PRESIDENTIAL POLICY DIRECTIVE/PPD-8 REFRESH
WORKING DRAFT—NATIONAL RECOVERY FRAMEWORK
NATIONAL ENGAGEMENT
MAY 11, 2015
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Presidential Policy Directive PPD-8 National Recovery Framework National Engagement May 2015
Presidential Policy Directive PPD-8 National Recovery Framework National Engagement May 2015
Presidential Policy Directive PPD-8 National Recovery Framework National Engagement May 2015
Presidential Policy Directive PPD-8 National Recovery Framework National Engagement May 2015
Presidential Policy Directive PPD-8 National Recovery Framework National Engagement May 2015
Presidential Policy Directive PPD-8 National Recovery Framework National Engagement May 2015
Presidential Policy Directive PPD-8 National Recovery Framework National Engagement May 2015
Presidential Policy Directive PPD-8 National Recovery Framework National Engagement May 2015
Presidential Policy Directive PPD-8 National Recovery Framework National Engagement May 2015
Presidential Policy Directive PPD-8 National Recovery Framework National Engagement May 2015
Presidential Policy Directive PPD-8 National Recovery Framework National Engagement May 2015
Presidential Policy Directive PPD-8 National Recovery Framework National Engagement May 2015
Presidential Policy Directive PPD-8 National Recovery Framework National Engagement May 2015
Presidential Policy Directive PPD-8 National Recovery Framework National Engagement May 2015
Presidential Policy Directive PPD-8 National Recovery Framework National Engagement May 2015
Presidential Policy Directive PPD-8 National Recovery Framework National Engagement May 2015
Presidential Policy Directive PPD-8 National Recovery Framework National Engagement May 2015
Presidential Policy Directive PPD-8 National Recovery Framework National Engagement May 2015
Presidential Policy Directive PPD-8 National Recovery Framework National Engagement May 2015
Presidential Policy Directive PPD-8 National Recovery Framework National Engagement May 2015
Presidential Policy Directive PPD-8 National Recovery Framework National Engagement May 2015
Presidential Policy Directive PPD-8 National Recovery Framework National Engagement May 2015
Presidential Policy Directive PPD-8 National Recovery Framework National Engagement May 2015
Presidential Policy Directive PPD-8 National Recovery Framework National Engagement May 2015
Presidential Policy Directive PPD-8 National Recovery Framework National Engagement May 2015
Presidential Policy Directive PPD-8 National Recovery Framework National Engagement May 2015
Presidential Policy Directive PPD-8 National Recovery Framework National Engagement May 2015
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Presidential Policy Directive PPD-8 National Recovery Framework National Engagement May 2015

Presidential Policy Directive PPD-8 National Recovery Framework National Engagement May 2015
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Presidential Policy Directive PPD-8 National Recovery Framework National Engagement May 2015

  • 1. PRESIDENTIAL POLICY DIRECTIVE/PPD-8 REFRESH WORKING DRAFT—NATIONAL RECOVERY FRAMEWORK NATIONAL ENGAGEMENT MAY 11, 2015 Attached for your review is the working draft of the National Recovery Framework, second edition. The National Disaster Recovery Framework (NDRF) establishes a common platform and forum for how the whole community builds, sustains and coordinates delivery of recovery capabilities. The structures, roles and responsibilities described in this Framework can be partially or fully implemented in the context of a threat or hazard, in anticipation of a significant event or following a disaster. Selective implementation of the NDRF allows for a scalable and deliberate delivery of specific resources and capabilities, and a level of coordination appropriate for each incident. Building on a wealth of objective and evidence-based knowledge and community experience, this Framework seeks to increase awareness of recovery capabilities across the whole community. As part of the National Planning Frameworks National Engagement Period, this draft of the NDRF containing proposed updates is being widely distributed for review and feedback. This is a draft document and we feel it is important to seek your input at this critical juncture. This update of the National Planning Frameworks focuses on discrete, critical content revisions, and confirming edits as a result of comments received on the National Preparedness Goal. Additional changes are the result of the lessons learned from implementing the Frameworks and recent events, as well as the findings of the National Preparedness Report. To ensure all feedback is properly handled, reviewers are asked to use the provided feedback submission located at https://www.fema.gov/learn-about-presidential-policy-directive-8 to submit feedback and recommendations. Please provide any comments and recommendations, using the submission form, to PPD8-Engagement@fema.dhs.gov by Wednesday, June 3, 2015 at 5:00 PM EDT. The feedback received supports the development of the second edition of the NDRF. Please distribute the draft to any applicable partners, stakeholder, or individuals. In the coming months, the FIOPs will also be refreshed to reflect the changes to the National Planning Frameworks. We look forward to receiving your feedback and thank you for your continued contributions on this important endeavor. V/R, National Integration Center
  • 2. National Disaster Recovery FrameworkPPD8-ENGAGEMENT@FEMA.DHS.GOV 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Executive Summary The National Disaster Recovery Framework (NDRF) establishes a common platform and forum for how the whole community builds, sustains and coordinates delivery of recovery capabilities. This Framework is always in effect, and elements can be implemented at any time. The structures, roles and responsibilities described in this Framework can be partially or fully implemented in the context of a threat or hazard, in anticipation of a significant event or following a disaster. Selective implementation of the NDRF allows for a scalable and deliberate delivery of specific resources and capabilities, and a level of coordination appropriate for each incident. Building on a wealth of objective and evidence-based knowledge and community experience, this Framework seeks to increase awareness of recovery capabilities across the whole community. Recovery encompasses more than the restoration of a community’s physical structures to its pre- disaster conditions. This Framework addresses how the nation will provide a continuum of services and resources to meet the needs of the affected community members who have experienced the hardships of financial, emotional and/or physical impacts as well as positioning the community to meet the needs of the future. The ability of a community to accelerate the recovery process begins with its efforts in pre-disaster preparedness; to include coordinating whole community partners, mitigating risks, incorporating continuity planning, identifying resources and developing capacity to effectively manage disaster recovery through collaborative and inclusive planning processes. Collaboration across the whole community provides an opportunity to integrate mitigation, resilience and sustainability into the community’s short- and long-term recovery goals. The NDRF defines eight Recovery core capabilities; to include Planning; Public Information and Warning; Operational Coordination; Economic Recovery; Health and Social Services; Housing, Infrastructure Systems; and Natural and Cultural Resources. This Framework also describes eight principles used to guide the execution of the core capabilities and mission area activities; to include Individual and Family Empowerment; Leadership and Local Primacy; Pre-Disaster Planning; Engaged Partnerships and Inclusiveness; Unity of Effort; Timeliness and Flexibility; Resilience and Sustainability; and Psychological and Emotional Recovery. The NDRF focuses on ensuring that the nation is able to achieve disaster recovery following any disaster regardless of size or scale, and considers the full spectrum of threats and hazards, including natural, technological/accidental, biological and adversarial/human-caused. The NDRF helps ensure that all communities can coordinate recovery efforts to address their unique needs, capabilities, demographics and governing structures. It encourages an inclusive recovery process, engaging traditional and non-traditional whole community partners, and provides a strategic and national approach to lead, manage and coordinate disaster recovery efforts while increasing the resilience of our communities. PRE-DECISIONAL DRAFT NATIONAL ENGAGEMENT DRAFT i
  • 3. PPD8-ENGAGEMENT@FEMA.DHS.GOVNational Disaster Recovery Framework 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 ............................................................................................................................. ....................................................................................... ......................................................................................................... ......................................................................................... ................................................................................................................ Table of Contents Executive Summary ....................................................................................................... i Introduction ................................................................................................................... 1 Framework Purpose and Organization .................................................................................1 Evolution of the National Disaster Recovery Framework ................................................... Intended Audience ................................................................................................................... 3 4 Scope 4 Recovery Continuum...............................................................................................................4 Guiding Principles ...................................................................................................................5 Risk-Basis..................................................................................................................................8 Roles and Responsibilities........................................................................................... 9 Ensuring Inclusion of Whole Community .............................................................................9 Individuals, Families, and Households ................................................................................10 Non-Governmental Organizations 11 Private Sector Entities ...........................................................................................................13 Local Governments................................................................................................................14 State, Tribal, Territorial and Insular Area Governments .................................................16 Federal Government..............................................................................................................19 Core Capabilities 23 Planning ..................................................................................................................................25 Public Information and Warning 26 Operational Coordination.....................................................................................................27 Economic Recovery 28 Health and Social Services ....................................................................................................29 Housing ...................................................................................................................................29 Infrastructure Systems ..........................................................................................................30 Natural and Cultural Resources...........................................................................................31 ii PRE-DECISIONAL DRAFT NATIONAL ENGAGEMENT DRAFT
