SUGGESTED ANSWERS
TO BAR EXAMINATION
IN
POLITICAL LAW
ARRANGED BY TOPIC
(1987 – 2006)
Edited and Arranged by:
Atty....
F O R W A R D
This work is not intended for sale or commerce. This work is freeware. It may be
freely copied and distrib...
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1987 CONSTITUTION OF THE PHILIPPINES .....................................................................
Double Jeopardy (1988) ......................................................................................................
Freedom of Religion; Non-Establishment Clause (1997)............................................... 49
Freedom of Speech;...
Dual Allegiance vs. Dual Citizenship (1988) .................................................................... 68
Dual ...
Prohibitions and Inhibitions of Public Office (2004)......................................................... 83
Qualific...
Judicial Department; Writ of Amparo (1991) .................................................................. 101
Judicia...
Disualifications (1999)......................................................................................................
Requisites; Contracts Involving LGU (1991) .................................................................. 131
Requisi...
Agrarian Reform Law; Coverage (1992) ......................................................................... 148
Commis...
Extradition; Retroactive Application (Q2-2005).............................................................. 167
Flag Sta...
Admin Law; Rules and Regulations; Due Process (2000) ........................................... 187
Government Agency vs...
1987 CONSTITUTION OF THE
PHILIPPINES
Phil Con 87; New Features (1991)
No 1: How is the Bill of Rights strengthened in
...
establishment of adequate mechanism for this
purpose. (Id., sec, 16)
Phil Con 87; People Power (2000)
No IX. Is the con...
may definitely restrain the others from
improvident action, thereby maintaining a
system of checks and balances among th...
subsistence fishermen against foreign intrusion.
Fishworkers shall receive a just share from their
labor in the utilizat...
through the territorial sea. (Article 14 of the
Convention on the Law of the Sea.)
Under Section 1, Article I of the 198...
A former senator had said, "it is completely
wrong, if not erroneous," and "is an amendment
of the Constitution by misin...
combat boots at U.S. $30 per pair delivered in
Jakarta on or before 30 October 1990. The
contract was awarded by the Min...
seeking payment for a parcel of land which the
national government utilized for a road widening
project.
(1) Can the go...
Political Law Bar Questions Guide
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Political Law Bar Questions Guide

a simple guide on answering Bar Exam questions
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
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Transcripts - Political Law Bar Questions Guide

  • 1. SUGGESTED ANSWERS TO BAR EXAMINATION IN POLITICAL LAW ARRANGED BY TOPIC (1987 – 2006) Edited and Arranged by: Atty. Janette Laggui-Icao and Atty. Alex Andrew P. Icao (Silliman University College of Law) July 26, 2005 Updated by: Romualdo L. Señeris II, LLB. April 19, 2007 From the ANSWERS TO BAR EXAMINATION QUESTIONS in POLITICAL LAW by the UP LAW COMPLEX and PHILIPPINE ASSOCIATION OF LAW SCHOOLS BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006) 1
  • 2. F O R W A R D This work is not intended for sale or commerce. This work is freeware. It may be freely copied and distributed. It is primarily intended for all those who desire to have a deeper understanding of the issues touched by the Philippine Bar Examinations and its trend. It is specially intended for law students from the provinces who, very often, are recipients of deliberately distorted notes from other unscrupulous law schools and students. Share to others this work and you will be richly rewarded by God in heaven. It is also very good karma. We would like to seek the indulgence of the reader for some Bar Questions which are improperly classified under a topic and for some topics which are improperly or ignorantly phrased, for the authors are just Bar Reviewees who have prepared this work while reviewing for the Bar Exams under time constraints and within their limited knowledge of the law. We would like to seek the reader’s indulgence for a lot of typographical errors in this work. The Authors BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006) 2
  • 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1987 CONSTITUTION OF THE PHILIPPINES ................................................................... 14 Phil Con 87; New Features (1991)..................................................................................... 14 Phil Con 87; People Power (1987)..................................................................................... 14 Phil Con 87; People Power (2000)..................................................................................... 15 Phil Con 87; People Power (2003)..................................................................................... 15 Nature of the Constitution: Constitutional Supremacy (2004) ....................................... 15 Government Presidential Form vs. Parliamentary Form (Q6-2006)............................. 15 ARTICLE I National Territory........................................................................................... 16 Archipelagic Doctrine (1989)............................................................................................... 16 Contiguous Zone vs. Exclusive Economic Zone (2004)................................................. 16 Exclusive Economic Zone; Rights of the Coastal State (1994)..................................... 16 Exclusive Economic Zone; Rights of the Coastal State (Q1-2005) .............................. 17 Flag State vs. Flag of Convenience (2004) ...................................................................... 17 Territory & Government (1996)........................................................................................... 17 Territorial Sea vs. Internal Waters (2004)......................................................................... 17 ARTICLE II Declaration of Principles and State Policies.......................................... 18 Armed Forces; Servant of the People (2003)................................................................... 18 Doctrine of Incorporation; Constitutional Law (1997)...................................................... 18 Doctrine of Incorporation; Pacta Sunt Servanda (2000)................................................. 18 Freedom from Nuclear Weapons; Foreign Military Bases (1988)................................. 18 Philippine Flag (Q4-2006).................................................................................................... 19 Principle of Civilian Supremacy (Q6-2006)....................................................................... 19 State Immunity from Suit (1991)......................................................................................... 19 State Immunity from Suit (1996)......................................................................................... 20 State Immunity from Suit (1989)........................................................................................ 20 State Immunity from Suit (1994)......................................................................................... 21 State Immunity from Suit (1992)......................................................................................... 21 State Immunity from Suit (1999)......................................................................................... 22 State Immunity from Suit (1999)......................................................................................... 22 State Immunity from Suit (1987)......................................................................................... 22 State Immunity vs. Waiver of Immunity (1997) ................................................................ 22 State Immunity from Suit (1993)......................................................................................... 23 State Principles & Policies (1994) ...................................................................................... 23 Transparency; Matters of Public Interest (1989).............................................................. 24 Transparency; Matters of Public Interest (2000).............................................................. 25 ARTICLE III Bill of Rights ................................................................................................... 25 Bill of Attainder (1987).......................................................................................................... 25 Bill of Attainder (1990).......................................................................................................... 26 Custodial Investigation; Extrajudicial Confession (2001) ............................................... 26 Custodial Investigation; Extrajudicial Confession; Police Line-Up (1994) ................... 26 Custodial Investigation; Police Line-Up (1997)................................................................ 27 Custodial Investigation; Right to Counsel (1988) ............................................................ 27 Custodial Investigation; Right to Counsel (1993) ............................................................ 27 Custodial Investigation; Right to Counsel (2000) ............................................................ 28 Custodial Investigation; Right to Counsel; Receipt of Property Seized (2002)........... 28 Custodial Investigation; Rights (1990)............................................................................... 29 Custodial Investigation; Rights (1993)............................................................................... 29 Custodial Investigation; Rights (1996)............................................................................... 30 BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006) 3
