Nanoscale Communication 1 ANYA SKOMOROKHOVA JOSEPH KENNEDY ADEDAMOLA ALUKO
Objective 2 Research the advancements made in the electromagnetic and biological/molecular domai...
Table of Contents 3 Overall Challenges in Nanonetworks Research Challenges in Molecular...
Overall Challenges in Nanonetworks 4 Design & Development of Nanomachines (1,4,5) Modeling & S...
Research Challenges in Molecular Nanonetworks 5● How is the information encap...
Research Challenges in EM Nanonetworks 6 New communication techniques - (e.g. femtosecond long ...
Challenges Investigated 7 Design of Nanomachines  Sources 4,5 Nano-Scale Propagation  Sour...
Macro vs. Nano Networks 8 Macro- ...
Molecular vs. TraditionalCommunication Systems 9 Traditional Molecular ...
Applications 10
Applications of Nanoscale Communication 11Biomedical applications Industrial appl...
Anti-ErbB2 Drug Delivery System (6) 12
Nanoparticle Drug Delivery (6) 13 Destruction of HER2 (ErbB2) over-expressing breast cancer cel...
Anti-ErbB2 Drug Delivery System (6) 14 Anti-cancer medication, Doxorubicin, encapsulated and d...
Anti-ErbB2 Nanoparticle Drug Delivery System from Macro to Nanoscale (6) 15
Anti-ErbB2 Drug Delivery System (6) 16 Transmitter Side Application Laye...
Nano-capsule containing Doxorubicin withprotective Polyethylene Glycol coating (6) 17
Transmitter Side (6) 18 Network: end-to end addressing of packet  Targeting: use monoc...
Receiver Side (6) 19 Physical: packet arrives Network: packet latches to target receptor...
Error Control in Over-Expressing Cell (6) 20
Design of Nanomachines 21
Nano-device fabrication via DNA Scaffolding(4) 22 Using DNA scaffolding in which nano-components a...
Molecular Research Paper – Analysis (5) 23 Nano-machine component...
Nano-Scale Propagation 24
Electromagnetic Research Paper – Analysis (8) 25Quantum-Based Nanosensor ...
Electromagnetic Approach – Analysis (3) 26o Multi-scale modeling and simulation of a...
Molecular Research Paper – Analysis (7) 27 Information Capacity in Molecular Com...
Nano Link Layer and Medium Access Control 28
Electromagnetic Approach – Analysis (9) 29 PHLAME: A Physical Layer Aware...
Molecular Research Paper – Analysis (10) 30 End to End Model  Molecul...
Ad-Hoc Nanonetworks 31
Ad-Hoc Nanonetworks (1) 32 ChallengesCarbon n...
Ad-Hoc Nanonetworks (2) 33Mobile Ad Hoc Nanonetworks with ChallengesCollisio...
Application Suggestions for Nanonetworks 34 Adaptive Plasma communities  Plasm...
References 351. Baris Atakan and Ozgur B. Akan, Carbon Nanotube- Based Nanoscale Ad Hoc...
References 366. Aaron T. Sharp, Sri M. Raja, Layered Communication Protocol for Macro to ...
References 37Elecromagnetic Sources Molecular Sources Source 1  Source...
