DOCAworldexhibitionsgroup
with
worldexhibitionsgroup.com
dontstopper.it
06.10.2015
Reproductions
New objects list & Sections
Throne
Section 1 - Entrance
The exhibition entrance is an emotional space that anticipates the Napoléon complex
history an...
Soldier
Section 2 - Training
Consul
Section 3 - Political Successes
Napoleon copy (scale 1:1) made of silicone,
dressed wi...
Emperor
Section 4 - Reforms
General
Section 5 - Military Successes
Napoleon copy (scale 1:1) made of silicone,
dressed wit...
Exile
Section 6 - Final Synthesis
Napoleon copy (scale 1:1) made of silicone,
dressed with reproductions clothes trait
fro...
Death Bed
Section 7 - Exit
The duplicate of the Napoléon death bed becomes the final synthesis of the exhibition.
Include ...
Other reproduction objects
Exhibition Itinerary
1. Heavy artillery
Battery of heavy artillery reproduction
(scale 1:1), co...
Other reproduction objects
Exhibition Itinerary
3. Heads, Uniforms and
objects of Napoleonic army
A lot of reproductions o...
Experience
Multimedia Installations
Immersive installation
Battles graphic animations
Interactive Code
A audio-video 360 degrees installation that
reproduces ...
Sonoro
Live Paintings
Films
Along the exhibition some great pictures
that represent important moments of
Napoleon’s life w...
fondationnapoleon.org
06.10.2015
Fondation Napoléon
7 rue Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 75005 Paris
The Fondation Napoléon is a registered charity committed to t...
First Objects List
Soldier
Chapeau de Napoléon (with musées et partenaires)
Verre de campagne INV 1190
Lunette de campagne...
Selected Objects
Old objects list & Comments
Soldier
Chapeau de Napoléon (with museum et partners)
This hat was used for Waterloo battle. In his life, Napoléon takes 1...
Consul
Boite au portrait de Napoléon par Isabey INV 1055
Portrait de Joséphine par Augustin INV 670
Bol à Punch de Joséphi...
Emperor
Code civil des français aux armes B6402
Montre à tact Bréguet INV 603
This watch is an incredible example of Frenc...
General
Buste du général Bonaparte INV 43
Partie du cabaret à thé égyptien INV 794
Paire de feux INV 811
Voyage dans la ba...
Exil
Œuvres complètes par Arnault B6391
All his life, Napoléon was a great reader. His bibliotheca contains
thousand and t...
Napoleon’s hunting gun
Jean Le Page (1746-1834)
Signed Le Page à Paris – Arquebusier de l’Empereur
Engraved inscription “I...
Personal Table Service of the Emperor
Sèvres manufactory
Nineteen plates from the Emperor’s personal service
1807-1811
Har...
same campaigns, and with views of Paris, imperial residences, great institutions of the French
Empire and major works comp...
Tact Pocket Watch
Braham-Louis Breguet (1747-1823)
“Montre à tact” belonging to Jerome Bonaparte, King of Westphalia
1809,...
Tapered ‘Fuseau’ Vase
Sèvres Manufactury, Tapered “fuseau” vase, 2nd size, 1812
Dark blue (“beau bleu”) ground, reserve wi...
The Battle of Marengo
Swebach-Desfontaines (1769-1823) aka : Jacques-François-Joseph Swebach
Oil on wood
Signed halfway up...
The French Civil Code or Code Civil, 21
March, 1804
Red morocco
H:20,9 W:13,6 D:4,5
B 6402, donation Lapeyre
The context
A...
consulte in March 1802, by which he gave himself the power to appoint the members of the
corps and therefore to create an ...
'Etruscan carafe' vase: Baptism of the Roi de
Rome
IMPERIAL MANUFACTORY Sèvres
1812
hard porcelain, gilt bronze
H. 44 cm
I...
names of Paris, Rome and Amsterdam. He received 300 F for his work. The ornaments on the
vase were painted by Claude-Antoi...
Egyptian tea-service
IMPERIAL MANUFACTORY Sèvres
1810
Hard-paste porcelain
Inv 794, Paris, Fondation Napoléon
Part of an E...
nine teacups, "Calis ou Canal qui conduit l'Eau au Caire" (the Calis or Canal bringing Water
to Cairo"), "Vue d'Alexandrie...
Josephine's Punch Bowl
BIENNAIS Martin-Guillaume (1764-1843)
Between 1805 and 1810
Gilt-silver
H. 25.5 cm; W. 32 cm
Inv 56...
Napoleon I's nécessaire dentaire
BIENNAIS Martin-Guillaume (attributed to)
Pre-1815
Amboyna, mahogany, gold, steel, crysta...
Napoleon's English Lessons
BONAPARTE Napoléon (1769-1821)
1816-1817
8 handwritten pages, on two sheets of paper, watermark...
at Longwood: ““my wife shall come near to me,” he translates, “my son shall be great and
strong if he will be able to trin...
Napoleon's Hat
POUPARD et DELAUNAY
Pre 1815
Felt, silk
Musée de l’Armée or Musée de Sens
"There you sit, infamous hat!" wa...
Napoleon I in coronation robes
JAQUOTOT Mire-Victoire (1772-1855), after GIRODET de ROUSSY-TRIOSON
Anne-Louis
1813-1814
Po...
NAPOLEON Object presentation
NAPOLEON Object presentation
of 41

NAPOLEON Object presentation

Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - NAPOLEON Object presentation

  • 1. DOCAworldexhibitionsgroup with worldexhibitionsgroup.com dontstopper.it 06.10.2015
  • 2. Reproductions New objects list & Sections
  • 3. Throne Section 1 - Entrance The exhibition entrance is an emotional space that anticipates the Napoléon complex history and introduce the large contributions visible during of the exhibition tour. The Throne and the imperial curtains, in center of the space, becomes the main item that define the exhibition entrance and exit. This area becomes the union space between the ticket office, the shop, the photos area, the communications area, the events area, etc. Throne copy - scale 1:1
  • 4. Soldier Section 2 - Training Consul Section 3 - Political Successes Napoleon copy (scale 1:1) made of silicone, dressed with reproductions clothes trait from artistic iconography of the period. Napoleon copy (scale 1:1) made of silicone, dressed with reproductions clothes trait from artistic iconography of the period.