  • 4. Double Jeopardy (1988) ...................................................................................................... 30 Double Jeopardy (1993) ...................................................................................................... 31 Double Jeopardy (1997) ...................................................................................................... 31 Double Jeopardy (1999) ...................................................................................................... 32 Double Jeopardy (1999) ...................................................................................................... 32 Double Jeopardy (2000) ...................................................................................................... 32 Double Jeopardy (2001) ...................................................................................................... 32 Double Jeopardy (2002) ...................................................................................................... 33 Double Jeopardy; Requisites (1999) ................................................................................. 33 Due Process; Absence of Denial (1999)........................................................................... 33 Due Process; Deportation (1994)....................................................................................... 34 Due Process; Forfeiture Proceedings (1993)................................................................... 35 Due Process; Media Coverage during Hearing (1996)................................................... 35 Due Process; Meeting vs. Hearing (1999)........................................................................ 35 Due Process; Notice by Publication (1988) ...................................................................... 35 Due Process; Permit to Carry Firearm Outside Residence (Q6-2006)........................ 36 Due Process; PPA-Pilots (2001) ........................................................................................ 36 Due Process; Procedural vs. Substantive (1999)............................................................ 37 Due Process; Provisional Order (1991) ............................................................................ 37 Due Process; Public School Teachers (2002) ................................................................. 37 Due Process; Radio Station (1987) ................................................................................... 38 Due Process; Represented by a Non-Lawyer (1988) ..................................................... 38 Due Process; Substantive (2003) ...................................................................................... 38 Due Process; Suspension of Driver's License (1992)..................................................... 38 Due Process; Urgent Public Need (1987)......................................................................... 39 Eminent Domain; Garnishment (1994).............................................................................. 39 Eminent Domain; Garnishment (1998).............................................................................. 40 Eminent Domain; immunity from suit (2001) .................................................................... 40 Eminent Domain; Indirect Public Benefit (1990).............................................................. 40 Eminent Domain; Just Compensation (1988) .................................................................. 40 Eminent Domain; Just Compensation (1989) .................................................................. 41 Eminent Domain; Just Compensation (1998) .................................................................. 41 Eminent Domain; Legal Interest (1993) ............................................................................ 41 Eminent Domain; Non-observance of the policy of "all or none" (2000)...................... 42 Eminent Domain; Power to Exercise (2005) .................................................................... 42 Eminent Domain; Public Use (1987).................................................................................. 42 Eminent Domain; Socialized Housing (1996)................................................................... 43 Eminent Domain; Writ of Possession (1993).................................................................... 43 Equal Protection; Alien Employment (1989)..................................................................... 44 Equal Protection; Invidious Discrimination (1987)........................................................... 44 Equal Protection; Invidious Discrimination (1987)........................................................... 45 Equal Protection; Police Power (2000).............................................................................. 45 Equal Protection; Right to Education (1994) .................................................................... 45 Equal Protection; Subsidiary Imprisonment (1989)......................................................... 45 Freedom of Expression; Censorship (2003)..................................................................... 46 Freedom of Expression; Prior Restraint (1988) ............................................................... 46 Freedom of Religion; Convicted Prisoners (1989) .......................................................... 46 Freedom of Religion; Flag Salute (1997).......................................................................... 47 Freedom of Religion; Flag Salute (2003).......................................................................... 48 Freedom of Religion; Non-Establishment Clause (1988)............................................... 48 Freedom of Religion; Non-Establishment Clause (1992)............................................... 48 BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006) 4
  • 5. Freedom of Religion; Non-Establishment Clause (1997)............................................... 49 Freedom of Speech; Ban on Tobacco AD (1992) ........................................................... 49 Freedom of the Press; Actual Malice (2004) .................................................................... 50 Freedom of the Press; Wartime Censorship (1987)........................................................ 50 Impairment Clause; Basic Human Rights (1992) ............................................................ 51 Involuntary Servitude (1993)............................................................................................... 51 Liberty of Abode; Limitations (1998).................................................................................. 51 Liberty of Abode; Temporary (1996).................................................................................. 52 Non-Imprisonment for Non-Payment of Debt (1993) ...................................................... 52 Police Power; Abatement of Nuisance (2004) ................................................................. 52 Police Power; Ban on Tobacco AD (1992) ....................................................................... 52 Police Power; Zoning Ordinance vs. Non-Impairment of Contracts (1989) ................ 53 Police Power; Zoning Ordinance vs. Non-Impairment of Contracts (2001) ................ 53 Privacy of Communication (2001) ...................................................................................... 53 Privacy of Correspondence (1998) .................................................................................... 54 Privacy of Correspondence; Jail (1989)............................................................................ 54 Right to Assembly; Permit Application; Freedom Parks (Q2-2006).............................. 54 Right to Assembly; Permit Requirements (1992) ........................................................... 55 Right to Assembly; Public Teachers (2000) ..................................................................... 55 Right to Assembly; Public Teachers (2002) ..................................................................... 56 Right to Travel; Order of Arrest (1991).............................................................................. 56 Rights of the Accused; Counsel of his Choice (Q8-2005).............................................. 56 Rights of the Accused; Presumption of Innocence vs. Presumption of Theft (2004) 57 Rights of the Accused; Right to Bail (1993)...................................................................... 57 Rights of the Accused; Right to Bail; Capital Offense (Q4-2006) ................................. 58 Rights of the Accused; Right to Bail; Deportation Case (1989) .................................... 58 Rights of the Accused; Right to Bail; Matter of Right or a Matter of Discretion (Q7- 2005)....................................................................................................................................... 58 Rights of the Accused; Right to Speedy Trial (2000)...................................................... 59 Rights of the Accused; Self-Incrimination (1988) ............................................................ 59 Rights of the Accused; Self-Incrimination (1990) ............................................................ 59 Rights of the Accused; Self-Incrimination (1992) ............................................................ 60 Rights of the Accused; Self-Incrimination (2000) ............................................................ 60 Rights of the Accused; Self-Incrimination (Q7-2006)...................................................... 61 Searches and Seizure; Private Individuals (Q8-2005)................................................... 61 Searches and Seizures; Aliens (2001).............................................................................. 61 Searches and Seizures; Breathalyzer Test (1992).......................................................... 62 Searches and Seizures; Immediate Control (1987) ........................................................ 62 Searches and Seizures; Incidental to Valid Search (1990) ........................................... 62 Searches and Seizures; Place of Search (2001)............................................................. 63 Searches and Seizures; search made by a private citizen (1993)................................ 63 Searches and Seizures; search made by a private citizen (2002)................................ 64 Searches and Seizures; Valid Warrantless Search (2000)............................................ 64 Searches and Seizures; Visual Search (1992) ................................................................ 65 Searches and Seizures; Waiver of Consent (1989)........................................................ 65 Searches and Seizures; Warrantless Arrests (1993)...................................................... 66 Searches and Seizures; Warrants of Arrest (1991) ........................................................ 66 ARTICLE IV Citizenship ..................................................................................................... 66 Action for Cancellation; Prescription & Effect of Death (1994)...................................... 66 Citizenship; Elected Official (1993) .................................................................................... 67 Dual Allegiance vs. Dual Citizenship (1987) .................................................................... 67 BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006) 5
