- an in vivo study. Pract Proced Aes- thet Dent 2002;14(6):449–55.[12] Simonsen RJ, Calamia JR. Tensile bond strengths of etched porcelain [abstract 1154]. J Dent Res 1983;62:297.[13] Calamia JR, Simonsen RJ. Effect of coupling agents on bond strength of etched porcelain [abstract 79]. J Dent Res March 1984;63:179.[14] Plueddemann EP. Adhesion through silane coupling agents. Fundamentals of Adhesion. New York: Plenum press; 1991. p. 279–90.[15] Soderholm KJ, Shanq SW. Molecular orientation of silane at the surface of colloidal silica. J Dent Res 1993;72(6):1050–4.[16] Antonucci JM, Dickens SH, Fowler BO, et al. Chemistry of silanes: interfaces in dental poly- mers and composites. J Res Natl Inst Stand Technol 2005;110(5):541–58.[17] Friedman MJ. Porcelain veneer restorations: a clinician’s opinion about a disturbing trend. J Esthet Restor Dent 2001;13(5):318–27.[18] Van Meerbeek B, Peumans M, Gladys S, et al. Three-year clinical effectiveness of four total- etch dentinal adhesive systems in cervical lesions. Quintessence Int 1996;27:775–84.[19] Van Meerbeek B, Perdigao J, Lambrechts P, et al. The clinical performance of adhesives. J Dent 1998;26:1–20.[20] Magne P, Douglas WH. Porcelain veneers: dentin bonding optimization and biomimetic recovery of the crown. Int J Prosthodont 1999;12:111–21.[21] Swift JR, Friedman MJ. Critical appraisal: porcelain veneer outcomes, part II. J Esthet Restor Dent 2006;18(2):110–3.[22] Peumans M, Kanumilli P, De Munck J, et al. Clinical effectiveness of contemporary adhe- sives: a systematic review of current clinical trials. Dent Mater 2005;21(9):864–81.

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