  • 5. Emperor Section 4 - Reforms General Section 5 - Military Successes Napoleon copy (scale 1:1) made of silicone, dressed with reproductions clothes trait from artistic iconography of the period. Napoleon copy (scale 1:1) made of silicone, dressed with reproductions clothes trait from artistic iconography of the period.
  • 6. Exile Section 6 - Final Synthesis Napoleon copy (scale 1:1) made of silicone, dressed with reproductions clothes trait from artistic iconography of the period.
  • 7. Death Bed Section 7 - Exit The duplicate of the Napoléon death bed becomes the final synthesis of the exhibition. Include all the information about his death and all the curiosities collected during the exhibition. In this particular exhibition section, visitors can learn in detail the stages of exile until death. Also they are able to discover all the curiosities and unknown stories, including his escape attempt, the death mystery and the Napoléon legends. Death bed copy - scale 1:1
  • 8. Other reproduction objects Exhibition Itinerary 1. Heavy artillery Battery of heavy artillery reproduction (scale 1:1), complete with all tools, in a small land reproduction. 2. Tomb Small section maquette of the Napoleon tomb that shows the layering of the shells that containing the Emperor body.
  • 9. Other reproduction objects Exhibition Itinerary 3. Heads, Uniforms and objects of Napoleonic army A lot of reproductions of hats, uniforms, weapons and objects in real size and made with original materials.
  • 10. Experience Multimedia Installations
  • 11. Immersive installation Battles graphic animations Interactive Code A audio-video 360 degrees installation that reproduces the battles environment in their different phases (shelling, cavalry, infantry attack) that causes the viewer the same state of mind of a person in the battle. System of video installations along the exhibition show the performance of the most important battles and illustrate the strategic and tactical genius of Napoleon. Next to original copy of the Napoleonic Code, a video interactive device will allow the visitor to glance through the pages of the digital version.
  • 12. Sonoro Live Paintings Films Along the exhibition some great pictures that represent important moments of Napoleon’s life will be used as basis for the animated paintings. A video installation is dedicated to the collection of short scenes from the films and documentaries that, over time, have told the napoleon life and his deeds. The different sections of the exhibition will feature a dedicated soundtrack, inspired by the music of the time, the military marches, the sounds of daily life and battles. The soundtrack will be coordinated with the contents of the audio guide that will drive the visitor along the exhibition.
  • 13. fondationnapoleon.org 06.10.2015
  • 14. Fondation Napoléon 7 rue Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 75005 Paris The Fondation Napoléon is a registered charity committed to the encouragement of the study of and interest in the history of the First and Second Empires, and the preservation of Napoleonic heritage. The Fondation also supports the organisation of academic conferences, Napoleonic bicentenary and sesqui-centenary commemorations, Napoleonic book publication and Napoleonic exhibition catalogues. Organises exhibitions of its collection of fine art and historical memorabilia, etc. (Exhibitions includes Paris (2004), São Paulo, (2003) Brazil, Monterrey Mexico (2005), Minden (2006) Germany) and loans items from the collection to prestigious exhibition worldwide.
  • 15. First Objects List Soldier Chapeau de Napoléon (with musées et partenaires) Verre de campagne INV 1190 Lunette de campagne PAR 5 La Bataille de Marengo par Swebach INV 764 Nécessaire d’hygiène dentaire INV 286 Consul Boite au portrait de Napoléon par Isabey INV 1055 Portrait de Joséphine par Augustin INV 670 Bol à Punch de Joséphine INV 567 Portrait de Napoléon Ier par Lefebvre INV 91 Légion d’Honneur INV 901 Emperor Code civil des français aux armes B6402 Montre à tact Bréguet INV 603 Vase fuseau Napoléon en costume du sacre INV 1165 Vase fuseau Baptême du Roi de Rome INV 1166 Portrait de Napoléon en costume du sacre par Jacquotot INV 654 Assiettes des Quartiers Généraux INV 792.12, INV 417, INV 792.13 Pièce de 20 francs or “Napoléon Empereur” 1808 INV 926   General Buste du général Bonaparte INV 43 Partie du cabaret à thé égyptien INV 794 Paire de feux INV 811 Voyage dans la basse et haute Egypte de Vivant Denon BRA 12 Epée de l’institut d’Egypte PAR 46 Exil Œuvres complètes par Arnault B6391 Leçons d’anglais INV 1153 Fusil de chasse de Napoléon INV 1111 Masque mortuaire de Napoléon INV 1179
  • 16. Selected Objects Old objects list & Comments
  • 17. Soldier Chapeau de Napoléon (with museum et partners) This hat was used for Waterloo battle. In his life, Napoléon takes 120 copies of this model Poupard (most of them when they are so used ended our life like handles of smoothing-iron). Very common hat, the emperor creates with it and his redingote a very simple style of appearance comparing to his officers. So, in military campaign, everybody can recognize him easily and he can impress by this way his enemies. Napoléon always says: “50 000 soldiers and me, it’s like 150 000 soldiers”. And really, the Napoléon arrival changes the atmosphere in the battlefield. French soldiers are galvanized and enemies afraid. Verre de campagne INV 1190 This glass in christal (with Napoléon marks N with crown) was with Napoléon during Russian campaign in 1812. In strong quality, he looks like a glass whisky but he was used for the vine. Napoléon drinks usually red vine Chambertin cut with water. For the Russian campaign, the household of Napoléon have prepared an incredible quantity of alcohol (nearly 3 000 bottles) for the emperor and his suit. During the awful retreat, they helped to stay in life. Lunette de campagne PAR 5 For Napoléon, the most important before the attacks was the intelligence. Spies and observation are an important part of his strategy. With so kind of lunette, he tries to understand enemies movements and anticipate armies movements. Like a mathematician, he calculates everything to give very precise orders, best way to win. La Bataille de Marengo par Swebach INV 764 Nécessaire d'hygiène dentaire INV 286 This Nécessaire was used by Napoléon probably at the battle of Waterloo. The emperor was uncompromising with hygiene. He takes a lot of bath and clean teeth very often even in military campaign.