  • 4. PPD8-ENGAGEMENT@FEMA.DHS.GOV National Disaster Recovery Framework ......................................................................... 41 ............................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................ 43 ............................................................................................... ................................................................................................................... 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 Coordinating Structures and Integration .................................................................. 32 Non-governmental Organizations Coordinating Structures .............................................32 Local Coordinating Structures.............................................................................................34 State/Territorial Coordinating Structures ..........................................................................34 Tribal Coordinating Structures............................................................................................34 Federal Coordinating Structures..........................................................................................35 Integration ..............................................................................................................................41 Relationship to Other Mission Areas74 Prevention 4275 Protection 4276 Mitigation................................................................................................................................4277 Response..................................................................................................................................4278 Operational Planning ..................................................................................................79 Planning Assumptions ...........................................................................................................4380 Planning Activities .................................................................................................................4381 Framework Application 4782 Achieving Disaster Recovery ................................................................................................4783 Measuring Recovery Progress ..............................................................................................4984 Supporting Resources................................................................................................ 5085 Conclusion 5086 87 PRE-DECISIONAL DRAFT NATIONAL ENGAGEMENT DRAFT iii
  • 5. PPD8-ENGAGEMENT@FEMA.DHS.GOV National Disaster Recovery Framework 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 The Federal Government recognizes that the tribal right of self-government flows from the inherent sovereignty of American Indian and Alaska Native Tribes as nations and that federally recognized tribes have a unique and direct relationship with the Federal Government. Introduction The National Preparedness System outlines an organized process for the whole community to move forward with their preparedness activities and achieve the National Preparedness Goal. The National Preparedness System integrates efforts across the five preparedness mission areas – Prevention, Protection, Mitigation, Response, and Recovery – in order to achieve the goal of a secure and resilient Nation. The National Disaster Recovery Framework, part of the National Preparedness System, outlines the strategy and doctrine for how the whole community1 builds, sustains, and coordinates delivery of Recovery core capabilities identified in the National Preparedness Goal in an integrated manner with the other mission areas. Preparing for and achieving disaster recovery is the shared responsibility of our entire nation. All levels of government, including local, state, tribal2 , territorial, insular areas and Federal, the private sector and non-governmental and community organizations play vital role in strengthening our nation’s recovery capabilities. This second edition of the National Disaster Recovery Framework reflects the insights and lessons learned from real- world incidents and the implementation of the National Preparedness System. It considers the full spectrum of threats and hazards, including natural, technological/accidental, biological and adversarial/human-caused. Framework Purpose and Organization The National Disaster Recovery Framework (NDRF) describes principles, processes and capabilities essential for all communities to more effectively manage and enable recovery following a disaster of any size or scale. This Framework defines how emergency managers, community development professionals, disaster recovery practitioners, government agencies, private sector and non- governmental organization leaders will collaborate and coordinate to more effectively utilize existing resources to promote resilience and support the recovery of those affected by a disaster. The 1 Whole Community includes: all individuals including people with disabilities and others with access and functional needs, families, households, communities, the private and nonprofit sectors, faith-based organizations, and local, state, tribal, territorial and Federal governments. Whole community is defined in the National Preparedness Goal as “a focus on enabling the participation in national preparedness activities of a wider range of players from the private and nonprofit sectors, including nongovernmental organizations and the general public, in conjunction with the participation of all levels of government in order to foster better coordination and working relationships.” The National Preparedness Goal may be found online at http://www.fema.gov/ppd8. 2 PRE-DECISIONAL DRAFT NATIONAL ENGAGEMENT DRAFT 1 Prevention: The capabilities necessary to avoid, prevent, or stop a threatened or actual act of terrorism. Within national preparedness, the term “prevention” refers to preventing imminent threats. Protection: The capabilities necessary to secure the homeland against acts of terrorism and man-made or natural disasters. Mitigation: The capabilities necessary to reduce loss of life and property by lessening the impact of disasters. Response: The capabilities necessary to save lives, protect property and the environment, and meet basic human needs after an incident has occurred. Recovery: The capabilities necessary to assist communities affected by an incident to recover effectively.
  • 6. National Disaster Recovery Framework PPD8-ENGAGEMENT@FEMA.DHS.GOV 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 National Preparedness Goal defines resilience as “the ability to adapt to changing conditions and withstand and rapidly recover from disruption due to emergencies.” The NDRF advances the concept that recovery encompasses more than the restoration of a community’s physical structures to its pre-disaster conditions. Of equal importance is providing a continuum of services and resources to meet the needs of the affected community members who have experienced the hardships of financial, emotional and/or physical impacts as well as positioning the community to meet the needs of the future. In addition, the resilience and sustainability of the entire community will be enhanced by strengthening its health (including behavioral health) and human services capabilities and networks, public and private disability support and service systems, social fabric, educational system, cultural resources and economic vitality. This Framework identifies scalable, flexible and adaptable coordinating platforms that align key roles and responsibilities across the whole community and depicts a process in which the impacted community fully engages and considers the needs of all its members. A key element of the process is that the impacted community assumes leadership in developing recovery priorities and activities that are realistic, well-planned and clearly communicated. The ability of a community to accelerate the recovery process begins with its efforts in pre-disaster preparedness; to include coordinating whole community partners, mitigating risks, incorporating continuity planning, identifying resources, and developing capacity to effectively manage disaster recovery and through collaborative and inclusive planning processes. These efforts result in a more resilient community with an improved ability to withstand, respond to and recover from disasters. This Framework provides guidance to recovery leaders and stakeholders by:  Identifying guiding principles;  Outlining pre- and post-disaster roles and responsibilities for recovery stakeholders and recommending leadership roles across all levels of government;  Describing how the whole community will build, sustain and coordinate the delivery of the Recovery core capabilities;  Explaining the relationship between Recovery and the other mission areas—Prevention, Protection, Mitigation, and Response;  Promoting inclusive and equitable coordination, planning and information sharing processes;  Encouraging the whole community to leverage opportunities to build resilience and incorporate climate adaptation and mitigation measures pre- and post-disaster, such as continuity planning and land use and environmental regulations;  Identifying scalable and adaptable coordination structures;  Describing key factors, activities and considerations for pre- and post-disaster recovery planning; and  Ensuring recovery resources are sourced from a wide range of whole community partners, including individuals, and voluntary, nonprofit, philanthropic, private sector and governmental agencies and organizations. Following any incident regardless of size or scale, impacted communities will have recovery needs and require access to resources that necessitate an effective recovery management and coordination process. The NDRF is always in effect and elements can be implemented at any time. The majority 2 PRE-DECISIONAL DRAFT NATIONAL ENGAGEMENT DRAFT
  • 7. PPD8-ENGAGEMENT@FEMA.DHS.GOV National Disaster Recovery Framework 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 197 198 199 200 201 202 Nothing in this Framework is intended to alter or impede the ability of any local, state, tribal, territorial, insular area or Federal government department or agency to carry out its authorities or meet its responsibilities under applicable laws, executive orders, and directives. The NDRF’s structures and procedures apply to incidents where Federal support to local, state, tribal, territorial and insular area governments is coordinated under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (Stafford Act), as well as incidents where Federal departments and agencies exercise other authorities and responsibilities. After the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, for example, Federal response was managed pursuant to the Oil Pollution Act. Other statutes such as the Homeland Security Act, Small Business Act, the Farm Bill and the Public Health Service Act authorize substantive Federal assistance in response to certain types of incidents. The costs of direct Federal recovery support will continue to be borne by agencies using appropriations made for such purposes, except for those expenses authorized for reimbursement under the Stafford Act or as otherwise provided by law. When recovery plans extend over long periods of time, steady state programs may shift focus to support recovery efforts. Evolution of the National Disaster Recovery Framework In 2009, more than six hundred recovery stakeholders representing local, state, tribal and Federal governments, as well as public and private sector organizations from across the nation were brought together to help inform the development of a recovery framework. The guiding principles and key elements of leadership, coordination and pre-disaster planning identified through the national stakeholder process formed the foundation of the National Disaster Recovery Framework published in 2011. The core principles and key concepts remain relevant and continue to guide pre- and post-disaster recovery at all levels of government. Many states and local governments have implemented these principles in developing pre-disaster recovery plans and incorporated exemplary coordination mechanisms following a wide range of disasters.3 At the Federal level, leadership and coordination structures have been formalized and exercised in multiple major disasters, including the 2012 drought, Santa Clara Pueblo recovery effort and Hurricane Sandy. of incidents are managed by local, state, tribal and territorial governments without assistance from the Federal government. The guiding principles and whole community roles, responsibilities, resources and coordination mechanisms outlined in this Framework are equally valid for incidents that do not receive additional assistance. This Framework highlights types of recovery resources (information for decision-making, technical assistance, subject matter expertise, labor and equipment, as well as coordination and funding mechanisms); and the whole community partners in which they are sourced, to include insurance companies, non-governmental organizations such as voluntary, faith-based, nonprofit and philanthropic organizations, and government departments and agencies. Along with the National Planning Frameworks for other mission areas, this document expands on the integration and inter-relationships among the other mission areas of Prevention, Protection, Mitigation and Response. It incorporates lessons learned and best practices from real-world incidents and national level exercises.4 This Framework provides a more strategic and national 3 Case studies can be found in the guidance document Effective Coordination of Recovery Resources for State, Tribal, Territorial and Local Incidents at https://www.fema.gov/media-library/assets/documents/101940. 4 Lessons learned, innovative practices, after-action reports, plans, templates, guides and other materials can be found on Naval Postgraduate School’s Homeland Security Digital Library at HSDL.org and on FEMA.gov. PRE-DECISIONAL DRAFT NATIONAL ENGAGEMENT DRAFT 3