  • 6. Dual Allegiance vs. Dual Citizenship (1988) .................................................................... 68 Dual Citizenship (1994)........................................................................................................ 68 Effect of Marriage; Filipino (1989)..................................................................................... 69 Effect of Oath of Allegiance (2004).................................................................................... 69 Effect of Repatriation (1999) ............................................................................................... 70 Effect of Repatriation (2002) ............................................................................................... 70 Effect of Repatriation (2003) ............................................................................................... 70 Effects of Marriages (1999)................................................................................................. 70 Effects of Philippine Bill of 1902 (2001) ............................................................................ 71 Elected Official (1992).......................................................................................................... 71 Electing Philippine Citizenship (Q8-2006) ........................................................................ 71 Electing Philippine Citizenship; When Proper (Q8-2006)............................................... 72 Natural Born Filipino (1989) ................................................................................................ 72 Natural Born Filipino (1998) ................................................................................................ 72 Natural-Born Filipino(1993) ................................................................................................. 73 Naturalization; Cancellation of Citizenship (1998)........................................................... 73 Residency Requirements; Elective Official (Q9-2005).................................................... 73 Status; Illegitimate Child (1990).......................................................................................... 74 Status; Illegitimate Child; Dual Citizenship (1996) .......................................................... 74 Status; Legitimate Child (2003) .......................................................................................... 74 Ways of Reacquiring Citizenship (2000)........................................................................... 75 ARTICLE VI Legislative Department .............................................................................. 75 Appropriation of Public Funds (1988) ................................................................................ 75 Appropriation of Public Funds; Debt Servicing (1992).................................................... 75 Appropriation of Public Funds; Public Purposes (1988)................................................. 75 Commission on Appointments (2002) ............................................................................... 76 Delegation of Powers (2002) .............................................................................................. 76 Delegation of Powers; (Q6-2005)....................................................................................... 76 Delegation of Powers; Completeness Test; Sufficient Standard Test (Q6-2005) ...... 77 Discipline; Modes of Removal (1993)............................................................................... 77 Discipline; Suspension of a Member of the Congress (2002) ....................................... 77 Elected Official; De Facto Officer (2004) .......................................................................... 78 Electoral Tribunal; HRET Members’ Right & Responsibilities (2002) .......................... 78 Electoral Tribunal; Senate; Jurisdiction (1990) ................................................................ 79 Foreign Affairs; Role of House of Rep (1996) .................................................................. 79 Foreign Affairs; Role of Senate (1994).............................................................................. 79 Investigations in Aid of Legislation (1992) ........................................................................ 79 Law Making; Process & Publication (1993) ...................................................................... 80 Law-Making; Appropriation Bill (1996) .............................................................................. 80 Law-Making; Appropriation Law; Automatic Renewal & Power of Augmentation (1998)...................................................................................................................................... 80 Law-Making; Appropriation Law; Rider Provision (2001) ............................................... 81 Law-Making; Foreign Affairs; Treaties (1996).................................................................. 81 Law-Making; Overriding the Presidential Veto (1991) .................................................... 81 Law-Making; Passage of a Law (1988)............................................................................. 82 Legislative Power; Pres. Aquino’s Time (1990) ............................................................... 82 Legislative Powers (1989) ................................................................................................... 82 Loans Extended to Members of Congress (1991)........................................................... 82 Multi-Party System (1999)................................................................................................... 83 Non-Legislative Powers (1988) .......................................................................................... 83 Non-Legislative Powers; Emergency Powers; Requisites (1997)................................. 83 BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006) 6
  • 7. Prohibitions and Inhibitions of Public Office (2004)......................................................... 83 Qualifications; Congressmen (1988) ................................................................................. 84 Qualifications; Congressmen; (1993) ................................................................................ 84 Qualifications; Congressmen; (1999) ................................................................................ 85 Separation of Powers (1988) .............................................................................................. 85 Separation of Powers (2003) .............................................................................................. 85 Three-Term Limit: Congressmen (1996)........................................................................... 86 Three-Term Limit; Congressmen (2001)........................................................................... 86 ARTICLE VII Executive Department ................................................................................ 86 Appointing Power; Acting vs. Permanent Appointment (2003) ..................................... 86 Appointing Power; ad interim appointments (1991) ........................................................ 86 Appointing Power; Ad Interim Appointments (1994) ....................................................... 87 Appointing Power; Appointments Requiring Confirmation; RA 6975-Unconstitutional (2002)...................................................................................................................................... 87 Appointing Power; Categories of Officials (1999)............................................................ 88 Appointing Power; Kinds of Appointments (1994)........................................................... 88 Appointing Power; Limitations on Presidential Appointments (1997)........................... 89 Appointing Powers; Ad Interim Appointments (Q4-2005) .............................................. 90 Cabinet Members; limitation on accepting additional duties (1996) ............................. 90 Calling-out Power; President (Q1-2006) ........................................................................... 91 Declaration; State of Calamity; Legal Effects (Q1-2005)................................................ 91 Declaration; State of National Emergency (Q1-2006) .................................................... 91 Enter into Contract or Guarantee Foreign Loans (1994)................................................ 91 Enter into Contract or Guarantee Foreign Loans (1999)................................................ 92 Enter into Executive Agreements (2003) .......................................................................... 92 Impose Tariff Rates, Import and Export Quotas (1999).................................................. 92 Martial Law & Suspension of Writ of Habeas Corpus (1987) ........................................ 92 Martial Law; Limitations (2000).......................................................................................... 93 Martial Law; Sufficiency of the Factual Basis (Q3-2006)................................................ 94 Pardoning Power; Amnesty (1993).................................................................................... 95 Pardoning Power; Amnesty (1995).................................................................................... 95 Pardoning Power; Breach of Condition; Revocation (Q5-2005).................................... 95 Pardoning Power; Exec Clemency; Pardon (1995)......................................................... 95 Pardoning Power; Executive Clemency (1997) ............................................................... 96 Pardoning Power; Executive Clemency (1999) ............................................................... 96 Pardoning Power; Kinds (1988).......................................................................................... 96 Pardoning Power; Pardon, Conditional (1997) ................................................................ 97 President; Participation; Legislative Process (1996)....................................................... 97 Presidential Immunity from Suit (1997) ............................................................................. 97 Prohibition Against Multiple Positions & Additional Compensation (2002) ................. 97 Prohibition against Multiple Positions by Gov’t Officials (1987) .................................... 98 Suspension of Writ of Habeas Corpus (1997).................................................................. 99 ARTICLE VIII Judicial Department .................................................................................... 99 Cases to be Heard En Banc; Supreme Court (1999)...................................................... 99 Contempt Powers (1996)..................................................................................................... 99 Finality of Void Judgments (1993)...................................................................................... 99 Fiscal Autonomy (1999)..................................................................................................... 100 Function; Continuing Constitutional Convention (2000) ............................................... 100 Issuance of Restraining Orders and Injunctions (1992) ............................................... 100 Judicial & Bar Council (1988)............................................................................................ 101 Judicial & Bar Council (1999)............................................................................................ 101 BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006) 7
