Hydrocarbon Sheens
February 10, 2016
NAPL Quick Tips by Caron Koll, Consultant
• Why we are concerned about
sheens from subsurface
petroleum releases?
• What is a sheen?
• What are the misperceptions
a...
Regulatory Drivers
Under the CLEAN WATER ACT 40 CFR
Section 311 Oil and Hazardous Substances
Part 110
• No discharge to surface water resulti...
• Fines
• Violations
• Aesthetics
• Negative Public Media
Attention
• Brand
Potential Consequences
4Antea USA, Inc.
Sheen Misconceptions
Misconceptions by regulatory and regulated
community regarding the transport mechanisms
of hydrocarbon from upland subsurf...
• A thin layer of non-miscible phase resting on
surface water
• May be liquid, waxy semi-solid or Petroleum
Sheen solid ma...
Fact – When NAPL subsurface is historic and no
longer an ongoing source, NAPL is most likely no
longer migrating. A sheen ...
Sale T. and Lyverse M. 2014., Courtesy of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. “Sheens Associated with Subsurface Petroleum Releases – Curr...
Macro Spreading
Antea USA, Inc. 10
Fact – Residual NAPL in soil with TPH
concentrations as low as approximately 200
mg/kg can produce a sheen.
Myth – A sheen...
How and Where NAPL Resides in Subsurface
Antea USA, Inc. 12
Fact –Sheens can travel depending on the
spreading coefficient and saturation but is not a
function of groundwater flow ra...
Contributing factors of LNAPL Body Stability
• LNAPL Composition
• Soil Physical Properties
• Geology/Hydrogeology
Indicat...
ITRC LNAPL Training Part 1: An improved Understanding of LNAPL Behavior in the Subsurface, State of Science verse State of...
Sale T. and Lyverse M. 2014., Courtesy of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. “Sheens Associated with Subsurface Petroleum Releases – Curr...
Sheen Generation
Mechanisms
• Seeps
• Erosion
• Ebullution
Mechanisms
18Antea USA, Inc.
seeps
erosion
ebullution
• Residual is in soil or sediment adjacent the
surface water
• Spreading Coefficient (S) is positive
• Mostly occur interm...
• Residual present in soil along the shore or
bank
• Physical disturbance of soil or sediment–
 wave action
 ice scour
...
• Natural degradation produces gases
• Upward vertical migration of gas through
the air/water interface in sediment
• Obse...
Upcoming NAPL sheen series presentation quick
tips topics
• Sheen forensics sampling for source
evaluation
• Measuring spr...
Contact
Caron Koll, PG
caron.koll@anteagroup.com
Tel +1 315 552 9832
Questions?
confidential and proprietary 23
B E T T E R B U S I N E S S ,
B E T T E R W O R L D℠
Antea Group Offices
USA Headquarters
5910 Rice Creek Parkway, Suite 1...
of 25

NAPL Quick Tips: A Primer on Hydrocarbon Sheens

Antea Group has put together a great introduction to hydrocarbon sheens--what are they, why you should be concerned, potential consequences, and what to do about them.
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Environment      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - NAPL Quick Tips: A Primer on Hydrocarbon Sheens