  • 8. National Disaster Recovery Framework PPD8-ENGAGEMENT@FEMA.DHS.GOV 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 perspective to enable coordination, information sharing and increase resilience across the whole community regardless of the threat or hazard. Intended Audience The NDRF is intended for a broad audience, including individuals and households, local, state, tribal and territorial officials and leadership, Federal departments and agencies, and private and nonprofit sector organizations. This includes children, individuals with disabilities and others with access and functional needs5 , those from religious, racial and ethnically diverse backgrounds, and people with limited English proficiency. Their contributions must be integrated into national preparedness efforts, and their needs must be incorporated in the planning process and as the core capabilities are executed.” The NDRF provides a framework under which these various individuals and groups can work together and coordinate resources to support those impacted by a disaster, because a successful recovery requires the active engagement of the whole community. Disaster recovery practitioners, in particular, will find guidance on Recovery core capabilities and critical recovery functions such as disaster recovery leadership, organizational and coordination structures, key recovery partners, applicable resources and inclusive public engagement and communication strategies. For stakeholders involved in Mitigation, Prevention, Protection and Response mission areas, the NDRF identifies the objectives, principles, practices and stakeholders that lead, manage and guide disaster recovery. Educating a broad audience on pre- and post-disaster recovery principles, processes and capabilities will increase resilience and further enhance integration and coordination across mission areas and the whole community. Scope The Recovery mission area defines the capabilities necessary to assist communities affected by an incident in rebuilding infrastructure systems, providing adequate, accessible interim and long-term housing that meets the needs of all survivors, revitalizing health systems (including behavioral health) and social and community services, promoting economic development and restoring natural and cultural resources. Recovery Continuum The recovery process is best described as a sequence of interdependent and often concurrent activities that progressively advance a community toward recovery progress. Decisions made and priorities set by a community early in the recovery process will have a cascading effect on the nature, speed and inclusiveness of recovery. Figure 1: Recovery Continuum depicts the levels of effort and interface between different types of recovery activities over the short, intermediate and long-term. The Recovery Continuum highlights the reality that for a community struck by a disaster, response and recovery are not and cannot be two separate and sequential efforts, where recovery can occur only after response is concluded. Response activities influence intermediate and long-term recovery activities, necessitating early integration of recovery considerations into response operations. Especially after a major disaster with widespread, severe and long-term negative impact, a community must quickly begin its recovery planning and coordination efforts, made resilient through continuity planning and operations, to avoid prolonging or producing more extensive, deeper and 5 Access and functional needs includes ensuring the equal access and meaningful participation of all individuals, without discrimination. 4 PRE-DECISIONAL DRAFT NATIONAL ENGAGEMENT DRAFT
  • 9. PPD8-ENGAGEMENT@FEMA.DHS.GOV National Disaster Recovery Framework 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 longer term losses. An example is a major employer deciding to relocate rather than rebuild because it perceives that destroyed housing, roads, retail and basic government services are not being restored and rebuilt timely and adequately. The challenge facing the affected community will be to implement its recovery effort while also having to manage its unfinished response and relief work. As response, short-term and intermediate recovery activities begin to wind down, long-term recovery needs gradually take on a more critical role. The community will also have to maintain its preparedness efforts and seek opportunities to update and incorporate mitigation efforts into its recovery priorities. Guiding Principles The NDRF identifies eight principles that are used to guide the execution of the Recovery core capabilities and mission area activities; to include Individual and Family Empowerment; Leadership and Local Primacy; Pre-Disaster Planning; Engaged Partnerships and Inclusiveness; Unity of Effort; Timeliness and Flexibility; Resilience and Sustainability; and Psychological and Emotional Recovery. When put into practice, these eight principles maximize the opportunity for achieving recovery success. Individual and Family Empowerment A successful recovery is about the ability of individuals and families to rebound from their losses in a manner that sustains their physical, emotional, social and economic well-being and all community members must have equal opportunity to participate in community recovery efforts in a meaningful way. Care must be taken to assure that actions, both intentional and unintentional, do not exclude groups of people based on race, color, ethnicity, national origin (including limited English proficiency), religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, age or disability. Care must also be taken to identify and eliminate social and institutional barriers that hinder or preclude individuals PRE-DECISIONAL DRAFT NATIONAL ENGAGEMENT DRAFT 5 Figure 1: Recovery Continuum
  • 10. National Disaster Recovery Framework PPD8-ENGAGEMENT@FEMA.DHS.GOV 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 Successful recovery requires informed and coordinated leadership throughout all levels of government, sectors of society and phases of the recovery process. It recognizes that local, state, tribal and territorial governments have primary responsibility for the recovery of their communities and play the lead role in planning for and managing all aspects of community recovery. This is a basic, underlying principle that should not be overlooked by state, Federal and other disaster recovery managers. States act in support of their communities, evaluate their capabilities and provide a means of support for overwhelmed local governments. The Federal government is a partner and facilitator in recovery, prepared to quickly enhance its role when the disaster impacts relate to areas where Federal jurisdiction is primary or affects national security. While acknowledging the primary role of local, state, tribal and territorial governments, the Federal government is prepared to provide support following a major disaster or catastrophic incident. Pre-Disaster Recovery Planning The speed and success of recovery can be greatly enhanced if the processes and structures for post- disaster recovery coordination are established during pre-disaster planning processes. All stakeholders, including other mission area partners such as Response and Mitigation, need to be involved to ensure a coordinated and comprehensive planning process6 , and to develop relationships that increase post-disaster collaboration and unified decision-making. Discussion and collaboration will also facilitate the development of a common definition of success. Pre-disaster recovery planning will help communities take actions that significantly reduce disaster impacts through disaster resilient building practices. In addition, all partners involved will work together to build and develop their collective capacity and capability to lead, plan and manage their recovery and increase their overall resilience. Encouraging innovative pre-disaster planning practices can lead to generating tools and resources that will serve to support and sustain disaster mitigation and recovery efforts. Engaged Partnerships and Inclusiveness Effective partnerships rely on an inclusive recovery management and coordination process that engages all elements of the whole community. Those who lead recovery efforts must communicate and support engagement with the whole community by developing shared goals and aligning capabilities to reduce the risk of any jurisdiction being overwhelmed in times of crisis. Layered, mutually supporting capabilities of individuals, communities, the private sector, non-governmental organizations, and governments at all levels allow for coordinated management and planning. Partnerships and collaboration across groups, sectors, and governments can assist impacted communities in evaluating current and anticipated recovery needs and understanding how to access all available resources beyond traditional recovery programs. Engaged partnership and coalition with disabilities and others in the community historically subjected to unequal treatment from full and equal enjoyment of the programs, goods, services, activities, facilities, privileges, advantages, and accommodations provided. It is vital that all individuals, including owners and their animals (household pets, service and assistance animals) are provided with the tools to access and use a continuum of community support and resources that addresses both the physical losses sustained and the psychological and emotional trauma experienced. Leadership and Local Primacy 6 Recovery specific planning guidance for local, state, tribal and territorial governments is under development. It will be posted on https://www.fema.gov when published. 6 PRE-DECISIONAL DRAFT NATIONAL ENGAGEMENT DRAFT