  • 18. Consul Boite au portrait de Napoléon par Isabey INV 1055 Portrait de Joséphine par Augustin INV 670 Bol à Punch de Joséphine INV 567 Portrait de Napoléon Ier par Lefebvre INV 91 Légion d'Honneur INV 901
  • 19. Emperor Code civil des français aux armes B6402 Montre à tact Bréguet INV 603 This watch is an incredible example of French knowledge in luxury industries. Also, it’s an excellent example of civility in French imperial court. With this system (12 diamonds for 12 hours and needles in relief), you can read easily the hour in your pocket discreetly. The summum of French “politesse”. Vase fuseau Napoléon en costume du sacre INV 1165 Vase fuseau Baptême du Roi de Rome INV 1166 Portrait de Napoléon en costume du sacre par Jacquotot INV 654 Assiettes des Quartiers Généraux INV 792.12, INV 417, INV 792.13 This serial of plates (see details in notice) have an incredible story. The Manufacture de Sévres realized for Napoléon their best production with this serial. When Louis XVIII returned in France in 1814, he recuperated this service and erased Napoléon marks. Of course, he puts his royals marks in place as everywhere in the French palaces (Egyptian pharaohs have the same method in order to forget their predecessor on the palace walls). In 1815, when Napoléon returned from Elba, this service returned to imperial household but they stay with their marks. Favorite plates of the emperor, he takes with him to Saint-Helena (they were presented for specials moments). So, until his death, he lives with them and their royals marks ! Pièce de 20 francs or "Napoléon Empereur" 1808 INV 926 During the French Revolution, coins were anonymous. During Consulate, Napoléon decide to put his face on the new money the Franc like Bourbons or roman emperors before. To protest, some revolutionary French decide to impress a mark on coins at the level of the neck. The message was : “Be careful Napoléon ! If not, the guillotine is also for you !”
  • 20. General Buste du général Bonaparte INV 43 Partie du cabaret à thé égyptien INV 794 Paire de feux INV 811 Voyage dans la basse et haute Egypte de Vivant Denon BRA 12 These gigantic books are the first published in France before Egypt campaign. They celebrated Bonaparte and Egyptian antiques. Their success was so great and they are considered as the first step for Egyptology movement in France and in the world. Epée de l'institut d'Egypte PAR 46
  • 21. Exil Œuvres complètes par Arnault B6391 All his life, Napoléon was a great reader. His bibliotheca contains thousand and thousand books. In Saint-Helena, he takes a lot of books and also received. Leçons d'anglais INV 1153 In Saint-Helena, Napoléon wants to learn English with his companions. He needs to read English newspapers and books. May be, he keep hope to reach US like he dreamed before ? Fusil de chasse de Napoléon INV 1111 See English notice. Before to surrender to the English fleet, he gives this gun to captain Besson who wanted help him to go to the US. When Napoléon takes from Paris this hunting gun in 1815, he believes to join Philadelphia or another US city and hunting like in Europa. Masque mortuaire de Napoléon INV 1179 For the mystery of the death masks of Napoléon see http://www.napoleon.org/en/reading_room/articles/files/484809.asp
  • 22. Napoleon’s hunting gun Jean Le Page (1746-1834) Signed Le Page à Paris – Arquebusier de l’Empereur Engraved inscription “Ile d’Aix le 15 juillet à 8 heures du soir, 1815″ Walnut, silver, gold, iron, steel, copper L. 133 cm Inv. 1111, donation Lapeyre This large hunting gun was presented by Napoleon to Captain Besson on 14 July 1815 as a final gift of thanks for having organised an escape attempt to America. After his defeat at Waterloo on 18 June 1815 and his abdication on 22 June, Napoléon had reached Rochefort on the following 3 July where two frigates, La Saale and La Méduse, had been put at his disposal by the provisional government to take him to America. However, as the wait for safe- conducts dragged on and in the face of uncertainty surrounding the fate of the emperor who had sought refuge on the Isle of Aix, several escape projects were submitted to him including that of naval lieutenant Jean-Victor Besson (1781-1837). This officer offered to take Napoleon aboard La Magdalena, a brig flying the Danish flag, property of his father-in-law, which was transporting eau de vie for the house of Pelletreau de Rochefort. Two empty casks had been lined with padding for use as a hiding place should the English inspect the vessel. This project was accepted by Napoleon and gave rise to a false charter contract signed between Besson and Las Cases. On 13 July, with departure planned for that very night, Napoleon informed Besson of his decision to surrender to the English. The luggage was unloaded during the day of 14 July and, in the evening, Napoléon received Besson, who later gave his own account of events and of this final interview: “As soon as the Emperor saw me come in he came up to me and said, ‘Captain, I thank you once again, as soon as you are free of this place, come and see me in England. I shall no doubt’, he added with a smile, need a person of your character again’ […] then from the weapons for his personal use which were stacked in a corner of the room he took a sumptuous double-barrelled gun which he had taken with him hunting for many years and, holding it out to me, said in a voice full of emotion, ‘I have nothing left in this world to give you, my friend, but this gun. Please take it as a reminder of me.’”. La Magdalena set sail that very evening without its illustrious passenger and got past the English fleet without any bother. Left destitute by the Restoration, Besson tried his hand without much enthusiasm at maritime commerce then put himself at the service of Mehemet Ali, ending his career as Vice-Admiral and Major-General of the Egyptian fleet. Napoleon’s gun, handed down from generation to generation, remained in the Besson family until 1977, when it was put up for auction at Drouot and acquired by Martial Lapeyre. Photographs © Fondation Napoléon – Patrice Maurin-Berthier
  • 23. Personal Table Service of the Emperor Sèvres manufactory Nineteen plates from the Emperor’s personal service 1807-1811 Hard-paste porcelain D. 24 cm Inv. 30, acquired 1991, inv. 414 to 418 and inv. 792 A to M, donation Lapeyre Having parted with the Olympic dinner service, presented to the Tsar, then with another known as the service “à zones d’or” to Caulaincourt’s embassy in Russia, Napoleon decided in October 1807 to commission a dinner service from the Sèvres manufactury which would be destined for the imperial table and known as the Emperor’s personal service. It was divided into four separate sets:  a service for the first course consisting of 24 soup plates (1 at Fontainebleau), 8 butter dishes, 18 custard cups (pots à jus) and 4 salad bowls;  a dessert service consisting of 24 serving dishes, 12 fruit dishes (2 at Fontainebleau), 4 ice-cream urns (3 at Fontainebleau), 4 sugar bowls (3 at Fontainebleau), 10 baskets of various sizes and a set of 72 richly painted plates, to which ours belong;  a 25-piece biscuit table centrepiece (surtout) comprising 16 antique-style figures, a chariot drawn by two horses, and miniature candelabra, trivets, bowls and antique marble chairs (several items are at the Louvre museum) ;  a “cabaret” set comprising 24 cups and saucers, 3 sugar bowls, a creamer and a milk jug, all decorated with views of Egypt and heads of oriental characters. Like part of the dessert service, this coffee service followed the emperor to St Helena (most of it is in the Louvre museum); The cost of the whole service came to the princely sum of 65,449 F, compared with 53,400 F for the Olympic dinner service sent as a gift to Tsar Alexander in 1807. These dessert plates from the Emperor’s personal service are also known as the “Quartiers Généraux” service, a name given them by the loyal valet Marchand at the moment of departure for St Helena, perhaps in reference to the headquarters occupied by Napoleon during his campaigns, a number of which are depicted on the plates. The service consists of 72 flat plates depicting various subjects, including 28 provided by Napoleon himself: 4 for both the Italian campaigns, 15 featuring the Egyptian campaign, 3 the Austrian campaign and the 6 others the campaigns in Prussia and Poland. The director of the manufactury, Alexandre Brongniart, assisted by Vivant Denon, completed the list with other key moments in these