of 37

Nanoscale Communication

Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Nanoscale Communication

  • 1. Nanoscale Communication 1 ANYA SKOMOROKHOVA JOSEPH KENNEDY ADEDAMOLA ALUKO
  • 2. Objective 2 Research the advancements made in the electromagnetic and biological/molecular domains of nanocommunication Investigate major problems and applications in nanoscale communication Form maps between traditional communication and nanoscale communication in wired, wireless, and nano settings
  • 3. Table of Contents 3 Overall Challenges in Nanonetworks Research Challenges in Molecular Nanonetworks Research Challenges in Electromagnetic Nanonetworks Comparison of Macro-networks vs. Nanonetworks Applications of Nanoscale Communication Anti-ErbB2 Drug Delivery System Ad-Hoc Nanonetworks Link Layer and Medium Access Control Design of Nanomachines Nanoscale Propagation Suggestions References
  • 4. Overall Challenges in Nanonetworks 4 Design & Development of Nanomachines (1,4,5) Modeling & Simulation Tools (2,7,10) Architecture & Communication Tools (2,4,5) Transceiver Architectures (2,5,6,10) New Energy Models (9) New routing protocols (+addressing mechanisms) (5,6,8,9) Transport layer solutions (1,4,6,8,9) Cross-layer solutions (2,4,5,6,10) Network connectivity & capacity (1,2,3,4,7)
  • 5. Research Challenges in Molecular Nanonetworks 5● How is the information encapsulated? o Can information be encapsulated in vesicles? (6)● How is the signal propagated? o Propagation via the use of Ca2 waves. (2,6)● How is the signal received? o Receiver will interpret the existence of a signal by monitoring the concentration of Ca2. (2,6)● How would the information be transported? o Use of protein cells as “molecular motors”. (7,6)● How is encoding and decoding accomplished? o Can this be accomplished via the use of Ca ions? (5,6)● Study of interference o How do molecular signals from multiple users interact? (10)
  • 6. Research Challenges in EM Nanonetworks 6 New communication techniques - (e.g. femtosecond long pulses in TS-00K (3)) New information encoding techniques - (e.g. low weight channel codes for interference mitigation under TS-00K (3,8)) New MAC protocols - (e.g. PHLAME (9) ) Accurate channel models - accounting for molecular absorption, molecular noise, etc. (1,3,4)
  • 7. Challenges Investigated 7 Design of Nanomachines  Sources 4,5 Nano-Scale Propagation  Sources 3,7,8 Nano Link Layer and Medium Access Control  Source 9,10 Creating Nano Ad-Hoc Networks  Sources 1,2
  • 8. Macro vs. Nano Networks 8 Macro- Nano -Communication Nano - Molecular Electromagnetic ElectromagneticCommunication Electromagnetic waves Molecules Electromagnetic waves carrier Signal type Electromagnetic Chemical Electromagnetic/pulse Extremely low (molecules Propagation Speed of Light physically transported by Speed of light Speed diffusion or bacteria) Medium Affect electromagnetic Affect electromagnetic Affect diffusion of molecules Conditions wave propagation wave propagation Brownian motion (random Electromagnetic fields Electromagnetic fields Noise drifting particles) and and signals, random and signals chemical molecular noise Power Electrical Chemical Electrical Consumption
  • 9. Molecular vs. TraditionalCommunication Systems 9 Traditional Molecular Information is Information is encoded in encoded using electromagnetic, molecules acoustic or optical signals Fast propagation Slower propagation speed speed due to impact of random diffusion processes and environmental conditions Noise – undesired Noise – undesired signal overlapped reaction occurring with signals between information transporting molecules and other information molecules in the medium Power – High energy Power – low power consumption consumption, chemically driven
  • 10. Applications 10
  • 11. Applications of Nanoscale Communication 11Biomedical applications Industrial applications -Health monitoring systems -Ultrahigh sensitivity touch surfaces -Drug delivery systems -Haptic interfaces -Future interconnected officeEnvironmental applications -Plants monitoring systems Military applications -Plagues defeating systems -Nuclear defenses -Damage detection systems
  • 12. Anti-ErbB2 Drug Delivery System (6) 12
  • 13. Nanoparticle Drug Delivery (6) 13 Destruction of HER2 (ErbB2) over-expressing breast cancer cells A HER2 protein is a surface cell receptor common to 20-30% of breast and ovarian cancers Method of selectively targeting breast cancer cells with reduced risk of accidental destruction of non- cancerous cells
  • 14. Anti-ErbB2 Drug Delivery System (6) 14 Anti-cancer medication, Doxorubicin, encapsulated and delivered to cells inhibiting HER2 receptors Specific type of cancer cell is targeted and delivered a payload  similar to the way a specific computer is targeted to receive a message
  • 15. Anti-ErbB2 Nanoparticle Drug Delivery System from Macro to Nanoscale (6) 15
  • 16. Anti-ErbB2 Drug Delivery System (6) 16 Transmitter Side Application Layer: form message, choose target  Reason for nanoparticle dispersal: cancerous infection  Determine type of medication: Doxorubicin Transport: form packet, ensure data integrity  Encapsulate packet by forming a lipid membrane around the drug  Protect packet by coating it with an inert substance (Polyethylene Glycol)  optimizes channel capacity  Nanoparticles are disguised to avoid ID by immune system