  • 11. PPD8-ENGAGEMENT@FEMA.DHS.GOV National Disaster Recovery Framework 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 Unity of Effort A successful recovery, as defined by the impacted community, requires a unified coordinated effort. Recovery experiences have consistently pointed to examples of increased coordination efforts as central to an effective recovery. Coordination following any incident will allow recovery leaders to identify needs and priorities more effectively, reallocate existing resources, engage traditional and non-traditional whole community partners and identify other assistance. Since most incidents are managed at the local, state, tribal, or territorial level, the incorporation of a coordinated effort is critical. A unity of effort respects the authority and expertise of each participating organization while coordinating support of common recovery priorities and objectives built upon consensus and a transparent and inclusive planning process. Timeliness and Flexibility A successful recovery process upholds the value of timeliness and flexibility in coordinating and efficiently conducting recovery activities and delivering assistance. It also minimizes delays and loss of opportunities. The process strategically sequences recovery decisions and promotes coordination across mission areas, addresses potential conflicts, builds confidence and ownership of the recovery process among all stakeholders, and ensures recovery plans, programs, policies and practices are adaptable to meet unforeseen, unmet and evolving recovery needs. Resilience and Sustainability Recovery offers a unique opportunity to reduce future risk and contribute to sustainable community rebuilding. A successful recovery process engages in a rigorous assessment and understanding of community risks that might endanger or pose additional recovery challenges. Resilience is the ability of systems, infrastructures, government, business, communities and individuals to resist, tolerate, absorb, recover from, prepare for or adapt to an adverse occurrence that causes harm, destruction or loss. The Mitigation, Recovery, and Protection mission areas focus on the same community systems to increase resilience. The National Infrastructure Protection Plan provides a risk management framework to enhance the resilience and protection of critical infrastructure against the effects of building includes ongoing clear, consistent, effective7 , accessible, and culturally appropriate communication and information sharing throughout the short, intermediate and long-term recovery. Engaged partnerships are vital for ensuring that all voices are heard from all parties involved in disaster recovery and that all available resources are brought to the table. This is especially critical at the community level where non-governmental partners in the private and nonprofit sectors play a critical role in meeting local needs. Inclusiveness in the recovery process includes individuals with disabilities and others with access and functional needs, advocates of children, older adults and members of underserved communities. Engaged leadership relies on participation and involvement of all people in the whole community and ensures every community emergency management process includes people with disabilities across all committees, projects and public gatherings. Involving people with disabilities in preparedness sets the stage and frame of mind to involve them in response, recovery and mitigation. Sensitivity and respect for social and cultural diversity must be maintained at all times. Compliance with equal opportunity and civil rights laws must also be upheld. 7 Information, warning, and communications associated with emergency management must ensure actionable, accessible and effective communication, such as American (or other) Sign Language interpreters, captioning, alternative formats, computer assisted real time translation and other services . PRE-DECISIONAL DRAFT NATIONAL ENGAGEMENT DRAFT 7
  • 12. National Disaster Recovery Framework PPD8-ENGAGEMENT@FEMA.DHS.GOV 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 future disasters. Cross-mission area integration activities, such as planning, are essential to ensuring that risk avoidance and risk reduction actions are taken during the recovery process. Following any incident, recovery efforts can be leveraged to implement solutions that will increase community resilience in the economic, housing, natural and cultural resources, infrastructure, and health (including behavioral health) and social services and government sectors. The process of pre-disaster planning can help build capacity and increase resilience by taking a deliberate look at physical, continuity of operations, environmental, and societal risks and opportunities prior to a disaster. Well planned, inclusive, coordinated and executed solutions can build capacity and capability, and enable a community to better manage future incidents. Psychological and Emotional Recovery A successful recovery process addresses the full range of psychological and emotional needs of the community as it recovers from the disaster through the provision of information, educational resources, support, counseling, screening and treatment when needed. These needs range from helping individuals and families to identify communities of support, to manage stress associated with the disaster’s impact and recovery challenges, to the harm that stems from substance, physical and emotional abuses resulting from or exacerbated by the disaster. Risk-Basis The risks faced by a community can directly impact and limit those responsible for delivering core capabilities. The whole community must maintain the ability to conduct mission essential functions during an actual hazard or incident to ensure delivery of core capabilities for all mission areas. Risk identification, prevention, and mitigation must be included as an integral part of the whole community’s pre-disaster recovery preparedness initiative and, when applicable an essential part of its post-disaster recovery plan. To further national preparedness, this Framework encourages all communities to rigorously and regularly assess risks that may impact them. Risk assessments will identify each possible risk’s probability or frequency of occurrence, determine hazard-prone areas, and susceptible assets within a community. An assessment will also estimate a risk’s potential impact in terms of scope and severity upon life, property, built and natural environments, essential services, critical infrastructures, and economic systems. Each community can then prioritize and invest in disaster risk reduction measures that can build capabilities to prevent, protect, mitigate, and respond to risks and impacts that most likely and severely affect it. Such investment reduces the time, effort, and cost required for any post-disaster recovery. The Strategic National Risk Assessment identifies the threats and hazards that pose the greatest risk to our nation; those include:  Natural hazards including hurricanes, earthquakes, tornadoes, drought, wildfires, winter storms and floods which present a significant and varied risk across the country. Climate change has the potential to cause the consequence of weather-related hazards to become more severe;  Virulent strains of pandemic influenza and other infectious diseases which can threaten millions of Americans and cause considerable economic losses;  Technological and accidental hazards, such as transportation system failures, dam failures or oil or chemical substance spills, which can cause extensive fatalities and severe economic 8 PRE-DECISIONAL DRAFT NATIONAL ENGAGEMENT DRAFT
  • 13. PPD8-ENGAGEMENT@FEMA.DHS.GOV National Disaster Recovery Framework 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 impacts;  Terrorist organizations or affiliates that seek to acquire, build, and use weapons of mass destruction, and conventional terrorist attacks that may be carried out by lone actors, all present a continued risk to the Nation; and  Cyber-attacks on our nation’s power grid or financial system can cause system failures and catastrophic consequences. Roles and Responsibilities A successful recovery effort is also inclusive of the whole community, including at risk populations, individuals with disabilities, others with access and functional needs, and owners and their animals (household pets, service and assistance animals). Understanding legal obligations and sharing best practices when planning and implementing recovery strategies to avoid excluding groups on these bases is critical. Actions, both intentional and unintentional, that exclude groups of people based on race, color, ethnicity, national origin (including limited English proficiency), religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, age or disability, can have long-term negative consequences on entire communities and may violate law. Those who are engaging in recovery activities are covered by Successful recovery depends on all recovery stakeholders having a clear understanding of pre- and post-disaster roles and responsibilities. In keeping with the NDRF principles, clearly defined roles and responsibilities are a foundation for unity of effort among all recovery partners to jointly identify opportunities, foster partnerships and optimize resources. This section will review the recommended roles and responsibilities of local, state, tribal, territorial and insular area governments as well as the recommended recovery leadership positions. Additionally, roles and responsibilities for individuals, families, and households; non-governmental organizations; and private sector entities will be reviewed in this section. The recovery management positions detailed in this section includes the Local Disaster Recovery Manager, Tribal, Territorial and State Disaster Recovery Coordinators and the Federal Disaster Recovery Coordinator. These positions serve as the key points of contact and support, manage and organize recovery efforts for respective government entities. The establishment of recovery leadership positions for local, state, tribal and territorial governments are recommendations to the whole community to facilitate disaster recovery. Recovery management staff in all jurisdictions have a fundamental responsibility to consider the needs of all members of the whole community, including children; individuals with disabilities and others with access and functional needs; those from religious, racial, and ethnically diverse backgrounds; and people with limited English proficiency. The potential contributions of all these individuals toward delivering core capabilities during recovery (e.g., through associations and alliances that serve these populations) should be incorporated into planning efforts. Staff must also consider those who own or have responsibility for animals both as members of the community who may be affected by incidents and as a potential means of supporting recovery efforts. This includes those with household pets, service and assistance animals, working dogs, and livestock, as well as those who have responsibility for wildlife, exotic animals, zoo animals, research animals, and animals housed in shelters, rescue organizations, breeding facilities, and sanctuaries. Ensuring Inclusion of Whole Community PRE-DECISIONAL DRAFT NATIONAL ENGAGEMENT DRAFT 9
  • 14. National Disaster Recovery Framework PPD8-ENGAGEMENT@FEMA.DHS.GOV 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 specific legal obligations that prohibit discrimination. Statutory and executive order obligations also include accessibility in architecture, transportation, housing and effective communications, employment, social services and public benefits, education, policies and programs including those receiving Federal funding. Relevant statutory and executive order obligations may include: • Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (Stafford Act), as amended; • Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act; • Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended; Individuals, Families, and Households Individuals, families and households have a pivotal role in facilitating their recovery and the recovery of their community. One key action individuals and households can take is to have a disaster preparedness kit and recovery plan that addresses evacuation, sheltering-in-place and sheltering needs. Each individual, family, and household will be better prepared in the immediate aftermath of a disaster if they build an emergency kit that includes food, water and battery powered communication • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), as amended 2008; • Fair Housing Act of 1968, as amended; • Architectural Barriers Act of 1968; • Communications Act of 1934, as amended; • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) of 1975, as amended; • Title V I of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended; the Age Discrimination Act of 1975; • Executive Order 12898 (February 11, 1994) – Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations. • Executive Order 13166 (August 11, 2000) – Improving Access to Services for Persons with Limited English Proficiency; and • Executive Order 13347 (July 24, 2004) - Individuals with Disabilities in Emergency Preparedness. Those applying the NDRF should be aware of statutory and executive order obligations involved. devices (see resources at www.ready.gov). Individual plans should include requirements to address the access and functional needs of all individuals who reside in the household including children, pregnant women, older adults, people with disabilities and owners and their animals, including household pets, service and assistance animals that reside in the household. Those who prepare will reduce their personal stress and be able to reach out to others in need of assistance and be better positioned to actively contribute to post-disaster recovery planning efforts. Homeowners who have adequate hazard and flood insurance coverage, and take steps to protect their property from hazards common to their area reduce the impacts of disaster and are less reliant on external assistance to repair or rebuild their homes. Examples of measures to reduce risk from common hazards include strengthening the existing home’s structure as appropriate for the home and specific disaster risks. Future disaster impacts may also be reduced if individuals, families and households integrate mitigation measures into design, repair and rebuilding of their home. After suffering losses, survivors can maximize any benefits from insurance coverage, pursue additional funding through any available personal or loan-based resources, and also apply for local, state, or 10 PRE-DECISIONAL DRAFT NATIONAL ENGAGEMENT DRAFT
