Land resources (forest and minerals) & biodiversity
this presentation includes all the different aspects of land resources with their different types including forest and mineral resources and apart from this the presentation also contains a vivid description of biodiversity with their benefits and a clip showing threats to this and their impact on environment.
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Land resources (forest and minerals) & biodiversity
WHAT ARE NATURAL RESOURCES ?
• Any material found in the environment
which can be transformed in a way that it
becomes more valuable and useful .
• A natural resources is often characterized by
amounts of biodiversity existent in
Inexhaustible resources:- Present in nature in unlimited
amounts, hence not likely to be exhausted due to continuous
E.g.- Air , solar radiation , water(rainfall).
Exhaustible resources :- Present in limited amounts, and are
also classified into:• Renewable resources:- Renewable resources can be
E.g.- Forest, wildlife, groundwater.
• Non-renewable resources – Non-renewable resources
either form slowly or do not naturally form in the
environment. By the human perspective, resources are
non-renewable when their rate of consumption exceeds
the rate of replenishment/recovery.
E.g.-Minerals, fossil fuels, etc.
WHAT ARE LAND RESOURCES?
Land resources includes all the naturally occurring
components of land which can be used for different
This may include:• Minerals
LAND USE PATTERNS IN WORLD
Land Resources Are Used For Following
• Cultivable Lands
• Urban Area
WHAT ARE FOREST ?
The term “forest ”is derived from the Latin word “foris”
meaning outside. Originally ,it is uncultivated and uninhabited
village boundary consisting of natural plants, i.e., trees and
In the words of Allen and Shorpe, “Forest is a community of
trees and associated organism covering a considerable area,
utilizing air, water and minerals to attain maturity and to
reproduce and capable of furnishing mankind with
indispensable products and services”
USES OF FOREST RESCOURCES
Hydrological flow modulator
Habitats for organisms
In paper industries
DEPLETION OF FOREST
Forest resources are being depleted mostly due to some of
the human activities (anthropogenic) though some natural
process is also responsible for this deforestation.
• Forest fires
• Volcanic eruptions
• For fuel wood
IMPACTS OF DEFORESTATION
Deforestation (cutting of trees) has a serious impact on the
environment. The problems associated with this can be put
in four categories :
• Global warming
• Water cycle
• Frequent floods
• Loss of habitat
Mineral Resource is defined as a occurrence of
natural, solid, inorganic or fossilized organic
material in or on the Earth’s crust in such form
and quantity and of such a grade or quality that it
has reasonable prospects for economic
India produces as many as 87 minerals, which
includes 4 fuel, 10 metallic, 47 non-metallic, 3
atomic and 23 minor minerals (including building
and other materials).
Estimated life expiry of minerals depends on two things:
1. The size of the reserve
2. The rate at which we are using it up!
Est. Life Exp. in Yrs.
Found abundantly in Orissa,
Bihar, Madhya Pradesh,
Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Tamil
Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra
Pradesh, Kerala, Goa .
Its low cost and high strength
make it indispensable in
engineering applications such
as the construction of
machinery and machine
tools, automobiles and
The color of blood is due to the
hemoglobin, an iron-containing
protein. As illustrated by
hemoglobin, iron is often
bound to cofactors, e.g.
Found abundantly in
Madhya Pradesh, Uttar
The major applications of
copper are in electrical
wires (60%), roofing and
plumbing (20%) and
industrial machinery (15%).
Copper proteins have
diverse roles in biological
electron transport and
Found abundantly in
Nickel is used in many
specific and recognizable
industrial and consumer
products, including stainl
ess steel, alnico
magnets, coinage, rechar
geable batteries, electric
capsules, and special
Found abundantly in BiharBengal- Jharkhand coal belt,
Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh,
Orissa, Maharashtra, Andhra
Coal is the largest source of
energy for the generation of
electricity worldwide, as well as
one of the largest
worldwide anthropogenic sources
of carbon dioxide releases.
Coal is extracted from the ground
by coal mining, either
underground by shaft mining, or
at ground level by open pit
Pradesh, Goa, Orissa, Karnatak
Manganese has no satisfactory
substitute in its major
applications, which are related
to metallurgical alloy use.
Manganese phosphating is
used as a treatment for rust
and corrosion prevention
Manganese also functions in
the oxygen-evolving complex
of photosynthetic plants.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or
other geological materials from the earth from
an ore body, lode, vein, seam, or reef, which
forms the mineralized package of economic
interest to the miner.
Resource extraction involves any activity that
withdraws resources from nature.
Ores recovered by mining include metals, coal
and oil shale, gemstones, limestone,
and dimension stone, rock
salt, and potash, gravel, and clay.
EFFECTS OF MINING ON THE
Deforestation and loss of biodiversity are
major effects of mining.(It destroys forest and wetlands)
Many mine require tailings dams to prevent waste being
washed into the rivers. Unethical miners can dispense
with the dams, to save costs, resulting in massive
pollution downstream. In other cases, the tailings dam
can overflow, and even breach, during periods of heavy
Underground coal mining can require the removal of
almost an entire layer of material deep under the
Some mining involves the inadvertent dispersal of
heavy metals, such as lead, into the atmosphere.
This can have serious health effects, including
mental retardation in children.
Asbestos mining causes the dispersal of asbestos
into the environment. This will cause deaths among
local residents and workers, often several decades
WHAT CAN WE DO NOW?
Find alternative resources.
Develop efficient and reliable renewable
Reduce our use and avoid waste.
Reuse what we can.
Recycle (collect and reuse materials from
waste) what we can
E.g.- Hybrid/electric cars, carpool, walk/ride a
bike, turn off unneeded lights/electrical
appliances, don’t let water run, place
recyclables in marked containers
India is one of the countries
where agriculture has got a
very important place.
Three - fourths of the
population depend on
sector is the source of raw
materials for many
Agricultural sector in India is
dynamic throughout the
Variety in seasonal crops is the peculiarity of our
agricultural sector. Thus agricultural crops are classified
into three, based on seasonal changes :
WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY ?
Biodiversity was coined by Walter G. Rosen
Biodiversity is defined as the richness in
variety and variability of species of all
organism in a given habitat.
This encompasses all forms of
life, plants, animals and microorganisms in
Biodiversity- "variation of life at all levels of
biological organization" .
TYPES OF BIODIVERSITY
Biodiversity in all is categorized in
three broad types:
Ecological diversity :
habitats, niches, species
Species diversity :
–different kinds of
organisms, relationships among
Genetic diversity :
–different genes & combinations
of genes within populations.
1.7—2.0 million species
Estimates to 100 million
BENEFITS OF BIODIVERSITY
Ecosystem services, such as
• Protection of water resources
• Soils formation and protection
• Nutrient storage and recycling
• Pollution breakdown and
• Contribution to climate
• Maintenance of ecosystems
BENEFITS OF BIODIVERSITY
Biological benefits, such as
• Medicinal resources
• Wood products
• Ornamental plants
• Future resources
• Diversity in genes, species and ecosystems
Social benefits, such as
• Research, education and monitoring
• Recreation and tourism
• Cultural values