  • 17. Nano-capsule containing Doxorubicin withprotective Polyethylene Glycol coating (6) 17
  • 18. Transmitter Side (6) 18 Network: end-to end addressing of packet  Targeting: use monoclonal antibodies (Immunoliposomes) to target ErbB2 over- expressing breast cancer cells  Numerous antibodies placed on exterior of capsule Physical: packet injected into channel
  • 19. Receiver Side (6) 19 Physical: packet arrives Network: packet latches to target receptor  Targeting antibody attaches to an over expressing ErbB2 cell  Packet must reach destination, otherwise channel congestion increases toxicity to the patient Transport: data validation  2 levels of complex error checking  If packet rejected, it returns to the cell surface  similar to hard timeout in computer network Application Layer: message successful  Packet reaches lysosomes, where lysosomes of the cancerous cells destroy the nanoparticle  Medication is released, killing the cancerous cell
  • 20. Error Control in Over-Expressing Cell (6) 20
  • 21. Design of Nanomachines 21
  • 22. Nano-device fabrication via DNA Scaffolding(4) 22 Using DNA scaffolding in which nano-components are glued together by attaching complementary DNA strands in the parts that need to be connected
  • 23. Molecular Research Paper – Analysis (5) 23 Nano-machine components (1) Control unit. The nucleus can be (4) Power unit. Cells can include considered as the control unit of thedifferent nanomachines for power generation. One of them is the cell. It contains all the instructions mitochondrion that generates most to realize the intended cell functions of the chemical substances, which (2) Communication. The gap are used as energy in many cellular junctions and hormonal and processes. Another interesting pheromonal receptors, located on nano-machine is the chloroplast, the cell membrane, act as molecular which converts sunlight into transceivers for inter-cell chemical fuel communication (5) Sensors and actuators. Cells can (3) Reproduction. Several nano- include several sensors and machines are involved in the actuators such as the Transient reproduction process of the cell Receptor Potential channels for such as the centrosome and some tastes and the flagellum of the molecular motors. The code of the bacteria for locomotion. The nano-machine is stored in chloroplast of the plants can also be molecular sequences, considered as an actuator since it which are duplicated before the cell transforms water to oxygen that is division. Each resulting cell will later released to the environment contain a copy of the original DNA sequence
  • 24. Nano-Scale Propagation 24
  • 25. Electromagnetic Research Paper – Analysis (8) 25Quantum-Based Nanosensor Signal Coding  Converts sensed quantity 1. Electronic signals are into qubits for processing converted to quantum and information signals using a C/Q transmission converter and sent over link  Uses the quantum channel to 2. Upon reception, a Q/C send information to gain converter performs a better transmission rates measurement on the qubits to retrieve the original signal
  • 26. Electromagnetic Approach – Analysis (3) 26o Multi-scale modeling and simulation of advanced materials for EMC applicationso End-to-end communication in terms of noise, mutual information and, consequently, capacity and throughputo Suitable modulation and coding schemes, either derived from classical communication or newly defined, will help the design of the overall molecular communication system between nanoscale deviceso Network architectures and protocols based on molecular communication will enable a wide range of new applicationso Networking applications stemming from the establishment of molecular communication links among many nanoscale devices
  • 27. Molecular Research Paper – Analysis (7) 27 Information Capacity in Molecular Communication  Paper Focus:  Determination of “theoretical maximum achievable information rate” using Brownian motion  Modeling Process  Combine information theory and thermodynamics  Apply Molecular Communication to ideal gas system  Compute Information Entropy  Relate Information Signal Energy to the Enthalpy of the molecules carrying information  Results  Closed-form expression of diffusion-based MC Capacity, function of:  Bandwidth of the system  Volume, temperature and number of molecules  Transmitted power
  • 28. Nano Link Layer and Medium Access Control 28
  • 29. Electromagnetic Approach – Analysis (9) 29 PHLAME: A Physical Layer Aware MAC Protocol for Electromagnetic Nanonetworks In light of the very large number of nano-devices and the random nature of Nanonetworks, there is a need for new Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols Challengeso Limitation in the available energy of Nanodeviceso Classical MAC protocols are not directly applicable in pulse-based communication systems. Proposed Solutionso Rate Division Time Spread On-Off Keying - RD TS-OOK, a revised version of the communication scheme based on the exchange of femtosecond-long pulses, used in order to support different symbol and coding rateso A physical-aware MAC protocol for EM Nanonetworks, PHLAME, a new channel sharing protocol that adapts the RD TS-OOK coding parameters according to the transmitter and receiver perceived channel quality and available resources