  • 15. PPD8-ENGAGEMENT@FEMA.DHS.GOV National Disaster Recovery Framework 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 Federal program assistance that may be available. After applying, survivors should ensure they follow up on agency requests, gain full understanding of program processes, and express unmet needs. Individuals, families and households are encouraged to stay aware of and participate in disaster preparedness, recovery and mitigation efforts in their community, and become aware of planning efforts in regards to floodplain management, building codes and land use and environmental regulations. After a disaster, individuals, families and households are encouraged to get involved in their community’s recovery activities including providing input in the post-disaster recovery planning process. Non-Governmental Organizations Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are voluntary, faith-based, philanthropic, and community organizations that coordinate and collaborate to help individuals and communities respond to and recover from disasters. NGO support is provided by a range of organizations from small community based nonprofits to national organizations with extensive experience in disaster response and recovery. NGOs support government efforts and provide targeted services to groups such as children, individuals with disabilities and people with access and functional needs, ethnically and culturally diverse communities, people with limited English proficiency, and animal owners, including household pets and service animals. As NGOs are pivotal to the recovery of an impacted jurisdiction, it is crucial that the whole community understands their role and they receive timely recovery information and the resources necessary to be an active participant in the recovery process. NGOs can contribute a wealth of research and experience around issues of resilience, either by effecting change through private sector initiatives, philanthropy, and public policy; or through project-specific undertakings that result in stronger communities. In the pre-disaster setting, FEMA works with these organizations to foster relationship building that will enable these groups to effectively engage in recovery collaboration settings at the appropriate time and place, when beneficial. NGOs often have access to extended networks through local offices and chapters of the organization, providing contextually-based insight and access to potential recovery partnerships and resilience champions. Some NGOs are part of Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster (VOAD) or Community Organizations Active in Disaster (COAD), which are responsible for meeting disaster-caused unmet needs of disaster survivors. Examples of NGOs include:  Voluntary organizations, 501(c)(3), with disaster response/recovery missions  Faith-based organizations and ministerial alliances  Community-based organizations  Animal control, welfare and/or rescue organizations  Housing non-profits  Chambers of commerce and business organizations  Environmental organizations  Cultural organizations  Professional organizations PRE-DECISIONAL DRAFT NATIONAL ENGAGEMENT DRAFT 11
  • 16. National Disaster Recovery Framework PPD8-ENGAGEMENT@FEMA.DHS.GOV 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555  Academia  Independent national, regional, and local advocacy, health and social services agencies  Fraternal organizations  Regional planning commissions  Planning and development districts  National planning organizations  Independent charities NGOs play a critical role in the implementation of an inclusive, locally-led long term recovery organization and planning process. The expertise of NGOs means they are often well-positioned to contribute to recovery efforts. Throughout the recovery process, NGOs may note milestones achieved and document best practices for their use and for the benefit of their peers. This information may also be implemented into the planning process for the state VOAD or COAD as appropriate. The experience and subject matter expertise of NGOs can greatly assist with the management of money, manpower, and materials to meet recovery needs and obligations that  National and community-based foundations  Volunteer recruitment groups  Civic groups  Veterans organizations  Aging organizations  Cross disability organizations  Disability specific groups NGOs also offer expertise and assistance in areas such as long-term sheltering/alternate housing solutions and feeding, community recovery planning, case management services, volunteer coordination, short-term psychological and emotional support, respite, personal care, and other medical or non-medical supportive services, individual and systemic advocacy, spiritual care, donations management, technical and financial support, grant writing, environmental and cultural resources, housing repair and reconstruction and rehabilitation that meets accessibility/universal accessibility standards, and project implementation. Many non-governmental organizations have subject matter expertise and knowledge of communities that are valuable to local, state, tribal, territorial and insular area disaster preparedness and recovery planning efforts. Non-governmental organizations that establish and maintain relationships with recovery leadership in the local, state, tribe, or territory where they operate can articulate their resources and capabilities. In addition to collaborating on disaster planning with recovery partners, it is beneficial for NGOs to develop their own disaster plans for how they will support disaster recovery efforts. Examples include temporary roof repair, debris removal, muck out, communication support, benefits application assistance, support group facilitation, family caregiver assistance, etc. Many NGOs originate from or remain in the impacted community to continue to mobilize, support and provide services. When needs are identified that fall outside the scope of one organization, these needs can be coordinated with other disaster recovery organizations including whole community partners to ensure a unified recovery process that maximizes effectiveness of the overall effort. It will benefit local, state, tribal and territorial recovery efforts if NGOs actively participate in the formation of long-term recovery and community organizations or entities. 12 PRE-DECISIONAL DRAFT NATIONAL ENGAGEMENT DRAFT
  • 17. PPD8-ENGAGEMENT@FEMA.DHS.GOV National Disaster Recovery Framework 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 otherwise are not funded by a government program. Private Sector Entities The private sector plays a critical role in establishing public confidence immediately after a disaster. When the private sector is operational, the community recovers more quickly by retaining and providing jobs and a stable tax base. If local leadership and the business community work together pre-disaster and to develop recovery plans, the public is more likely to be optimistic about the community’s ability to recover post-disaster. The private sector, while often impacted by a disaster, can also be a major resource to the community as well. Apart from being an employer, and providing access to goods and services for members of the community, the private sector often provides resources to the community to assist with disaster recovery efforts. The exact nature of the resources provided will vary from community to community and business to business, but the philanthropic nature of the private sector in a post-disaster environment should be considered during both pre- and post-disaster recovery planning processes. It is critical that disaster recovery officials recognize the importance of partnership and create coordination opportunities with private sector leaders during pre-disaster planning processes. Post- disaster, recovery officials need to maintain communication with the private sector about the status of operations and supply chains as well as restoration challenges and timelines. The private sector owns and operates the vast majority of the nation’s critical infrastructure systems, such as electric power and financial and telecommunications systems. These entities play a major role in the recovery of a community and a region as a whole; small businesses, for example, often shape and support the character of a community. The resources and capabilities of the private sector, including utilities, banks, insurance companies, healthcare systems and local businesses also play an important role in encouraging mitigation and creating greater resilience in a community. Businesses have an opportunity to participate and assume leadership roles in the local recovery planning process both before and after a disaster. Private sector entities may collaborate post-disaster in the form of recovery groups or task forces to effectively coordinate and communicate business recovery issues to government and community leaders. Partnerships with other businesses can facilitate the process of identifying and navigating the assistance application processes. Private sector entities can also work to identify potential funding sources to be used in the event of disaster and should implement regular review and training on business continuity plans. Businesses that plan for disruption are less likely to go out of business after a disaster than those that do not. Businesses need to develop continuity plans that include actionable, effective and accessible, internal communication processes and protocols to convey critical information. In some cases employees can provide volunteers, leaders, technical assistance, commodities and facilities to support the recovery effort. As major players in recovery efforts, businesses, especially critical infrastructure owners and operators, have an important responsibility to improve disaster resilience by identifying risks and incorporating mitigation measures into facility design and construction accordingly. If the disaster necessitates rebuilding or repair of private sector facilities or infrastructure, private sector entities have an opportunity to incorporate mitigation measures to reduce the impacts of future disaster events. These actions, coupled with purchase of adequate all-hazards insurance policies will expedite recovery from disaster, and build resilience. PRE-DECISIONAL DRAFT NATIONAL ENGAGEMENT DRAFT 13