  • 8. Judicial Department; Writ of Amparo (1991) .................................................................. 101 Judicial Independence; Safeguard (2000)...................................................................... 101 Judicial Power (1989)......................................................................................................... 102 Judicial Power (1992)......................................................................................................... 102 Judicial Power (1998)......................................................................................................... 103 Judicial Power; Scope (1994) ........................................................................................... 103 Judicial Review; Locus Standi (1992).............................................................................. 104 Judicial Review; Requisites (1994) .................................................................................. 104 Jurisdiction of HLURB (1993) ........................................................................................... 104 Mandatory Period For Deciding Cases (1989)............................................................... 105 Political Question (1995).................................................................................................... 105 Political Question Doctrine (1997).................................................................................... 105 Political Question: Separation of Powers (2004) ........................................................... 106 Political Question; To Settle Actual Controversies (2004) ........................................... 106 Political Questions (1988).................................................................................................. 106 Pro Hac Vice Cases (1999)............................................................................................... 107 Removal of Lower Court Judges (1993) ......................................................................... 107 Review Executive Acts (1996).......................................................................................... 107 Supervision; Courts & its Personnel (Q5-2005)............................................................. 108 Taxpayer's Suit; Locus Standi (1995).............................................................................. 108 Term of Office; Justices (1996) ........................................................................................ 108 Votes required for declaring a law unconstitutional (1996) .......................................... 109 ARTICLE IX Constitutional Commissions .................................................................. 109 Rotational Scheme (1999)................................................................................................. 109 Constitutional Commissions & Council (Q7-2006) ........................................................ 109 ARTICLE IX Civil Service Commission........................................................................ 109 Career Service; Characteristics (1999) ........................................................................... 109 Civil Service Commission vs. COA (2004) ..................................................................... 109 Function of CSC (1994) ..................................................................................................... 110 GOCCs Without Original Charter vs. GOCCs With Original Charter (1998)............. 110 Jurisdiction over the GOCCs (1999)................................................................................ 111 Jurisdiction over the GOCCs (2003)................................................................................ 111 Modes of Removal from Office (1993) ............................................................................ 111 Receiving of Indirect Compensation (1997) ................................................................... 111 Security of Tenure (1988).................................................................................................. 112 Security of Tenure (Q5-2005) ........................................................................................... 112 Security of Tenure; Meaning (1999) ................................................................................ 113 ARTICLE IX COMELEC .................................................................................................... 113 Electoral Tribunal; Functions & Composition (Q5-2006).............................................. 113 Fair Election; Equal Space & Time in Media (1989) ..................................................... 113 Grant of Pardon in Election Offenses (1991) ................................................................. 114 Judicial Review of Decisions (2001)................................................................................ 114 Removal from Office; Commissioners (1998) ................................................................ 114 Right to Vote; Jurisdiction (2001) ..................................................................................... 114 Election Laws ........................................................................................................................ 114 2nd Placer Rule (2003)..................................................................................................... 114 2nd Placer Rule (1990) ...................................................................................................... 115 2nd Placer Rule; in Quo Warranto Cases (1992) .......................................................... 115 2nd Placer Rule; Rule of Succession (1996) ................................................................ 115 Appreciation of Ballots (1994)........................................................................................... 116 Disqualification; Grounds (1991) ...................................................................................... 116 BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006) 8
  • 9. Disualifications (1999)........................................................................................................ 116 Effect of Filing of Certificate of Candidacy; Appointive Officer vs Elective Officer (2002).................................................................................................................................... 116 Effect of Filing of Certificate of Candidacy; Fair Election Act (2003).......................... 117 Election Offenses; Conspiracy to Bribe Voters (1991) ................................................. 117 Election Protest (1990) ...................................................................................................... 117 Election Protest vs. Quo Warranto (2001) ...................................................................... 118 Election Protest vs. Quo Warranto (Q5-2006) ............................................................... 118 Election Protest; Jurisdiction (1996) ................................................................................ 118 Expiration of term bars service thereof (2000)............................................................... 118 Petition to Declare Failure of Elections; Requisites & Effects (1995)......................... 118 Pre-Proclamation Contest (1987)..................................................................................... 119 Pre-Proclamation Contest (1988)..................................................................................... 119 Pre-Proclamation Contest vs. Election Contests (1997) .............................................. 120 Pre-Proclamation Contest; Proper Issues (1996).......................................................... 121 Process; Illiterate Voters (1987) ....................................................................................... 121 Process; Principle of Idem Sonans (1994) ..................................................................... 121 Process; Stray Ballot (1994) ............................................................................................. 121 Recall (2002) ....................................................................................................................... 122 Three-Term Limit Rule (2001) .......................................................................................... 122 Three-Term Limit; from Municipality to Newly-Created City (Q9-2005).................... 122 Vacancy; Effect of Vice-Mayor Acting As Mayor (2002)............................................... 123 Vacancy; Rule of Succession (1995)............................................................................... 123 Vacancy; SB; Rule on Succession (2002)...................................................................... 124 ARTICLE IX Commission on Audit ............................................................................... 124 COA; Jurisdiction (2001).................................................................................................... 124 COA; Money Claims (1998) .............................................................................................. 124 ARTICLE X Local Government ..................................................................................... 125 Appointment of Budget Officer; control vs supervision (1999) .................................... 125 Boundary Dispute Resolution; LGU; RTC’s Jurisdiction (Q10-2005)........................ 126 Boundary Dispute Settlement; Authority; Jurisdiction (1999) ...................................... 126 Creation of New Local Government Units; Plebiscite Requirement (2004) .............. 126 De Facto Public Corporations; Effect (2004).................................................................. 126 Devolution of Power (1999)............................................................................................... 126 Franchise; prior approval of LGU necessary (1988) ..................................................... 126 Law fixing the terms of local elective officials (Q4-2006) ............................................. 127 Ordinance; Use & Lease of Properties; Public Use (1997).......................................... 127 Ordinance; Validity; Closure or Lease of Properties for Public Use (2003) .............. 127 Ordinance; Validity; Compensation; Tortuous Act of an Employee (1994) ............... 127 Ordinance; Validity; Local Taxation vs. Special Assessment (1987) ......................... 128 Ordinance; Validity; Preventing Immorality (1987) ........................................................ 128 Ordinance; Validity; Utilization & Development; National Wealth (1991) .................. 128 Ordinances; Validity; Amending Nat’l Laws (1988) ....................................................... 128 Ordinances; Validity; Gambling Prohibition (1995)........................................................ 129 Ordinances; Validity; Limitation of Penalties (1991) ..................................................... 129 Ordinances; Veto Power (1996) ....................................................................................... 129 Police Power; LLDA (1995)............................................................................................... 130 Power to Issue Subpoena & Cite For Contempt (1993) ............................................... 130 Power; Eminent Domain; LGU; Right to Exercise (Q10-2005).................................... 131 Powers of Barangay Assembly (2003)............................................................................ 131 Powers; Liga ng mga Barangay (2003)........................................................................... 131 BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006) 9