  • 30. Molecular Research Paper – Analysis (10) 30 End to End Model  Molecule Diffusion Communication  Exchange of information encoded in the concentration variations of molecules  Brownian Motion used for the diffusion process  Study of end to end delay  Modeling Challenges  Transmitter  How chemical reactions allow the modulations of molecule concentrations as transmission signals  Propagation  How the “particle diffusion” controls the propagation of modulated concentrations  Receiver  How chemical reactions allow to sense the modulated molecule concentrations from the environment and translate them into received signals  Types of Noises  Diffusion –based Noises  Particle Sampling Noise (Transmitter Side)  Particle Counting Noise (Propagation Side)  Obtained variance of the noise as a functions of:  Chemical parameters (Rates of the binding/release reaction)  Number of receptors at the receiver
  • 31. Ad-Hoc Nanonetworks 31
  • 32. Ad-Hoc Nanonetworks (1) 32 ChallengesCarbon nanotube-based nanoscale Ad hoc o The scale of the communication devices isNETworks (CANETs) on the order of micrometers o Wireless communication is based on electromechanical vibrations in CNT receivers and transmitters o Communication signals are severely prone to thermal noise and fading o Molecular composition of the communication medium is crucial to model the path loss and noise terms o Signal power generated by transmitter circuitry is considerably insufficient o Dense deployment of devices is imperative for network connectivity o Nanoscale battery lifetime is significantly lower than existing solid-state batteries o Nanoscale memory and processors are considerably inefficient in data storage and computation
  • 33. Ad-Hoc Nanonetworks (2) 33Mobile Ad Hoc Nanonetworks with ChallengesCollision-Based Molecular Communication o Scale of the nanomachines is on the order of micrometers; therefore, classical transceiver circuitries cannot be mounted into nanomachines o Current encoding and decoding techniques are not feasible due to very limited processing capability of nanomachines o For in-vivo application scenarios, nanomachines need to be biocompatible in order not to be rejected by the organism o Mobility of nanomachines is governed by the physical rules in nanodomain o Communication or noise signal characteristics cannot be easily anticipated due to severely unreliable nature of the communication medium
  • 34. Application Suggestions for Nanonetworks 34 Adaptive Plasma communities  Plasma molecules that are comprised of nano-machines which are capable of DNA composition with other molecules within close proximity. This would reduce the need for blood transfusions and organ replacements Smart Paint  Paint created with nano-particles that are capable of changing their surface composition and hence capable of reflecting light at different colors. This will allow consumers to have clothes, cars, houses etc for which we can “program” the colors desired at any given time Inter-personal Neuropathic gateways  Make it possible for people to share shorts via nano-particles similar to the whole pheromone process. These nano-machines will be computers capable of interpreting and storing brain wave activity. People will be able to share thoughts through this method of particle diffusion. 3D Dense Hologram imaging  Change the functionality of “Holograms” as we know it today. Instead of projecting light from multiple sources as we do today to form a hologram image, we will use Nano-machines to recreate a real 3D image
  • 35. References 351. Baris Atakan and Ozgur B. Akan, Carbon Nanotube- Based Nanoscale Ad Hoc Networks2. Aydin Guney and Baris Atakan, Mobile Ad Hoc Nanonetworks with Collision-Based Molecular Communication3. Ian F. Akyildiz, Josep Niquel Jornet, Massimiliano Pierobon, Propagation Models for Nanocommunication Networks4. Ian F. Akyildiz and Josep Niquel Jornet, Nano Communication Networks5. Ian F. Akyildiz, Fernando Brunetti, Christina Blazquez, Nanonetworks: A new communication paradigm
  • 36. References 366. Aaron T. Sharp, Sri M. Raja, Layered Communication Protocol for Macro to Nanoscale Communication Systems7. Andrew W. Eckford, Nanoscale Communication with Brownian Motion8. Lyguat Lee, Xie Xin, Geng-Sheng, A Novel Architecture of Quantum-Based Nanosensor Node for Future Wireless Sensor Networks9. Joan Capdevila Pujol, Josep Miquel Jornet, PHLAME: A Physical Layer Aware MAC Protocol for Electromagnetic Nanonetworks10. Massimiliano Pierobon, Ian F. Akyildiz, A Physical End-to- End Model for Molecular Communication in Nanonetworks
  • 37. References 37Elecromagnetic Sources Molecular Sources Source 1  Source 2 Source 3  Source 5 Source 4  Source 6 Source 8  Source 7 Source 9  Source 10

Related Documents