  • 18. National Disaster Recovery Framework PPD8-ENGAGEMENT@FEMA.DHS.GOV 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 643 644 645 646 647 648 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 Local Governments The local government has primacy in preparing for and managing the response and recovery of their community. Individuals, families and businesses look to local governments to articulate their recovery needs. The local government leads pre-disaster recovery and mitigation planning efforts and has the primary role of planning and managing all aspects of a community’s recovery post-disaster. These capabilities must be able to be delivered in a no-notice environment regardless of the threat or hazard. Because such incidents may affect organizations' or communities' ability to accomplish these functions, continuity planning and operations need to be an inherent component of pre-disaster planning processes to ensure the continuation each core capability and of the coordinating structures that provide them. Local governments are also responsible for hazard mitigation efforts. The majority of mitigation measures are adopted, codified and enforced at the local level. While there are state and Federal standards, it is often up to the local government to adopt and enforce them, or in some cases strengthen them. Examples include participating in the National Flood Insurance Program and enforcing building codes. Integrating hazard mitigation and pre-disaster recovery planning helps to build resilience in communities and can make those communities less vulnerable to future disasters. Pre-Disaster A pre-disaster recovery planning process is necessary to enable local governments to predetermine local recovery functions, roles, structures and funding for post-disaster recovery efforts to expedite the recovery process, including planning for and training a Local Disaster Recovery Manager (LDRM; discussed below). This will help determine how local disaster support functions work with state and Federal resources, to include Recovery Support Functions, and establish a process pre- disaster to conduct post-disaster damage assessments (i.e., train community residents and business owners, recruit post-disaster damage assessments volunteers, expand on citizen corps efforts) and to inform state officials about disaster impacts. The local elected leadership (Mayor/County Executive) has the authority to appoint local recovery leadership that they select or that is selected by a designated recovery management organization. Training and exercise should be conducted regularly enable the local government to educate recovery partners and stakeholders about the local pre- disaster recovery plan and to ensure recovery management and leadership capacity is maintained. Local governments need to understand key hazards and risks that cause systemic and major disruptions and challenges for disaster recovery, reconstruction and revitalization, and communicate those risks to the exposed community in an accessible and effective manner. Education on risks and hazards can occur through community mapping initiatives that visually depict or otherwise identify known susceptible geographic areas and infrastructure systems, neighborhoods/communities with limited capacity and capability, risks to environmental and/or cultural resources within a community, resource available areas, and projected post-disaster impacts. This and other education and training initiatives can help encourage individuals and households to prepare for their recovery. Local governments are encouraged to review all plans, agreements and operational initiatives to ensure they address the needs of people with disabilities or access and functional needs and comply with local, state and Federal civil rights obligations. If concerns have been raised about possible deficiencies in addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities or others with access and functional needs, local governments may benefit from consulting local disability advisory organizations or non-profits with subject matter expertise. 14 PRE-DECISIONAL DRAFT NATIONAL ENGAGEMENT DRAFT
  • 19. PPD8-ENGAGEMENT@FEMA.DHS.GOV National Disaster Recovery Framework 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 685 686 687 688 689 690 691 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684 Post-Disaster After a disaster, local governments seek to rebuild and revitalize all sectors of the community, including local critical infrastructure and essential services. Local governments also must focus on business retention and the redevelopment of housing units that are damaged or destroyed. The process of repairing and rebuilding presents an opportunity for the local government to promote and integrate mitigation measures into recovery rebuilding strategies and plans. While some strategies can be identified pre-disaster, local governments will benefit from revising these strategies post- disaster in order to adapt to changing and long-term risks that the community faces such as climate change. If the LDRM position is in place pre-disaster, it is an optimal time to establish and maintain contact with recovery partners in neighboring communities as well as regionally and with state recovery agencies. The LDRM can also play a role in integrating resiliency and sustainability principles into recovery planning initiatives. LDRMs may also coordinate opportunities to train and exercise recovery plans. Throughout the recovery process, it is critical to find opportunities to share information with the public on the status of recovery efforts in order to maintain community coordination and focus. The local government can take the lead in ensuring that recovery planning processes are inclusive and accessible often by establishing local recovery structures that address overall coordination, sectors impacted and survivor services. Throughout the recovery planning process, it is important to document progress made towards objectives and best practices for use in future disaster events. This information could be especially helpful in the context of peer-to-peer engagement opportunities with other local governments who may face similar situations post-disaster. Additionally, best practices and lessons learned are vital to guide future revisions of local plans. Government agencies also play an important role as employers and need their own plans to protect and assist employees during emergencies. Internal communication structures can be used to inform employees about preparedness efforts that address needs for individuals and households. The incorporation of continuity planning and operations, specifically with regards to the reconstitution of an organizations' leadership, staff, communications, and facilities can aid in the overall community disaster recovery process. Local government may become overwhelmed and need staffing, recovery expertise, or other assistance after a disaster. Establishing agreements and mechanisms to address surge staffing needs pre-disaster will facilitate a more effective and efficient post-disaster recovery process. State and Federal officials are available to work with local governments in the development and implementation of their plans and recovery efforts when needed and requested. Local Disaster Recovery Managers In order to facilitate effective and efficient local recovery, the NDRF strongly recommends that local government leaders appoint a Local Disaster Recovery Manager (LDRM) to serve as the central manager and coordinator for disaster recovery activities for the jurisdiction. The role of the LDRM is to organize, coordinate and advance the recovery at the local level. In order to effectively organize and manage recovery, this position calls for an individual with a good knowledge of management, leadership, public administration, community planning and/or community development. In addition, the individual occupying this position should be able to represent and speak on behalf of their respective chief executive (e.g. mayor). The LDRM may serve as the jurisdiction’s primary point of contact with the state agencies. PRE-DECISIONAL DRAFT NATIONAL ENGAGEMENT DRAFT 15
  • 20. National Disaster Recovery Framework PPD8-ENGAGEMENT@FEMA.DHS.GOV Planning 692 693 694 695 696 697 698 699 700 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 In the event of a disaster, the LDRM takes the lead in coordinating local government-led recovery organizations and initiatives. LDRMs work with local emergency management to assess disaster impacts and communicate local recovery priorities to the state and Federal governments as well as other recovery stakeholders. The LDRM also has a role in promoting inclusion of mitigation measures in local recovery plans and strategies. The LDRM works to ensure an inclusive community recovery process that engages the whole community and is accessible to all community members including individuals with disabilities, limited English proficiency, or others with access and functional needs. Throughout the recovery process, the LDRM is encouraged to work with recovery partners to ensure recovery activities are communicated to stakeholders as appropriate. An organized, inclusive recovery process facilitates a recovery plan or strategy that can be rapidly initiated and is publicly supported, actionable and feasible based on available funding and capacity. In order to implement recovery plans and strategies, the LDRM can collaborate with state, Federal and other stakeholders and supporters, such as the business and nonprofit communities, to raise financial support (including long-term capital investment in local businesses) for the community's recovery, leverage the resources where possible and resolve potential duplication of assistance. State, Tribal, Territorial and Insular Area Governments State Government The state has a critical role in supporting local recovery efforts. Post-disaster recovery is a locally- driven process and the state supports communities by coordinating and/or providing any needed technical or financial support to help communities address recovery needs. In addition to maintaining and promoting mitigation plans and actions, and implementing continuity of operations and continuity of government plans, states are also encouraged to initiate a pre-disaster recovery planning process. Pre-disaster recovery planning positions the state to effectively support local, tribal, and territorial recovery efforts. If a plan is already in place, the State may convene exercise and training as needed to ensure recovery partners are well versed in their roles and responsibilities. There are numerous actions states can take pre-disaster to facilitate post-disaster recovery efforts. Many states provide technical assistance and training to local governments and non-governmental organizations on state plans, programs and other resources for disaster recovery, and support local governments in the establishment of pre-disaster recovery leadership and coordination structures. States may create a post-disaster recovery authority for catastrophic-level incidents that operate immediately after a disaster and feature the legal and fiscal tools needed to ensure recovery. In addition, they may establish agreements and mechanisms to ensure adequate staffing and expertise is available post-disaster, and that they implement protocols or agreements that create efficiencies with local, state, tribal, territorial, insular area and Federal government, as appropriate, for disaster response and recovery. States can also promote peer-to-peer engagement opportunities with other state and local governments to share best practices and lessons learned. The recovery planning process also presents an opportunity to reduce vulnerability to disasters; the state can develop and aid enforcement of building and accessibility codes and land use standards, and establish, organize, and coordinate goals, objectives, and timelines for recovery. Connecting recovery plans to pre-existing state plans and programs can help states identify and leverage available resources. 16 PRE-DECISIONAL DRAFT NATIONAL ENGAGEMENT DRAFT