  • 10. Requisites; Contracts Involving LGU (1991) .................................................................. 131 Requisites; Contracts involving LGU (1995) .................................................................. 132 Taxation; GOCC Liability For Real Estate Tax (1999).................................................. 132 Taxation; Sources of Revenue (1999)............................................................................. 132 Withdrawal of Public Property from Public Use (1990)................................................. 132 ARTICLE XI Accountability of Public Officers........................................................... 133 Abandonment of Office (2000).......................................................................................... 133 Discipline; Clemency; Doctrine of Condonation (2000) ................................................ 133 Discipline; Effect of Pardon Granted in Favor of Public Officers (1999).................... 134 Discipline; Preventive Suspension & Appeal; entitlement to salary pendente (2001) ............................................................................................................................................... 134 Discipline; Preventive Suspension (1990) ...................................................................... 134 Discipline; Preventive Suspension (2002) ...................................................................... 135 Elective and Appointive Officials: disciplinary authority (2004) ................................... 135 Elective Public Officer; De Facto Officer (2000) ............................................................ 135 Elective Public Officers; De Facto Officer; effects (2004) ............................................ 136 Graft and Corruption; Prescription of Crime (2002) ...................................................... 136 Impeachment; Cronyism (2000) ....................................................................................... 137 Impeachment; Grounds (1999)......................................................................................... 137 Impeachment; Nature; Grounds; PD 1606 (1988)......................................................... 137 Law of Public Officers; Next-in-Rank Rule (1994)......................................................... 137 Liability For Damages in Performance of Official Functions (1990) ........................... 138 Local Elective Officials; Limitations On Additional Duties (1995) ............................... 139 Ombudsman: Power to Suspend; Preventive Suspension (2004) ............................. 139 Ombudsman; Power to Investigate (2003) ..................................................................... 139 Ombudsman; Power to Suspend; Preventive Suspension (1996) ............................. 140 Power to Issue Subpoena; validity of delegation (1989) .............................................. 140 Prohibition On Elective Officer to Hold Public Office (2002)........................................ 140 Public Office; Public Trust (1998)..................................................................................... 140 Retirement Benefits (1996) ............................................................................................... 141 ARTICLE XII National Economy and Patrimony......................................................... 142 Acquisition and Lease of Public Lands (1998)............................................................... 142 Acquisition of Lands (1987)............................................................................................... 142 Acquisition of Lands (2000)............................................................................................... 143 Acquisition of Lands by Hereditary Succession (2002) ................................................ 143 Acquisition of Lands; Citizenship issue (1989) .............................................................. 143 Acquisition of Lands; Citizenship issue (1994) .............................................................. 144 Acquisition of Lands; Citizenship issue (1995) .............................................................. 144 Acquisition of Lands; Prohibition; acquisition of private lands by aliens (1994) ....... 145 Citizenship Requirement in Management of Advertising Industry (1989) ................. 145 Engagement in Business & Exercise of Profession (1987).......................................... 145 Exploration and Development of Minerals (1994) ......................................................... 146 Expropriation of Public Utilities (1992) ............................................................................ 146 Lease of Private Agricultural Lands (2001) .................................................................... 146 National Economy & Patrimony; Constitutional Prohibition (2004)............................. 147 National Patrimony; definition (1999) .............................................................................. 147 Nationalized Activities (1994)............................................................................................ 147 Ownership Requirement of Mass Media (1989) ............................................................ 148 Chinese citizens; engaging in retail trade (Q4-2006).................................................... 148 Exploration, development, and utilization of natural resources (Q4-2006) ............... 148 ARTICLE XIII Social Justice and Human Rights ......................................................... 148 BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006) 10
  • 11. Agrarian Reform Law; Coverage (1992) ......................................................................... 148 Commission on Human Rights; Power to investigate (1992) ...................................... 149 Commission on Human Rights; Power to issue TRO (1997) ...................................... 149 Commission on Human Rights; Power to issue TRO (2001) ...................................... 149 Commission on Human Rights; Power; Limitations (Q4-2005)................................... 150 Labor; Right to Self-Organization (1988) ........................................................................ 151 Labor; Right to Strike (1988)............................................................................................. 151 Labor; Right to Strike (1993)............................................................................................. 151 Social Justice under the Present Constitution (1995)................................................... 152 Women (2000)..................................................................................................................... 152 ARTICLE XIV Education, Science and Technology, Arts ......................................... 153 Education; Academic Freedom (1987)............................................................................ 153 Education; Academic Freedom (1989)............................................................................ 153 Education; Academic Freedom (1993)............................................................................ 153 Education; Academic Freedom; Extent (1999) .............................................................. 154 Education; Alien Enrollees & Donors (1999).................................................................. 154 Education; Duties of State in Re Education (1999)....................................................... 154 Education; Flag Salute (1987) .......................................................................................... 155 Education; Right to Choose Profession (2000).............................................................. 155 Education; Right to Quality Education (2003) ................................................................ 156 Education; Teaching of Religion (1999).......................................................................... 156 Education; Validity of Academic Requirements (1994) ................................................ 156 ARTICLE XVI General Provisions .................................................................................. 156 General Provisions; Local Dialect (1987)........................................................................ 156 AFP; limitation on accepting additional duties (1996)................................................... 157 ARTICLE XVII Amendments or Revisions .................................................................... 157 People’s Initiative (2004) ................................................................................................... 157 Amendments and Revisions; Modes (1997) .................................................................. 157 REFERENDUM vs. INITIATIVE (Q1-2005).................................................................... 157 ARTICLE XVIII Transitory Provisions.............................................................................. 158 Transitory Provisions; Foreign Military Bases (1996) ................................................... 158 Transitory Provisions; Foreign Military Bases (1988) ................................................... 158 PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW ........................................................................................ 