  • 24. same campaigns, and with views of Paris, imperial residences, great institutions of the French Empire and major works completed in the provinces. Each plate costs 425 F, more expensive than anything else at that time. For the design on the rim (marli), a border of antique two- edged swords has been used, designed in April 1807 by the father of the manufactury’s director, architect Alexandre-Théodore Brongniart. The decision was finally made to use the colour chrome green, recently perfected by the chemist Vauquelin. The painters were able to begin work in January 1808 to finish in March 1810, just in time for the service to be delivered on 27 March to the Tuileries Palace to be used at the great banquet of 2 April to mark the marriage of the Emperor with Marie-Louise. Including the various gifts made by the emperor, which made it necessary to produce additional items to match, Sèvres completed a total of 82 plates, although the table at the Tuileries was never set with more than 72 at any one time. The work of the painters was divided between Jacques-François Swebach (27 plates), Nicolas-Antoine Lebel (20 plates), Jean-François Robert (20 plates), Christophe- Ferdinand Caron (9 plates), Pierre-Jean Boquet (2 plates), Jean-Claude Rumeau (2 plates), Jean-Louis Demarne (1 plate) and François Gonord (1 plate). The gilding on the friezes, costing 25 F per plate, was entrusted to François-Antoine Boullemier and to his son, Antoine- Gabriel, while the gilding on the ornamentation was the task of Pierre-Jean-Baptiste Vandé. During the First Restoration, the 72 plates kept at the Tuileries were sent to Sèvres so as to grind off the inscriptions on the back along with the marks of the First Empire and replace them with the monogram of Louis XVIII, two Ls back-to-back painted in black. Napoleon was reunited with his service during the Hundred Days and, in June 1815, Fouché permitted him to take 60 plates to St Helena, the 12 others remaining at the Repository. The emperor did not use them at Longwood, keeping them to give as gifts to his entourage, so that by his death there were still 54 left. These plates were noticed by most of those present at St Helena. Bertrand recalls that after the death of the emperor, in accordance with the wishes of Lady Lowe, the furniture was replaced in the apartment and the porcelain plates displayed in the billiard room. Ali for his part, always precise in his descriptions, recounts how “at dinner [the emperor] would entertain himself by looking at the paintings on the plates of the fine Sèvres porcelain table service. I should point out that the Bourbons had had the monogram of Louis XVIII, back-to-back Ls, engraved on the bottom of these plates.” In an inventory dated 15 April 1821 appended to his will, Napoleon specifies: « 1° My medal. 2° My silverware and Sèvres porcelain which I used at St Helena. 3° I instruct Count Montholon to keep these items and pass them on to my son when he is sixteen years old.” Since the Court of Vienna had refused to accept this legacy, Montholon kept the plates and distributed them as he pleased; in 1851 the son of Las Cases still had 24 of them. Of the 19 plates belonging to the Fondation Napoléon, 15 were at St Helena, while the other 4 were sent by Napoleon in 1810 as gifts to his parents-in-law, the emperor and empress of Austria. The National Museum of Fontainebleau Palace has 22 on display, 9 of which are from the 12 retained in the Repository in 1815, one of these, broken, having been remade in 1824. 3 are kept at Malmaison Museum, 3 at the Royal Army Museum in Brussels, 2 at the Sèvres Museum, one at the Louvre Museum, one at the Napoleonic Museum in the Prince’s Palace at Monaco, and the others in private collections; only 8 plates remain unaccounted for. Photographs © Fondation Napoléon
  • 25. Tact Pocket Watch Braham-Louis Breguet (1747-1823) “Montre à tact” belonging to Jerome Bonaparte, King of Westphalia 1809, signed inside “Breguet N° 615″ Gold, silver, diamonds, pearls, enamel D. 5,5 cm Inv. 623, donation Lapeyre Swiss-born Abraham-Louis Breguet completed his apprenticeship under an horlogist in Versailles before founding his own house in Paris in 1775; he became a master in 1784 and produced numerous technical masterpieces, as well as making many inventions and discoveries. He worked for all the courts in Europe and, during the French Empire, counted among his clients Bonaparte, Josephine, Talleyrand, and even Caroline Murat for whom he made the first ever wristwatch in 1810. His creations include “montres à tact” which, as well as enabling the wearer to tell the time in the traditional fashion by opening the watch-case, also enabled them to tell the time in the dark by means of a hand on top of the watch-case pointing to twenty-four raised studs made of diamond and pearl, twelve large and twelve small, positioned all around the face. The diamonds indicate the hours, and the pearls the half-hours. According to the Duke of Wellington, these “tactful” watches were used by young people who wanted to be able to tell the time discreetly and who, out of courtesy, consulted their watches by touch alone, without taking them out of their pocket. This particularly magnificent example was sold by Breguet on 14 December 1809 to the King of Westphalia, Jerome Bonaparte. A watch of this kind might be worth 1000 to 2000 F for a simple model and might be worth up to 5000 F when decorated with precious stones. Photographs © Fondation Napoléon- Patrice Maurin-Berthier
  • 26. Tapered ‘Fuseau’ Vase Sèvres Manufactury, Tapered “fuseau” vase, 2nd size, 1812 Dark blue (“beau bleu”) ground, reserve with portrait of the Emperor in his Coronation robes Hard-paste porcelain, gilt bronze H. 54.5 cm Inv. 1165, acquired 2002 Founded in Vincennes in 1740, the Paris porcelain manufactury was transferred to Sèvres in 1756 and placed under royal patronage. It supplied every regime from this time on, and from 1800 began providing a propaganda service for Napoleon Bonaparte. Besides the sumptuous porcelain tableware destined for the imperial palaces, it supplied numerous vases, tables and even columns celebrating the major events of his reign. Between 1806 and 1813 the Sèvres manufactury produced only eleven tapered “fuseau” vases decorated with a portrait of the Emperor: one on a pale blue ground, six on a blue ground and four on a green ground, some of which were part of a pair with a corresponding piece decorated with a portrait of the empress, Josephine until 1809, then Marie-Louise until the end of the Empire. Of these eleven vases, eight reproduced the bust of Napoleon dressed in his Coronation robes after the painting by François Gérard. Our vase is one of the latest examples in the series, and features the richest ornamentation of all: the body of the vase is covered in a semy of bees. It entered the salesroom on 6 May 1812 at a manufacture price of 1153 F and a sales price of 2000 F. Delivered to the Tuileries Palace on 28 December 1812, it was offered in 1813 by Empress Marie-Louise as an “étrenne”, or Christmas/New Year gift, to the Duchess of Elchingen, wife of Maréchal Ney, maiden name Aglaé-Louise or Eglé Auguié (1782-1854). Photographs © Fondation Napoléon – Patrice Maurin-Berthier