  • 21. PPD8-ENGAGEMENT@FEMA.DHS.GOV National Disaster Recovery Framework Assistance to Local Governments 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 771 772 773 774 775 776 777 778 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770 Ideally, States establish a recovery management structure pre-disaster to facilitate organization and coordination of recovery initiatives post-disaster. This includes identifying and training leadership to manage recovery for the state (e.g. State Disaster Recovery Coordinator, discussed below) and creating an organization or designating agencies that will provide recovery support in priority functional areas for the state (e.g. housing, social services, infrastructure etc.). Federal agencies will adapt and align with state recovery structures. The Federal Recovery Support Function structure provides a model for states to consider in their planning. It is important to review plans, policies or initiatives already in place to help minimize conflicts and ensure alignment of priorities. The Federal government is required to engage in meaningful consultation with tribal governments prior to the finalization of policy or program implementation. Local and state governments are encouraged to engage with tribal governments as well. (See Executive Order 13175, Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribal governments). Per The Sandy Recovery Improvement Act (January 29, 2013), federally-recognized Indian tribal governments have the option to request a Presidential emergency or major disaster declaration independent of a state. In addition to maintaining and promoting mitigation plans and actions, and implementing continuity States assist local governments post-disaster by identifying, securing, and leveraging recovery resources and funds for local governments. States also oversee regional coordination of recovery elements, set priorities and direct assistance where it is needed. In addition to managing federally- provided resources, state governments may develop programs or secure funding (e.g., assistance acquiring appropriate insurance coverage pre-disaster or issuing bonds after a disaster) that can help finance and implement the recovery projects. States may also enact new or existing exemptions to state laws and/or regulations to facilitate rebuilding activities and promote safer, stronger and smarter building, and overseeing volunteer and donation management in coordination with FEMA Voluntary Agency Liaisons. Where additional needs exist, states can reassign existing internal resources to streamline and expedite recovery, such as forming a new or ad hoc state recovery agency or reprioritizing and reallocating existing funds. Many states have programs that meet disaster-related needs, which may include the needs of survivors, businesses, impacted local governments and others; these programs should be leveraged post-disaster. States also play an important role in keeping the public informed through strategic messaging and they work with all other stakeholders to provide an information distribution process. In addition, states can assist in developing and maintaining a system to manage and monitor implementation of the recovery effort, enforce accountability, ensure accessibility, and track resources. State government agencies are also employers and need their own disaster recovery plans, including Continuity of Government and Continuity of Operations Plans, to protect and assist their employees. Tribal Government Tribal governments, as sovereign nations, govern and manage the safety and security of their lands and community members. Many tribal government borders cross multiple counties and states, presenting a unique challenge in planning for response and recovery efforts. While resources from other communities and governments may be available and easily accessible for most local and state governments, this is not the case in many tribal government communities. Understanding these basic facts assists local, state, and Federal governments when working with the sovereign tribal governments to develop and implement their recovery plans both pre- and post-disaster. PRE-DECISIONAL DRAFT NATIONAL ENGAGEMENT DRAFT 17
  • 22. National Disaster Recovery Framework PPD8-ENGAGEMENT@FEMA.DHS.GOV 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 819 820 821 of operations and continuity of government plans, tribes prepare by conducting pre-disaster recovery planning. Pre-disaster planning will allow tribal governments to establish, organize, and coordinate goals, objectives, and timelines for recovery. Ideally, tribes coordinate with local, state, other tribal and Federal governments, as appropriate, to develop protocols or agreements that facilitate for disaster response and recovery efforts. Establishing this coordination ensures that partners know the best means of communicating within the tribal hierarchy and provides an opportunity to inform partners of any tribal distinctions or cultural differences that they need to be aware of. It is essential that preservation of cultural resources, sacred sites and traditional lands be integrated into pre- disaster planning discussions and in recovery and mitigation planning efforts. In order to promote an inclusive recovery process, it is important for tribal governments to address the needs of individuals with disabilities, older adults and others with access and functional needs when developing recovery plans. It is beneficial if training and exercises occur regularly to educate recovery partners and stakeholders about the tribal recovery plan and to ensure recovery leadership and management capacity is maintained. The pre-disaster planning process enables tribal governments to establish a recovery management structure to facilitate organization and coordination of recovery initiatives post-disaster. This includes identifying, planning, and training leadership to manage recovery (Tribal Disaster Recovery Coordinator, discussed below) and creating an organization or designating agencies that will provide recovery support in priority functional areas for the tribal government (e.g. housing, social services, infrastructure, etc.). Pre-disaster recovery planning will also allow tribal governments to develop a system to manage and monitor implementation of the recovery effort, enforce accountability, ensure accessibility, and track resources. Alignment with the Federal Recovery Support Function structure is optimal but not required; Federal agencies will adapt and align with the tribal recovery structure. Post-disaster, tribal governments drive the process of assessing recovery needs, setting priorities and communicating and collaborating with local, state, Federal, and nongovernmental partners to address recovery needs. The implementation of a recovery management structure, led by a Tribal Disaster Recovery Coordinator to organize and manage recovery assistance, will facilitate the recovery process. Territories/Insular Areas The roles and responsibilities of territorial and insular area governments are similar to those of a state. They are responsible for coordinating resources to address actual or potential incidents. Due to their remote locations, territories and insular area governments often face unique challenges in receiving assistance from outside the jurisdiction quickly and often request assistance from neighboring islands, other nearby countries, states, the private sector or non-governmental resources, or the Federal government. Federal assistance is delivered in accordance with pertinent Federal authorities (e.g., the Stafford Act and other authorities of Federal departments or agencies). State, Tribal, and Territorial Disaster Recovery Coordinators The NDRF strongly recommends that state governors as well as tribal and territorial leaders appoint a State/Tribal/Territorial Disaster Recovery Coordinators (SDRC or TDRC) to lead disaster recovery activities for the jurisdiction. The role of the SDRCs and TDRCs is to organize, coordinate and advance recovery. The SDRC/TDRC is the primary point of contact regarding recovery issues, and establishes and leads the recovery organizational structure. In addition, the individual occupying the position should be able 18 PRE-DECISIONAL DRAFT NATIONAL ENGAGEMENT DRAFT
  • 23. PPD8-ENGAGEMENT@FEMA.DHS.GOV National Disaster Recovery Framework 822 823 824 825 826 827 828 829 830 858 859 860 861 862 863 864 865 831 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839 840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 849 850 851 852 853 854 855 856 857 to represent and speak on behalf of their respective chief executives (e.g., governor, tribal leader). The SDRC/TDRC serves as the jurisdiction’s primary point of contact with the Federal Disaster Recovery Coordinator (FDRC; discussed below). Pre-disaster, an SDRC or TDRC should coordinate development, training, and exercise of the jurisdiction disaster recovery plan. Depending on the severity of the incident and anticipated scope and duration of disaster recovery efforts, the State Coordinating Officer (SCO) may fulfill the Recovery Coordinator role under the Stafford Act. However, after major disasters or catastrophic incidents, states, tribal, and territorial governments are encouraged to appoint a separate position to ensure recovery activities are well- managed while extended response and short-term recovery activities are ongoing. States applying the principles and capabilities outlined in this Framework have discovered advantages in appointing officials outside emergency management for this purpose; examples have included a senior official from the state economic development agency and representatives from the Office of the Governor. Federal Government Pre-disaster, Federal agencies work to build capacity for all core capabilities across the Recovery Support Functions (see Federal Coordinating Structures) through joint planning, training, and exercises. Guidance, training, and tools are developed for local, state, tribal and territorial governments and non-governmental organizations on pre-disaster recovery and mitigation planning. The Federal government promotes hazard mitigation through guidance and grants to reduce the impacts of disaster across the nation in addition to coordinating and developing continuity of In order to effectively organize and manage recovery, the SDRC and TDRC positions call for individuals with a strong basis in community development and good knowledge of the state, tribal, or territorial community demographics. Their primary role is to manage and coordinate redevelopment, revitalization, and building in a manner that engages the whole community and ensures inclusiveness in the community recovery process. This includes persons with disabilities, individuals with access and functional issues, and people with limited English proficiency. In order to effectively communicate with all stakeholders, SDRCs and TDRCs are encouraged to create a unified and accessible communication plan applicable to all recovery stakeholders. In cases where state/territorial and tribal communities are both impacted, coordination between the SDRC(s) and TDRC(s) will need to occur. The SDRC or TDRC may participate in damage and impact assessments with other recovery partners to identify recovery priorities and will communicate these priorities to the state and Federal government as well as other recovery stakeholders and supporters. The SDRC provides support for local and/or tribal or territorial government recovery-dedicated organizations and initiatives and facilitates communication of statewide and local community recovery priorities to the FDRC. SDRCs and TDRCs also have a role in coordinating and leveraging state, tribal, territorial, Federal and other funding streams for recovery efforts and communicating issues and solutions to address recovery assistance gaps and overlaps. To reduce the impact of future disaster events, the SDRC and TDRC should seek integration of critical mitigation, resilience, sustainability, and accessibility-building measures into the recovery plans and efforts. Such integration can begin during the pre-disaster recovery planning process, and will be an important focus of the SDRC or TDRC post-disaster. Recovery efforts may be adjusted or improved based on tracking of progress measures. SDRCs and TDRCs should take care to document best practices for their respective jurisdictions to inform future planning efforts, as well as to facilitate peer-to-peer sharing of experiences. PRE-DECISIONAL DRAFT NATIONAL ENGAGEMENT DRAFT 19