158 Basic Principles in Public Int’l Law (1991) ...................................................................... 158 Constitutive Theory vs. Declaratory Theory (2004)....................................................... 160 Contiguous Zone vs. Exclusive Economic Zone (2004).............................................. 160 Diplomatic Immunity (2000) .............................................................................................. 160 Diplomatic Immunity (2001) .............................................................................................. 160 Diplomatic Immunity (2003) .............................................................................................. 161 Diplomatic Immunity (2004) .............................................................................................. 161 Diplomatic Immunity; Ambassador (Q3-2005) ............................................................... 162 Diplomatic Immunity; Ambassadors (1990).................................................................... 162 Diplomatic Immunity; Coverage (Q3-2005) .................................................................... 163 Diplomatic Immunity; Diplomatic Envoy and Consular Officers (1995)...................... 164 Diplomatic Immunity; Diplomatic Envoy and Consular Officers (1997)...................... 165 Exclusive Economic Zone (2000)..................................................................................... 165 Executive Agreements; Binding Effect (2003)................................................................ 165 Extradition vs. Deportation (1993).................................................................................... 166 Extradition; Doctrine of Specialty (1993)......................................................................... 166 Extradition; Effectivity of treaty (1996)............................................................................. 166 Extradition; Grounds (2002) .............................................................................................. 167 BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006) 11
  • 12. Extradition; Retroactive Application (Q2-2005).............................................................. 167 Flag State vs. Flag of Convenience (2004).................................................................. 168 Genocide (1988) ................................................................................................................. 168 Human Rights (1999) ......................................................................................................... 168 Human Rights; Civil and Political Rights (1992) ............................................................ 168 Human Rights; Civil and Political Rights (1996) ............................................................ 169 Int’l Court of Justice; Jurisdiction Over States................................................................ 170 Int’l Court of Justice; Jurisdiction Over States (1994)................................................... 170 Int’l Court of Justice; Limitations On Jurisdiction (1999) .............................................. 170 Int’l Court of Justice; Parties; Pleadings and Oral Argument (1994).......................... 170 International Convention; Law of the Sea (2004) .......................................................... 171 International Court of Justice (Q9-2006)......................................................................... 171 International Law vs. Municipal Law; Territorial Principle; International Crimes (Q2- 2005)..................................................................................................................................... 171 Mandates and Trust Territories (2003)............................................................................ 172 Municipal Law vs. International Law (2003) ................................................................... 173 Neutrality of States (1988)................................................................................................. 173 Outer Space; Jurisdiction (2003)...................................................................................... 174 Principle of Auto-Limitation (Q10-2006) .......................................................................... 174 Reciprocity v. Principle of Auto-Limitation (Q10-2006)................................................. 174 Recognition of States; De Facto vs. De Jure Recognition (1998) .............................. 174 Reparations Agreement; Validity (1992) ......................................................................... 175 Right to Innocent Passage (1999).................................................................................... 175 Right to Transit and Innocent Passage (2004) .............................................................. 176 Rights and Obligation under UN Charter (1991)............................................................ 176 Sources of International Law; Primary & Subsidiary Sources (2003) ........................ 177 Sovereign Immunity of States; Absolute vs. Restrictive (1998) .................................. 177 Sovereignty of States; Natural Use of Territory (1989)................................................. 178 Sovereignty; Definition; Nature (Q10-2006) ................................................................... 178 State Liabilities (1995)........................................................................................................ 179 State Sovereignty; Effective Occupation; Terra Nullius (2000) ................................... 179 Stateless Persons; Effects; Status; Rights (1995)......................................................... 179 Territorial Sea vs. Internal Waters (2004)....................................................................... 180 Use of Force; Exceptions (2003)...................................................................................... 180 Use of Force; Principle of Non-Intervention (1994)....................................................... 181 Use of Force; Right of Self-defense (2002).................................................................... 182 Use of Force; Self-Defense; Waging War (1998).......................................................... 182 Use of Force; When allowed (1988) ................................................................................ 183 War; Combatants/ Prisoners of War vs. Mercenaries (1993) ...................................... 183 Wilson doctrine vs. Estrada doctrine (2004)................................................................... 184 ADMINISTRATIVE LAW....................................................................................................... 184 Admin Law; Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies (1991)....................................... 184 Admin Law; Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies (2000)....................................... 184 Admin Law; Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies vs Doctrine of Primary Jurisdiction (1996) .............................................................................................................. 185 Admin Law; Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies; Exceptions (1991) ................. 185 Admin Law; Judicial Review of Administrative Action (2001) ...................................... 186 Admin Law; Judicial Review of Administrative Decisions (1988)................................ 186 Admin Law; Meaning of “Government of the Philippines” (1997) ............................... 187 Admin Law; Power of the President to Reorganize Administrative Structure (2003) ............................................................................................................................................... 187 BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006) 12
  • 13. Admin Law; Rules and Regulations; Due Process (2000) ........................................... 187 Government Agency vs. Government Instrumentality (Q7-2005)............................... 188 Quasi-Judicial Body or Agency (Q5-2006) ..................................................................... 188 BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006) 13
  • 14. 1987 CONSTITUTION OF THE PHILIPPINES Phil Con 87; New Features (1991) No 1: How is the Bill of Rights strengthened in the 1987 Constitution? SUGGESTED ANSWER: There are several ways in which the Bill of Rights is strengthened in the 1987 Constitution. 1. New rights are given explicit recognition such as, the prohibition against detention by reason of political beliefs and aspirations. The waiver of Miranda rights is now required to be made in writing with the assistance of counsel. The use of solitary, incommunicado and secret detention places is prohibited, while the existence of substandard and inadequate penal facilities is made the concern of legislation. 2. There is also recognition of the right of expression, an express prohibition against the use of torture, a mandate to the State to provide compensation and rehabilitation for victims of torture and their families. 3. Some rights have been expanded. For instance, free access to courts now includes access to quasi-judicial bodies and to adequate legal assistance. 4. The requirements for interfering with some rights have been made more strict. For instance, only judges can now issue search warrants or warrants of arrest. There must be a law authorizing the Executive Department to interfere with the privacy of communication, the liberty of abode, and the right to travel before these rights may be impaired or curtailed. 5. The Constitution now provides that the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus does not suspend the right to bail, thus resolving a doctrinal dispute of long standing. 6. The suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus and the proclamation of martial law have been limited to sixty (60) days and are now subject to the power of Congress to revoke. In addition, the Supreme Court is given the jurisdiction, upon the petition of any citizen to determine the sufficiency of the factual basis of the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus and the proclamation of martial law. 7. The Supreme Court is empowered to adopt rules for the protection and enforcement of constitutional rights. 8. Art. II. Sec. 11 commits the State to a policy which places value on the dignity of every human person and guarantees full respect for human rights. 9. A Commission on Human Rights is created. 