  • 1. Hydrocarbon Sheens February 10, 2016 NAPL Quick Tips by Caron Koll, Consultant
  • 2. • Why we are concerned about sheens from subsurface petroleum releases? • What is a sheen? • What are the misperceptions about sheens? • How are sheens generated? Learning Objectives 1Antea USA, Inc.
  • 3. Regulatory Drivers
  • 4. Under the CLEAN WATER ACT 40 CFR Section 311 Oil and Hazardous Substances Part 110 • No discharge to surface water resulting in:  Film  Sheen or  Discoloration • Required actions  Notify National Response Center  Remove  Mitigate  Prevent Clean Water Act 3Antea USA, Inc.
  • 5. • Fines • Violations • Aesthetics • Negative Public Media Attention • Brand Potential Consequences 4Antea USA, Inc.
  • 6. Sheen Misconceptions
  • 7. Misconceptions by regulatory and regulated community regarding the transport mechanisms of hydrocarbon from upland subsurface to surface water creating a sheen can result in costly and/or ineffective remedial actions. Remedial Consequences of Misconceptions 6Antea USA, Inc. • Sheet Pile Walls • Hydraulic Containment • River Relocation • Long Term Boom Management • Excessive Monitoring • Excavation
  • 8. • A thin layer of non-miscible phase resting on surface water • May be liquid, waxy semi-solid or Petroleum Sheen solid material • Less dense than water • Biogenic sheens derived from the breakdown of natural organic material • “Petroleum” sheens derived from crude or refined petroleum What is a Sheen? 7Antea USA, Inc.
  • 9. Fact – When NAPL subsurface is historic and no longer an ongoing source, NAPL is most likely no longer migrating. A sheen from NAPL could migrate but the mass of NAPL is most often stable. Myth – NAPL migration is the source of sheens from subsurface soils to water body. Myth #1 8Antea USA, Inc.
  • 10. Sale T. and Lyverse M. 2014., Courtesy of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. “Sheens Associated with Subsurface Petroleum Releases – Current Knowledge and Best Practices” Micro Spreading • Petroleum sheens spread across air water interfaces until interfacial forces (γ) at the leading edge of the sheen are balanced • Spread is defined by the spreading coefficient (Sc) • Spreading may be enhanced by biosurfactants that are associated with biological degradation
  • 11. Macro Spreading Antea USA, Inc. 10
  • 12. Fact – Residual NAPL in soil with TPH concentrations as low as approximately 200 mg/kg can produce a sheen. Myth – A sheen to surface water suggests a large ongoing source of NAPL with elevated concentrations in soil. Myth #2 11Antea USA, Inc.
  • 13. How and Where NAPL Resides in Subsurface Antea USA, Inc. 12
  • 14. Fact –Sheens can travel depending on the spreading coefficient and saturation but is not a function of groundwater flow rate. Darcy’s Law applies to each fluid separately. Myth – Sheens or NAPL in the subsurface travels as fast as or faster than groundwater. Myth #3 13Antea USA, Inc. Sale T. and Lyverse M. 2014., Courtesy of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. “Sheens Associated with Subsurface Petroleum Releases – Current Knowledge and Best Practices”
  • 15. Contributing factors of LNAPL Body Stability • LNAPL Composition • Soil Physical Properties • Geology/Hydrogeology Indicators of LNAPL Body Stability • LNAPL and dissolve plume stable over time? • LNAPL not in sentinel wells? • LNAPL transmissivity less than 0. 1 ft 2 /day? • Source is removed or age of release ? • Spreading coefficient less than 0? Overcoming the Myths 14Antea USA, Inc.
  • 16. ITRC LNAPL Training Part 1: An improved Understanding of LNAPL Behavior in the Subsurface, State of Science verse State of Practice Indicators of Plume Stability
  • 17. Sale T. and Lyverse M. 2014., Courtesy of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. “Sheens Associated with Subsurface Petroleum Releases – Current Knowledge and Best Practices” Spreading Coefficient
  • 18. Sheen Generation Mechanisms
  • 19. • Seeps • Erosion • Ebullution Mechanisms 18Antea USA, Inc. seeps erosion ebullution
  • 20. • Residual is in soil or sediment adjacent the surface water • Spreading Coefficient (S) is positive • Mostly occur intermittently at low tide or falling river stage • After a significant rain event or snow melt • Horizontal orientation Seeps 19Antea USA, Inc.
  • 21. • Residual present in soil along the shore or bank • Physical disturbance of soil or sediment–  wave action  ice scour  flood river stages  extreme head difference behind a bulkhead wall Erosion 20Antea USA, Inc.
  • 22. • Natural degradation produces gases • Upward vertical migration of gas through the air/water interface in sediment • Observed to occur during rising water levels after a low water stage • One bubble triggers multiple Ebullition 21Antea USA, Inc.
  • 23. Upcoming NAPL sheen series presentation quick tips topics • Sheen forensics sampling for source evaluation • Measuring spreading coefficients and other helpful NAPL characteristics • Innovative sustainable shoreline sheen remedy solutions • Calculating life expectancy for sheen remedies • Biodiversity and importance of groundwater surface water interface – Hyproheic Zone Upcoming Quick Tips 22Antea USA, Inc. Note: This photo is for example slide master options demo only and can be swapped out for more relevant images
  • 24. Contact Caron Koll, PG caron.koll@anteagroup.com Tel +1 315 552 9832 Questions? confidential and proprietary 23
  • 25. B E T T E R B U S I N E S S , B E T T E R W O R L D℠ Antea Group Offices USA Headquarters 5910 Rice Creek Parkway, Suite 100 St. Paul, MN 55126, USA USA Toll Free: +1 800 477 7411 International: +1 651 639 9443 Belgium Roderveldlaan 1 2600 Antwerpen Colombia Calle 35 No. 7-25, Piso 12 Bogota, DC France 29 avenue Aristide Briand - CS 10006 94117 Arcueil Cedex Netherlands Monitorweg 29 1322 BK Almere www.anteagroup.com

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