  • 27. The Battle of Marengo Swebach-Desfontaines (1769-1823) aka : Jacques-François-Joseph Swebach Oil on wood Signed halfway up on right: “Swebach 1801″ H. 48 ; W. 87 cm Inv.764, donation Lapeyre The French Revolutionary Wars enabled Swebach to practise his talent as a draughtsman very early on, sketching from life, in pencil or ink, scenes which were then reworked in wash or watercolour. The Napoleonic campaigns next offered him multiple subjects and, abandoning the military anecdote for a while, he made a little foray into historical painting by depicting battles. In this way, at the Salon of Year X (1802), he exhibited two canvases, “La Bataille de Maringo” (sic), “Bataille de Zurich”, and a painted sketch, “La bataille du Mont-Thabor” (no. 267, 268 and 269 of the catalogue). Two of these paintings – Marengo and Mont-Thabor – found favour with the First Consul, who asked Vivant Denon to purchase them. These two works had no doubt already been sold, as there is no evidence to suggest that Denon was able to acquire them. The battles of Marengo and Zurich reappeared for public auction in Paris in 1995. For “La bataille de Marengo” at the Salon of 1802, Swebach had shown a precise episode in the fighting of 14 June 1800 – the arrival of Bonaparte at the moment a caisson explodes, Kellermann’s attack and the death of Desaix – i.e. the subject depicted by Lejeune in his painting presented to the Salon of 1801, and exhibited a second time in 1802 because of its success. The Battle of Marengo kept in the collections of the Fondation Napoléon predates the painting of the Salon of 1802. This oil on panel, signed 1801, reveals the artist’s full talent as he here demonstrates his fascination with Dutch painting. Swebach chronicled the daily life of Napoleon’s armies on campaign. Troops on the march, rest-stops by soldiers and cavalrymen, vivandières, bivouacs, camps, and convoys of equipment and supplies were the painter’s preferred subject material. Using a miniature format, Swebach was able to lend scope to a vast composition, a remarkable landscape in which a multitude of groups are harmoniously arranged and depicted with minute attention to detail. The fine execution of the whole, the precision of the draughtsmanship and subtlety of touch make this little painting a masterpiece. In 1803, Swebach painted a new version of the battle of Marengo for the Sèvres manufactury, on a plate (Sèvres Museum depository at the Malmaison Museum) and on a platter (Ermitage Museum), two works included in the Empress Josephine’s collections. Photographs © Fondation Napoléon – Patrice Maurin-Berthier
  • 28. The French Civil Code or Code Civil, 21 March, 1804 Red morocco H:20,9 W:13,6 D:4,5 B 6402, donation Lapeyre The context As early as the 15th century, the royal houses of France instigated the collection of laws regulating human relations - some Roman laws based on the Justinian code, and other based on common custom, the former being written down (and having jurisdiction not only over France but also Alsace) and the latter oral, customary and essentially local, naturally open to abuse. It was often from bitter experience that people would utter the saying, 'God preserve me from the law'! Firmly in the tradition of the enlightnement, the Revolutionary Assemblée Nationale tried to put order in the chaos by passing a decree on 2 September 1791 ordering the redaction of a 'Code des lois civiles du royaume' (Code of civil laws for the kingdom), naming Cambacérès (link) as president of the 'Comité de Législation' (Legislation Committee), the body appointed to draw up the code. But the instability of the period made it impossible to adopt the different projects presented in 1793, 1794 and 1796. Redaction and discussions of the Code civil After the Second Italian campaign (link), Bonaparte asked Cambacérès to take on once again the task of leading a commission appointed to draw up a code of laws - the Consular bill was passed on 24 Thermidor, An VIII (18 August, 1800). the commission comprised two jurists specialising in common/customary oral law - Bigot de Préameneu and Tronchet - and two jurists specialising in written law - Maleville and Portalis. It took only four months to compose the articles - many had presumably already been written and Cambacérès had already published some of his initial work in the Discours préliminarie du projet du code civil in 1796. However, once written the articles had subsequently to be discussed in the Tribunal de Cassation, the Tribunaux d'Appel, and finally in the Conseil d'Etat. During the sittings of the Conseil d'Etat, with Napoleon in the chair (or Cambacérès when the FIrst Consul was absent), which began on 17 July, 1801, the discussions between the partisans of the two legal styles, common and written, were 'free and frank'. The First Consul took advantage of the annual renewal (by ballot) of a fifth of the members of the Corps législatif to pass a sénatus-
  • 29. consulte in March 1802, by which he gave himself the power to appoint the members of the corps and therefore to create an atmosphere favourable to his project. The Code civil: contents and form Comprising 36 laws and 2,281 articles, arranged in 3 parts consecrated to people, goods and property, written in a clear and concise style so as to avoid any ambiguity, the Code civil was "a body of laws designed to direct and fix social, familial and commercial relations betwen men of the same city" (Portalis: Exposé général). More traditional than some of his more Revolutionary colleagues, Bonaparte left his mark on the Code civil by reimposing the superiority of the husband and father in the family context. Women passed from being under the control of their fathers to beeing under the control of their husbands, and were unable to perform any juridical act or administer their goods without their agreement - they were not even permitted to exercise freely the profession of their choice. It was only after the age of 25 that children were no longer under the authority of their father and could marry without asking his permission. Fathers were also permitted to send their children to places of correction in cases where they thought the child's behaviour unacceptable. Finally, nationality was trasmitted only by the father - the only people who could be French were those whose father was French. There were other measures which retained more of their Revolutionary inspiration, such as that concerning divorce (which was permitted only by mutual consent) and the equality of children in terms of inheritance. Adoption, only authorised for people who had reached the age of responsibility, was similarly regulated by the Code civil. Conclusion The new laws concerning property swept away the feudal traditions (some of which centuries old) and formed the basis of profound and lasting social change. Furthermore, the Code civil, both in France and in continental Europe, fixed in the peoples' minds ideas such as the fundamental rights and duties of man, equality, citizenship, freedom of conscience and expression, and the protection of property. The work of the Code Civil was completed by the adoption of a code of civil procedure in 1806, a Code de Commerce in 1807, a Code d'Instruction Criminelle in 1808 and a Code Pénal in 1810. Finally it was in 1807 that the Code Civil took on the name, the Code Napoléon.