10. Under Article XVI. Sec. 5(2) the State is mandated to promote respect for the people's rights among the members of the military in the performance of their duty. Phil Con 87; People Power (1987) No. XVIII: The framers of the 1987 Constitution and the people who ratified it made sure that provisions institutionalizing people power were incorporated in the fundamental law, Briefly discuss at least two such provisions. SUGGESTED ANSWER: Art. VI, Sec. 1, while vesting in Congress the legislative power, nonetheless states that such conferment of power shall be subject to the reservation made in favor of the people by provisions on initiatives and referendum. For this purpose, Congress is required, as early as possible, to provide for a system of initiative of referendum whereby the people can directly propose and enact laws or approve or reject an act or law or part thereof passed by the Congress or the legislative bodies after the registration of a petition therefor, signed by at least 10% of the total number of registered voters, of which every legislative district must be represented by at least 3% of the registered voters. (Id., sec. 32) The Constitution also provides that through initiative, upon a petition of at least 12% of the total numbers of registered voters, of which every legislative district must be represented by at least 3% of the registered voters therein, amendments to the Constitution may be directly proposed by the people. Art, XIII, sec. 15 states that the state shall respect the role of independent people's organization to enable them to pursue and protect, within the democratic framework, their legitimate and collective interests and aspirations through peaceful lawful means. For this purpose, the Constitution guarantees to such organizations the right to participate at all levels of social, political and economic decision-making and the state is required to validate the BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006) 14
  • 15. establishment of adequate mechanism for this purpose. (Id., sec, 16) Phil Con 87; People Power (2000) No IX. Is the concept of People Power recognized in the Constitution? Discuss briefly. (3%) SUGGESTED ANSWER: Yes, the concept of People Power is recognized in the Constitution. Under Section 32. Article VI of the Constitution, through initiative and referendum, the people can directly propose and enact laws or approve or reject any act or law or part thereof passed by the Congress or local legislative body after the registration of a petition therefor signed by at least ten per centum of the total number of registered voters, of which every legislative district must be represented by at least three per centum of the registered voters thereof. Under Section 16, Article XIII of the Constitution, the right of the people and their organizations to effective and reasonable participation at all levels of social, political and economic decision-making shall not be abridged. The State shall, by law facilitate the establishment of adequate consultation mechanisms. Under Section 2. Article XVII of the Constitution, the people may directly propose amendments to the Constitution through initiative upon a petition of at least twelve per centum of the total number of registered voters, of which every legislative district must be represented by at least three per centum of the registered voters therein. Phil Con 87; People Power (2003) No I - Is "people power" recognized by the 1987 Constitution? Explain fully. SUGGESTED ANSWER: "People power" is recognized in the Constitution. Article III, Section 4 of the 1987 Constitution guarantees the right of the people peaceable to assemble and petition the government for redress of grievances. Article VI, Section 32 of the 1987 Constitution requires Congress to pass a law allowing the people to directly propose and enact laws through initiative and to approve or reject any act or law or part of it passed by Congress or a local legislative body. Article XIII, Section 16 of the 1987 Constitution provides that the right of the people and their organizations to participate at all levels of social, political, and economic decision-making shall not be abridged and that the State shall, by law, facilitate the establishment of adequate consultation mechanisms. Article XVII, Section 2 of the 1987 Constitution provides that subject to the enactment of an implementing law, the people may directly propose amendments to the Constitution through initiative. Nature of the Constitution: Constitutional Supremacy (2004) (10-a) BNN Republic has a defense treaty with EVA Federation. According to the Republic's Secretary of Defense, the treaty allows temporary basing of friendly foreign troops in case of training exercises for the war on terrorism. The Majority Leader of the Senate contends that whether temporary or not, the basing of foreign troops however friendly is prohibited by the Constitution of BNN which provides that, "No foreign military bases shall be allowed in BNN territory." In case there is indeed an irreconcilable conflict between a provision of the treaty and a provision of the Constitution, in a jurisdiction and legal system like ours, which should prevail: the provision of the treaty or of the Constitution? Why? Explain with reasons, briefly. (5%) SUGGESTED ANSWER: In case of conflict between a provision of a treaty and a provision of the Constitution, the provision of the Constitution should prevail. Section 5(2)(a), Article VIII of the 1987 Constitution authorizes the nullification of a treaty when it conflicts with the Constitution. (Gonzales v. Hechanova, 9 SCRA 230 [1963]). Government Presidential Form vs. Parlia-mentary Form (Q6-2006) 1. a) What is the principal identifying feature of a presidential form of government? Explain. (2.5%) SUGGESTED ANSWER: The principal identifying feature of a presidential form of government is embodied in the separation of powers doctrine. Each department of government exercises powers granted to it by the Constitution and may not control, interfere with or encroach upon the acts done within the constitutional competence of the others. However, the Constitution also gives each department certain powers by which it BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006) 15
  • 16. may definitely restrain the others from improvident action, thereby maintaining a system of checks and balances among them, thus, preserving the will of the sovereign expressed in the Constitution. b) What are the essential characteristics of a parliamentary form of government? (2.5%) SUGGESTED ANSWER: The essential characteristics of a parliamentary form of government are: the fusion of the legislative and executive branches in parliament; the prime minister, who is the head of government, and the members of the cabinet, are chosen from among the members of parliament and as such are accountable to the latter; and the prime minister may be removed from office by a vote of loss of confidence of parliament. There may be a head of state who may or may not be elected. ARTICLE I National Territory Archipelagic Doctrine (1989) No. 20: What do you understand by the archipelagic doctrine? Is this reflected in the 1987 Constitution? SUGGESTED ANSWER: The ARCHIPELAGIC DOCTRINE emphasizes the unity of land and waters by defining an archipelago either as a group of islands surrounded by waters or a body of waters studded with islands. For this purpose, it requires that baselines be drawn by connecting the appropriate points of the "outermost islands to encircle the islands within the archipelago. The waters on the landward side of the baselines regardless of breadth or dimensions are merely internal waters. Yes, the archipelagic doctrine is reflected in the 1987 Constitution. Article I, Section 1 provides that the national territory of the Philippines includes the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein; and the waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal waters of the Philippines. Contiguous Zone vs. Exclusive Economic Zone (2004) (2-a-2) Distinguish: The contiguous zone and the exclusive economic zone. SUGGESTED ANSWER: CONTIGUOUS ZONE is a zone contiguous to the territorial sea and extends up to 12 nautical miles from the territorial sea and over which the coastal state may exercise control necessary to prevent infringement of its customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations within its territory or territorial sea. (Article 33 of the Convention on the Law of the Sea.) The EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE is a zone extending up to 200 nautical miles from the baselines of a state over which the coastal state has sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources, whether living or nonliving, of the waters superjacent to the seabed and of the seabed and subsoil, and with regard to other activities for the economic exploitation and exploration of the zone. (Articles 56 and 57 of the Convention on the Law of the Sea.) Exclusive Economic Zone; Rights of the Coastal State (1994) No. 11: In the desire to improve the fishing methods of the fishermen, the Bureau of Fisheries, with the approval of the President, entered into a memorandum of agreement to allow Thai fishermen to fish within 200 miles from the Philippine sea coasts on the condition that Filipino fishermen be allowed to use Thai fishing equipment and vessels, and to learn modern technology in fishing and canning. 1) Is the agreement valid? SUGGESTED ANSWER: 1) No. the President cannot authorize the Bureau of Fisheries to enter into a memorandum of agreement allowing Thai fishermen to fish within the exclusive economic zone of the Philippines, because the Constitution reserves to Filipino citizens the use and enjoyment of the exclusive economic zone of the Philippines. Section 2. Article XII of the Constitution provides: “The State shall protect the nation's marine part in its archipelagic waters, territorial sea, and exclusive economic zone, and reserve its use and enjoyment to Filipino citizens." Section 7, Article XIII of the Constitution provides: "The State shall protect the rights of subsistence fishermen, especially of local communities, to the preferential use of the communal marine and fishing resources, both inland and offshore. It shall provide support to such fishermen through appropriate technology and research, adequate financial, production, and marketing assistance, and other services. The State shall also protect, develop, and conserve such resources. The protection shall extend to offshore fishing grounds of BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006) 16