  • 24. National Disaster Recovery Framework PPD8-ENGAGEMENT@FEMA.DHS.GOV 866 867 868 869 870 871 872 873 874 904 905 906 907 908 909 910 875 876 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 890 891 892 893 894 895 896 897 898 899 900 901 902 903 operations plans to ensure the uninterrupted continuation of essential services and functions. Government agencies also play roles as employers and need to have their own plans to protect and assist their employees during emergencies. In order to leverage the lessons learned and best practices of local communities, and state, tribal, and territorial governments, the Federal government may facilitate and coordinate peer-to-peer engagement to connect those who have navigated the recovery process. When a disaster occurs that exceeds the capacity of state, tribal or territorial resources — or impacts Federal property, other areas of primary Federal jurisdiction, or national security interests — the Federal government may use the NDRF and its coordinating structures to engage necessary and available department and agency capabilities to provide enhanced coordination and support state, territorial, tribal, and local recovery efforts. Addressing the unique recovery need of each impacted community requires a national, collaborative effort of the whole community, including Federal agencies, local, state, tribal and territorial governments, community members, NGOs and the private sector. Disasters and localities vary so widely that most recovery planning must be done at and focus on the local level. Nonetheless, some regional planning, coupled with Federal guidance or standards, can ensure the most effective application of outside resources and assistance. Major disaster and catastrophic incidents often cross municipal, county, state and tribal jurisdictions. State or national coordination encourages unity of effort among government agencies and non-governmental organizations to achieve the optimal benefit for those impacted. The Federal government’s supporting role is especially important during the early weeks after a disaster or catastrophic incident, when many local, state, tribal and territorial governments are overwhelmed with response and short-term recovery efforts. Federal agencies participate in and support recovery planning, capacity building and mitigation efforts through technical assistance, expertise or other assistance as requested and needed. The Federal government encourages adopting recovery actions that reduce future risk from hazards and increase resilience while remaining consistent with national laws and policies. Many Federal agencies may directly or indirectly contribute to meeting recovery needs of affected communities by delivering assistance provided under their normal authorities. The duration and extent of Federal support is determined in part by the scale and enduring impacts of the disaster and based on the ability of the community sustain recovery efforts on their own. The Federal government’s disaster recovery management and support systems must be scalable and adaptable so changes can be made quickly and effectively to meet the needs of each specific disaster. Progress towards recovery objectives is continually evaluated and support efforts adjusted as needed to meet the needs of impacted communities, states, tribes, and territories. The Federal government also plays an important role in providing accessible information to the public and all stakeholders involved in recovery, including information about Federal grants and loans with potential applications to recovery. In coordination with local, state, tribal, and territorial communicators, the Federal government is responsible for ensuring that information is distributed in an accessible manner and is well understood, so that the public, Congress, the private sector and all stakeholders are informed and aware of the process, and have realistic expectations for recovery. The Federal government also requires that all recipients of Federal assistance comply with civil rights obligations under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Federal agencies may also facilitate provision of geospatial and data analysis support to augment local, state, tribal and territorial data collection and analysis efforts. 20 PRE-DECISIONAL DRAFT NATIONAL ENGAGEMENT DRAFT
  • 25. PPD8-ENGAGEMENT@FEMA.DHS.GOV National Disaster Recovery Framework FDRC Authority 911 912 913 914 915 916 917 918 919 920 921 922 923 924 925 926 927 928 929 930 931 932 933 934 935 936 937 938 939 940 941 942 943 944 945 946 947 948 949 950 951 952 953 954 Federal Disaster Recovery Coordinator As needed, a Federal Disaster Recovery Coordinator (FDRC) is activated and deployed to implement a recovery coordination structure in close collaboration with local, state, tribal and territorial recovery leadership. The Federal Disaster Recovery Coordinator is a focal point for incorporating whole community inclusive recovery and mitigation considerations into the early decision-making processes, monitoring the impacts and results of such decisions and evaluating the need for additional assistance and adjustments where necessary and feasible throughout the recovery. The Federal agency that leads the recovery effort appoints an FDRC. Depending on the situation, an FDRC may be appointed to support one state or multiple states to facilitate regional, or even national, coordination. The responsibilities of the FDRC are best met if the individual has an understanding of pre-disaster recovery planning as well as post-disaster recovery leadership and coordination. FEMA maintains a cadre of credentialed FDRC supporting the ten FEMA Regions. These standing FDRCs have pre- established relationships with partners at the federal, state, tribal, territorial and local levels in their region, including the private and nonprofit sectors. These standing FDRCs participate in and contribute to recovery training and exercises in their respective Regions to educate recovery partners and stakeholders about recovery planning and to ensure recovery management capacity is developed and maintained. An FDRC may be appointed following a disaster in which enhanced recovery coordination support in needed. Once the FDRC is deployed, they work as a deputy to the Federal Coordinating Officer (FCO) for all matters concerning disaster recovery. The FCO is responsible for the overall management of the Federal response to the incident. The FDRC is responsible for facilitating disaster recovery coordination and collaboration between the Federal interagency and local, state, tribal, and territorial governments, the private sector, and voluntary, faith-based and community organizations. The FDRC partners with and supports the LDRM, SDRC and TDRC to facilitate disaster recovery. The FDRC works with Federal recovery partners to develop a strategic approach for coordinating Federal assistance and policies based on input from state, tribal, territorial and local government recovery partners. Throughout the recovery support process, the FDRC will ensure that progress towards strategic objectives is tracked in order to ensure Federal resources are being applied efficiently and effectively. The FDRC will collaborate with the SDRC/TDRC to communicate a clear, consistent message in multiple formats to ensure an accessible, comprehensive and culturally and linguistically appropriate communication outreach strategy. The FDRC should ensure that recovery support involves the whole community, promotes inclusiveness and includes recovery communications and outreach to engage all stakeholders including individuals with disabilities, people with limited English proficiency, and others with access and functional needs. The FDRC actively coordinates Recovery Support Function (see Coordinating Structures) operations and activities to focus Federal resources on the most pertinent recovery needs and to promote partnerships between the Federal government and stakeholders at the local, state, tribal, and territorial levels. The FDRC also actively seeks to incorporate mitigation measures into recovery support efforts through partnership with internal and external partners. FDRC authority to facilitate disaster recovery coordination and collaboration is derived from the appropriate disaster recovery authority that may apply to the incident. Other Federal departments PRE-DECISIONAL DRAFT NATIONAL ENGAGEMENT DRAFT 21
  • 26. PPD8-ENGAGEMENT@FEMA.DHS.GOVNational Disaster Recovery Framework 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963 964 965 966 967 968 969 970 971 972 973 974 975 976 977 978 979 980 981 982 and agencies carry out their disaster recovery authorities and responsibilities within the overarching construct of the NDRF. Additionally, nothing in the NDRF is intended to impact or impede the ability of any Federal department or agency to take an issue of concern directly to the President or any member of the President’s staff. 22 PRE-DECISIONAL DRAFT NATIONAL ENGAGEMENT DRAFT
  • 27. PPD8-ENGAGEMENT@FEMA.DHS.GOV National Disaster Recovery Framework PRE-DECISIONAL DRAFT NATIONAL ENGAGEMENT DRAFT 23 983 984 985 986 987 988 Core Capabilities The core capabilities are distinct critical elements necessary to achieve the National Preparedness Goal. They provide a common vocabulary describing the significant functions that must be developed and executed across the whole community to ensure national preparedness. Table 1: Core Capabilities by Mission Area8 Prevention Protection Mitigation Response Recovery Planning Public Information and Warning Operational Coordination Forensics and Attribution Intelligence and Information Sharing Interdiction and Disruption Screening, Search, and Detection Access Control and Identity Verification Cybersecurity Intelligence and Information Sharing Interdiction and Disruption Physical Protective Measures Risk Management for Protection Programs and Activities Screening, Search, and Detection Supply Chain Integrity and Security Community Resilience Long-term Vulnerability Reduction Risk and Disaster Resilience Assessment Threats and Hazard Identification Critical Transportation Economic Recovery Health and Social Services Housing Infrastructure Systems Natural and Cultural Resources Environmental Response/Health and Safety Fatality Management Services Fire Management and Suppression Infrastructure Systems Logistics and Supply Chain Management Mass Care Services Mass Search and Rescue Operations On-scene Security, Protection, and Law Enforcement Operational Communications Public Health, Healthcare, and Emergency Medical Services Situational Assessment 8 Planning, Public Information and Warning, and Operational Coordination are common to all mission areas.
  • 28. National Disaster Recovery Framework PPD8-ENGAGEMENT@FEMA.DHS.GOV 989 990 991 992 993 994 995 996 997 998 999 The Recovery core capabilities (see Table 2: Recovery Core Capabilities) are designed to address the risks identified in the Strategic National Risk Assessment; to include Economic Recovery; Health and Social Services; Housing; Infrastructure Systems; and Natural and Cultural Resources. Planning, Public Information and Warning, and Operational Coordination are the core capabilities that cross all mission areas. Table 2: Recovery Core Capabilities Planning Conduct a systematic process engaging the whole community as appropriate in the development of executable strategic, operational, and/or tactical-level approaches to meet defined objectives. Public Information and Warning Deliver coordinated, prompt, reliable, and actionable information to the whole community through the use of clear, consistent, accessible, and culturally and linguistically appropriate methods to effectively relay information regarding any threat or hazard and, as well as the actions being taken and the assistance being made available, as appropriate. Operational Coordination Establish and maintain a unified and coordinated operational structure and process that appropriately integrates all critical stakeholders and supports the execution of core capabilities. Economic Recovery Return economic and business activities (including food and agriculture) to a healthy state and develop new business and employment opportunities that result in a sustainable and economically viable community. Health and Social Services Restore and improve health and social services capabilities and networks to promote the resilience, independence, health (including behavioral health), and well-being of the whole community. Housing Implement housing solutions that effectively support the needs of the whole community and contribute to its sustainability and resilience. Infrastructure Systems Stabilize critical infrastructure functions, minimize health and safety threats, and efficiently restore and revitalize systems and services to support a viable, resilient community. Natural and Cultural Resources Protect natural and cultural resources and historic properties through appropriate planning, mitigation, response, and recovery actions to preserve, conserve, rehabilitate, and restore them consistent with post-disaster community priorities and best practices and in compliance with appropriate environmental and historic preservation laws and executive orders. Developing and maintaining the Recovery core capabilities requires a multi-agency, interdisciplinary approach that engages the whole community, including a wide range of service and resource providers and stakeholders. Actionable efforts to build capabilities should be integrated across mission areas. 24 PRE-DECISIONAL DRAFT NATIONAL ENGAGEMENT DRAFT

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