  • 30. 'Etruscan carafe' vase: Baptism of the Roi de Rome IMPERIAL MANUFACTORY Sèvres 1812 hard porcelain, gilt bronze H. 44 cm Inv 1166, Paris, Fondation Napoléon Full title: ‘Etruscan carafe' vase, fine blue ground, roundel representing the Roi de Rome baptism medal painted in the cameo style. This vase was painted in 1812, and the Emperor gave it as a new year's gift in 1813 to Comtesse de Noailles, who had been appointed Lady in waiting to the Empress Marie-Louise the preceding year. Queen Hortense described the countess in her Mémoires as «Madame Just de Noailles, who was always kind and good». The Comtesse de Noailles's maiden name had been Françoise-Xavière-Mélanie-Honorine de Talleyrand-Périgord (1785-1863). She was Talleyrand's niece, and in 1803 she married Antoine-Claude-Dominique-Just de Noailles (1777-1846), the second son of the Duc de Mouchy, whom Napoleon made one of his chamberlains in 1806 and then Comte de l'Empire in 1810. The form of the vase, called Etruscan carafe, is an exact replica of a Greek vase from the collection which Denon sold to the king in 1785. This vase was deposited at the manufactory the following year with the aim of encouraging the artists to give better imitations of Antiquity. The central motif of the vase is a copy of the official medal cast by the Paris Mint and engraved by Bertrand Andrieu (1761-1822) after a drawing by Louis Lafitte (1770- 1828); Andrieu exhibited the medal at the Salon of 1812. The painting of the vase was entrusted to Jean-Marie Degault or De Gault (1765-1818), a painter at the Sèvres manufactory from 1808 to 1817 who specialised in the imitation of cameos and hard stones. Degault managed to combine on a single medallion both the obverse and reverse of the original medal, placing forty-nine crowns symbolising the principle towns of the empire around the figure of the Emperor holding his son above the baptismal font, and capping the composition with the
  • 31. names of Paris, Rome and Amsterdam. He received 300 F for his work. The ornaments on the vase were painted by Claude-Antoine Déperais, ornament painter at the Sèvres manufactory from 1798 to 1822, and the hands of justice around the belly of the base were done by Jean- François Davignon, active from 1807 to 1813. The bronze work was done by the celebrated goldsmith Thomire. The vase went on sale on 28 December, 1812 at a cost price of 850 F and a buyer's price of 1,200 F. © Fondation Napoléon - Patrice Maurin-Berthier
  • 32. Egyptian tea-service IMPERIAL MANUFACTORY Sèvres 1810 Hard-paste porcelain Inv 794, Paris, Fondation Napoléon Part of an Egyptian tea service, composed of a teapot and nine teacups and saucers in the "Denon-Etruscan form", all in a beautiful deep blue, decorated with gold hieroglyphics and vignettes representing various sights in Egypt. On 7 January 1810, just three weeks after his divorce, Napoleon wrote to Joséphine from his Palais des Tuileries: "I have ordered the production of a very beautiful porcelain service. On your designs it shall be very beautiful indeed." With a budget of 30,000 F, the divorced empress immediately ordered a replica version of the Egyptian table service that she liked immensely, a service that the Emperor had sent as a diplomatic gift to the tsar (today held in the Museum of Ceramics and the 18th Century on the Kuskovo Estate in Moscow). Before the new table service was delivered, and having returned one to the manufacturers because its style she judged too "severe" (today held at Apsley House, London), she received in the autumn of 1811 the tea service that would accompany it. Between 1808 and 1813, the manufactory at Sèvres would produce no fewer than seven tea services, of which two went to the Empress; the first, costing 1,672 F, was given to her by the Emperor on 29 December 1808 as a new-year's gift (service n° 2, today held at the Musée de Malmaison), and the second, costing 1,984 F, was given to her on 31 October 1811 (service n° 4, begun at the Sèvres manufactory on 5 December 1810, today held at the Fondation Napoléon). Originally composed of eighteen teacups and saucers in the "Denon-Etruscan style" (1,296 F), an Egyptian tripod sugar bowl (180 F), a ribbed Etruscan sugar pot (80 F), a "Denon-Etruscan" teapot (150 F), an Egyptian bowl or basin (150 F), a trefoil-rimmed cream- jug (48 F) and a lipped milk-jug in the Etruscan style (80 F); only the teapot and half of the teacups and saucers remain. The majority are styled on the Greek vases that Denon himself actually sold to the king in 1785, the aim being to open up the manufacturers to the antique style, explaining thus the fact that a number of the pieces carry Denon's name. The scenes represented on the service are: on the teapot, "Vue d'Edfou du Nord au Sud" ("View of Edfu from North to South") and "Sépultures arabes à Zaoye" ("Arab burials at Zaoye"); and on the
  • 33. nine teacups, "Calis ou Canal qui conduit l'Eau au Caire" (the Calis or Canal bringing Water to Cairo"), "Vue d'Alexandrie" ("View of Alexandria"), "Tombeau des Mahometans" ("Tomb of the Mohammedans"), "Vue de Bénécê" ("View of Bahnasa"), "Vue de basse Egypte" ("View of lower-Egypt"), "Antinoé Vu du Nil" ("Antinopolis Viewed from the Nile"), "Vue de la basse Egypte" ("View of lower-Egypt"), "Village de Nagadi dans le désert" ("the village of Nagadi in the desert"), and "Pyramides de Ssakarah" ("Pyramids of Saqqara"). These designs are based on engravings taken from Vivant Denon's Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte (Travels in Lower and Upper Egypt) which was published in 1802. The landscapes were painted between May and July 1810 by Nicolas-Antoine Lebel, active during the period 1804 to 1845, and the gilding, decoration and burnishing were completed between July and October by the ornemanist Pierre-Louis Micaud, active during the period 1794 to 1834. The majority of the cups are marked with the date 27 August, whilst the teapot carries the date of 27 September. The service went on sale on 5 December 1810, priced at 1,984 F. © Fondation Napoléon - P. Maurin-Berthier
  • 34. Josephine's Punch Bowl BIENNAIS Martin-Guillaume (1764-1843) Between 1805 and 1810 Gilt-silver H. 25.5 cm; W. 32 cm Inv 567, Paris, Fondation Napoléon The word "punch" comes from the Persian word for "five", so-called because the drink was composed of five elements: tea, sugar, rum or distilled spirit, cinnamon and lemon. The resulting mixture was put in a bowl, usually made of gold or porcelain, and served in tea-cups with special spoons. Every silver or vermeil table service would have a punch bowl, and Josephine's, produced by the goldsmith Martin-Guillaume Biennais, was no different. The punch bowl is gilt-silver, and comprises a large cup resting on a small bell-shaped pedestal, with a square base supported by feet in the form of an animal paw. On the base is the signature "BIENNAIS ORF.re de L.L. M.M. IMPERIALES ET ROYALES A PARIS". Just above the laurel border on the bowl is a design, in bas-relief, of a youthful Neptune driving his sea-horses. He is flanked by winged putti, bearing crowns and either on horseback (left) or on the back of a bull (right). The handles are mounted on the bowl in a bearded-man design. Josephine's crowned insignia is engraved on the belly of the cup. Josephine's punch bowl, which came with three spoons, was kept at Malmaison in a room below the library, along with her other items of gold. Following her death, one of the spoons went to Eugène, whilst the other two and the bowl were passed down to Hortense. The bowl reappeared in her bedroom at her home in Konstanz where she spent the early years of her exile. It was not unusual to find such an item in the bedroom, a common practice being to take a draught of punch before going to bed, thus ensuring a calm and gentle sleep. In September 1827, the punch bowl was transferred to Italy after Hortense began renting a first-floor apartment in the Ruspoli palace. Any trace of it was lost after this point, until it reappeared at auction in 1981 and was purchased by Martial Lapeyre. Biennais also produced similar items, including one which forms part of the Emperor's tea service (held in Edinburgh, National Museums Scotland), and another from a service belonging to Grand-duke Nicholas Pavlovitch, the future Tsar Nicholas I. © Fondation Napoléon - P. Maurin-Berthier
  • 35. Napoleon I's nécessaire dentaire BIENNAIS Martin-Guillaume (attributed to) Pre-1815 Amboyna, mahogany, gold, steel, crystal, velvet H. 4 cm; W. 19 cm; D. 13.5 cm Inv 286, Paris, Fondation Napoléon Unusually for the period, Napoleon Bonaparte was very concerned with personal hygiene, and in particular his oral health and teeth, which were reputedly strong and white. Constant, his first valet, wrote in his memoirs that "for his teeth, he used a toothpick made from boxwood and a brush dipped in opiate". Each of the nécessaires produced by Biennais included at least one toothbrush, featuring a gold or gilded metal handle on the end of which could be attached a wooden head mounted with pig bristles. This luxurious nécessaire presented here, an exceptional example from the period, holds a number of different instruments suited to the most delicate of dental hygiene tasks. Essentially a collection of descaling tools, the nécessaire is made up of two overlaid mahogany trays, each hollowed out into eight compartments, and sixteen instruments with gold handles and chiselled gold ferrules and bases. The instruments include twelve assorted rugines (or surgeon's rasp, for scraping tartar from teeth), a plugger (instrument used to pack filling material into the prepared cavity of a tooth) and two cauteries. The second tray holds seven different instruments including a pair of scissors, two lancets and a pair of tweezers. Finally, next to the instruments are two gold boxes, two crystal vials with gold caps engraved with the imperial eagle insignia, a threaded rod, and two lancets. Comparative studies between these instruments and those from other nécessaires bearing Biennais' name have allowed historians to attribute the creation of this set to the emperor's goldsmith. Nevertheless, the box set decorated with imperial insignia does not bear his usual signature which he left on other objects of a similar quality, suggesting that it may be the work of another craftsman. Grangeret, a cutler active during the period, is known to have produced similar sets, and one of his memos dating from 1810 provides an outline of repairs made to a nécessaire belonging to Napoleon and comprised principally of descaling instruments. The set originally figured as part of the collection belonging to Baron Nathaniel de Rothschild (1840-1915). The story goes that the object came into the family's hands via Rothschild's grandfather, Nathan (1777-1836), who obtained it from a soldier who himself had stolen it from the emperor's baggage at Waterloo. A summary of Napoleon's will and testament features in its inventory a list of effects that were left in the Conte de Turenne's possession, including a "gold dental nécessaire, which was left to the dentist". It is however difficult, with the knowledge that we have, to establish a connection between the two. © Fondation Napoléon
  • 36. Napoleon's English Lessons BONAPARTE Napoléon (1769-1821) 1816-1817 8 handwritten pages, on two sheets of paper, watermarked D&C 1813 H. 32 cm; W. 20.5 cm Inv 1153, Paris, Fondation Napoléon These eight pages of writing, covered in the impatient scribbles of a man determined to learn the language of his captors, are some of the most evocative documents we have from Napoleon's time on Saint Helena. His arrival on the British outpost in October 1815 heralded an exile that was not only geographic, but also linguistic: in addition to the oppressive heat, the often continuous rain, the stifling atmosphere of the Longwood plateau, Napoleon was “imprisoned in the middle of this language”, isolated in the South Atlantic on an island where news was scarce, and what books or newspapers could be found were almost all printed in English. And so, three months to the day after his arrival on Saint Helena, Napoleon decided to learn English. One of the most valuable sources for the fallen emperor's English lessons is Emmanuel- Auguste-Dieudonné-Marius-Joseph Las Cases's Mémorial de Sainte-Hélène, in which Las Cases records fifteen months of day-to-day life on the island. In fact, Las Cases notes that he had already given Napoleon two English lessons on board the Northumberland (between 23 and 25 August, 1815, when the ship was moored off Madeira), but since almost all the ship's officers spoke French, the project had been abandoned. It was Las Cases, on 16 January, 1816, who suggested to Napoleon during a walk around the gardens at Longwood that he could easily learn English with a little practice. Their first lesson took place the following day, on 17 January. These sheets of English lessons date from this period of Las Cases's instruction. They contain both lists of basic vocabulary – numbers, days of the week, months, times of day – and sentences written out in French and translated beneath into English. These phrases bear poignant witness to the frustration Napoleon felt in exile: “Quand serez vous sage? - When will you be wise / jamais tant que je suis dans cette isle. Never as long as j should be in this isle / Mais je le deviendrai après avoir passé la ligne / But j shall become wise after having passed the line / Lorsque je débarquerai en France je serai très content – When j shall land in France j shall be very content…” It is tempting to read a refusal of exile in these sheets, both in the sentences themselves, and in Napoleon's insistent use of “j” (as in the French “je”) rather than the English “I”. They demonstrate, too, that his family was very much on his mind
  • 37. at Longwood: ““my wife shall come near to me,” he translates, “my son shall be great and strong if he will be able to trink (sic) a bottle of wine at dinner j shall [toast] with him…” Accounts of the Emperor's English are mixed. Las Cases often praises him as a quick learner, but on other occasions notes the idiosyncrasies of his pronunciation. Betsy Balcombe described Napoleon's English as “the oddest in the world.” But whatever level he attained, these ink-smeared sheets of paper bear witness to a remarkable achievement: a fallen emperor determined to learn the language of his greatest enemies and his jailors. © Fondation Napoléon - Patrice Maurin-Berthier
  • 38. Napoleon's Hat POUPARD et DELAUNAY Pre 1815 Felt, silk Musée de l’Armée or Musée de Sens "There you sit, infamous hat!" was Prince Metternich's famous address to the hat in a scene from Rostand's Aiglon. This line is the opening of a remarkable monologue in which one of the emperor's most implacable enemies expresses his hate for the hat which has become the embodiement of the emperor himself. For most people, Napoleon and his hat are one. No symbol ever so completely represented a historical character. Fully conscious of the force of this symbolism, Bonaparte made it part of his image early on in the Consulate. He chose two military uniforms, one of the Grenadiers à pied and the other of the Chasseurs à cheval of the Garde, but the way he wore his hat was entirely his own. Whilst most of his officers wore their hats "en colonne", that is, perpendicular to the shoulders, Napoleon wore his "en bataille", that is, with the corns parallel to shoulders. His simple and sober outfit contrasted strongly with the officers around him, glorious in their plumed hats. It meant that he was immediately recognisable amongst his troops on the battlefield. One of the oldest known hats is that worn by the First Consul at the Battle of Marengo and today held at the Musée de l'Armée. Up to the end of the Empire, the forms and dimensions varied a little, but the general aspect remained the same. As did his hatmaker. Indeed, so much so that Rostand's Metternich sees irony in it: "In fact the legend comes from a hatmaker/ The real Napoleon, in the end... is Poupard !". Poupard's shop, with its sign, "Temple du goût" (Temple of Taste), was situated in the Palais du Tribunat (Palais-Royal), in the gallery on the side next to Rue de la Loi, at n°32. In 1808, the company became 'Poupard et Cie', and then in 1811, 'Poupard et Delaunay'. Every year, he delivered four 'French' hats, in black beaver, decorated simply with a tricoleur cocarde slipped into a silk sheath with a button. Napoleon always had with him a set of twelve hats. Only four were taken to Saint Helena. The one presented here is one of those. On the emperor's death, one of them was placed in his coffin. Napoleon and his "little hat" rest together for eternity.
  • 39. Napoleon I in coronation robes JAQUOTOT Mire-Victoire (1772-1855), after GIRODET de ROUSSY-TRIOSON Anne-Louis 1813-1814 Porcelain, gilt bronze H. 30,6 ; W. 22,8 cm (framed) Inv 654, Paris, Fondation Napoléon Marie-Victoire Jaquotot began his career under the Ancien Régime, most famously with his portrait of Queen Marie Antoinette. Jaquotot was the student and later the wife and partner of one of the best painters of the Sevres Manufactory, Etienne-Charles Le Guay (1762-1846). She herself entered the manufactory in 1800 as "painter of figures" and collaborated on many prestigious productions, including the copying onto porcelain of masterpieces by the great masters, especially those of Raphael. She became quite a celebrity under the Empire and the Restoration, directing a school of painting on porcelain from 1816 to 1836, and received the titles of " Peintre sur porcelaine du Cabinet du Roi " awarded by Louis XVIII in 1816, and " Premier peintre de porcelaine du Roi " by Charles X in 1828. The artist claimed to have painted this portrait of Napoleon from life, following a commission placed secretly in 1813 as a surprise gift for the Empress Marie-Louise. In a letter to Baron Werther in 1838, in which she requests the purchase of some historical portraits including this one, Marie-Victoire reveals, "The portrait of Napoleon was secretly comissioned by him in 1813; he wanted to surprise the Empress Marie-Louise, he said, with a living medal for posterity. He gave me two one-and-a-half hour sessions, accompanied only by Regnault de St. Jean d'Angely. The accessories were not yet completed in 1814". Despite this claim, this is undoubtedly a copy after Anne-Louis Girodet de Roucy-Trioson’s official 1812 portrait of the Emperor in his grand coronation robes. Furthermore, Marie-Victoire Jaquotot copied the works of Girodet on many occasions, and maintaining such friendly relations with him that at the end of her life, she wished to be buried beside him at the Père Lachaise Cemetry. The bust framing makes is possible to admire two of the Imperial Honours" created by Biennais and missing today, the Grand Collar of the Légion d'honneur and the laurel crown © Fondation Napoléon - Patrice Maurin-Berthier

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