  • 17. subsistence fishermen against foreign intrusion. Fishworkers shall receive a just share from their labor in the utilization of marine and fishing resources. Exclusive Economic Zone; Rights of the Coastal State (Q1-2005) (c) Enumerate the rights of the coastal state in the exclusive economic zone. (3%) ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: In the EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE, the coastal State has sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources, whether living or non-living, of the waters superjacent to the seabed and of the seabed and its subsoil, and with regard to other activities for the economic exploitation and exploration of the zone, such as the production of energy from the water, currents and winds in an area not extending more than 200 nautical miles beyond the baseline from which the territorial sea is measured. Other rights include the production of energy from the water, currents and winds, the establishment and use of artificial islands, installations and structures, marine scientific research and the protection and preservation of the marine environment. (Art. 56, U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea) ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: SOVEREIGN RIGHTS — for the purpose of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources, whether living or non-living, of the seabed and subsoil and the superjacent waters, and with regard to other activities such as the production of energy from the water, currents and winds in an area not extending more than 200 nautical miles beyond the baseline from which the territorial sea is measured. (See Art. 56, UNCLOS) Jurisdiction, inter alia, with regard to: (1) the establishment and use of artificial islands, installations and structures; (2) marine scientific research; and (3) the protection and preservation of the marine environment. Flag State vs. Flag of Convenience (2004) (2-a-3) Distinguish: The flag state and the flag of convenience. SUGGESTED ANSWER: FLAG STATE means a ship has the nationality of the flag of the state it flies, but there must be a genuine link between the state and the ship. (Article 91 of the Convention on the Law of the Sea.) FLAG OF CONVENIENCE refers to a state with which a vessel is registered for various reasons such as low or non-existent taxation or low operating costs although the ship has no genuine link with that state. (Harris, Cases and Materials on International Law, 5th ed., 1998, p. 425.) Territory & Government (1996) No. 8: A law was passed dividing the Philippines into three regions (Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao), each constituting an independent state except on matters of foreign relations, national defense and national taxation, which are vested in the Central government. Is the law valid? Explain. SUGGESTED ANSWER: The law dividing the Philippines into three regions, each constituting an independent state and vesting in a central government matters of foreign relations, national defense, and national taxation, is unconstitutional. First, it violates Article I, which guarantees the integrity of the national territory of the Philippines because it divided the Philippines into three states. Second, it violates Section 1, Article II of the Constitution, which provides for the establishment of democratic and republic States by replacing it with three States organized as a confederation. Third, it violates Section 22, Article II of the Constitution, which, while recognizing and promoting the rights of indigenous cultural communities, provides for national unity and development. Fourth, it violates Section 15, Article X of the Constitution, which, provides for autonomous regions in Muslim Mindanao and in the Cordilleras within the framework of national sovereignty as well as territorial integrity of the Republic of the Philippines. Fifth, it violates the sovereignty of the Republic of the Philippines. Territorial Sea vs. Internal Waters (2004) (2-a-1) Distinguish: The territorial sea and the internal waters of the Philippines. SUGGESTED ANSWER: TERRITORIAL SEA is an adjacent belt of sea with a breadth of 12 nautical miles measured from the baselines of a state and over which the state has sovereignty. (Articles 2 and 3 of the Convention on the Law of the Sea.) Ship of all states enjoy the right of innocent passage BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006) 17
  • 18. through the territorial sea. (Article 14 of the Convention on the Law of the Sea.) Under Section 1, Article I of the 1987 Constitution, the INTERNAL WATERS of the Philippines consist of the waters around, between and connecting the islands of the Philippine Archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions, including the waters in bays, rivers and lakes. No right of innocent passage for foreign vessels exists in the case of internal waters. (Harris, Cases and Materials on International Law, 5th ed., 1998, p. 407.) Internal waters are the waters on the landward side of baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is calculated. (Brownlie, Principles of Public International Law, 4th ed., 1990, p. 120.) ARTICLE II Declaration of Principles and State Policies Armed Forces; Servant of the People (2003) No I - Article II. Section 3, of the 1987 Constitution expresses, in part, that the "Armed Forces of the Philippines is the protector of the people and (of) the State." Describe briefly what this provision means. Is the Philippine National Police covered by the same mandate? FIRST ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: Article II, Section 3 of the 1987 Constitution means that the Armed Forces of the Philippines should not serve the interest of the President but of the people and should not commit abuses against the people. (Record of the Constitutional Commission, Vol. V, p. 133.) This provision is specifically addressed to the Armed Forces of the Philippines and not to the Philippine National Police, because the latter is separate and distinct from the former. (Record of the Constitutional Commission, Vol. V, p. 296; Manalo v. Sistoza. 312 SCR A 239 [1999].) SECOND ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: Article II, Section 3 of the 1987 Constitution can be interpreted to mean that the Armed Forces of the Philippines can be a legitimate instrument for the overthrow of the civilian government if it has ceased to be the servant of the people. (Bernas, The 1987 Constitution of the Philippines: A Commentary, 2003 ed., p. 66.) This provision does not apply to the Philippine National Police, because it is separate and distinct from the Armed Forces of the Philippines. (Record of the Constitutional Commission, Vol. V, p. 296, Manalo v. Sistoza. 312 SCRA 239 [1999].) Doctrine of Incorporation; Constitutional Law (1997) No. 1; What do you understand by the "Doctrine of Incorporation" in Constitutional Law? SUGGESTED ANSWER: The DOCTRINE OF INCORPORATION means that the rules of International law form part of the law of the land and no legislative action is required to make them applicable to a country. The Philippines follows this doctrine, because Section 2. Article II of the Constitution states that the Philippines adopts the generally accepted principles of international law as part of the law of the land. Doctrine of Incorporation; Pacta Sunt Servanda (2000) No X. The Philippines has become a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and resultantly agreed that it "shall ensure the conformity of its laws, regulations and administrative procedures with its obligations as provided in the annexed Agreements." This is assailed as unconstitutional because this undertaking unduly limits, restricts and impairs Philippine sovereignty and means among others that Congress could not pass legislation that will be good for our national interest and general welfare if such legislation will not conform with the WTO Agreements. Refute this argument. (5%) SUGGESTED ANSWER: According to Tanada v. Angara, 272 SCRA 18 (1997), the sovereignty of the Philippines is subject to restriction by its membership in the family of nations and the limitations imposed of treaty limitations. Section 2. Article II of the Constitution adopts the generally accepted principles of international law as part of the law of the land. One of such principles is pacta sunt servanda. The Constitution did not envision a hermit-like isolation of the country from the rest of the world. Freedom from Nuclear Weapons; Foreign Military Bases (1988) No. 22: The Secretary of Justice had recently ruled that the President may negotiate for a modification or extension of military bases agreement with the United States regardless of the "no nukes" provisions in the 1987 Constitution. The President forthwith announced that she finds the same opinion "acceptable" and will adopt it. The Senators on the other hand, led by the Senate President, are skeptical, and had even warned that no treaty or international agreement may go into effect without the concurrence of two-thirds of all members of the Senate. BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006) 18
  • 19. A former senator had said, "it is completely wrong, if not erroneous," and "is an amendment of the Constitution by misinterpretation." Some members of the Lower House agree with Secretary Ordonez, while others lament the latter's opinion as "questionable, unfortunate, and without any basis at all." Do you or do you not agree with the aforementioned ruling of the Department of Justice? Why? SUGGESTED ANSWER: No. The Constitution provides that if foreign military bases, troops or facilities are to be allowed after the expiration of the present Philippine-American Military Bases Agreement in 1991, it must be "under a treaty duly concurred in by the Senate and, when the Congress so requires, ratified by a majority of the votes cast by the people in a national referendum." (Art. XVIII, sec. 25) A mere agreement, therefore, not a treaty, without the concurrence of at least 2/3 of all the members of the Senate will not be valid (Art. VII, sec. 21, Art. XVIII, sec. 4). With respect to the provision allowing nuclear weapons within the bases, the Constitution appears to ban such weapons from the Philippine territory. It declares as a state policy that "the Philippines, consistent with the national interest, adopts and pursues a policy of freedom from nuclear weapons in its territory." (Art, II, sec. 8) However, the deliberations of the Constitutional Commission would seem to indicate that this provision of the Constitution is "not something absolute nor 100 percent without exception." It may therefore be that circumstances may justify a provision on nuclear weapons. Philippine Flag (Q4-2006) State whether or not the law is constitutional. Explain briefly. 1. A law changing the design of the Philippine flag. (2%) ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: The law is invalid considering that under Article XVI, Section 1 of the 1987 Constitution, the flag of the Philippines shall be red, white, and blue, with a sun and three stars, as consecrated and honored by the people and recognized by law. Since the Constitution itself prescribes the design, it can only be changed by constitutional amendment. ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: The law is valid, provided that the new design does not change the elements and color scheme of the flag as stated in the Constitution, and the flag is consecrated and honored by the people. Since the Constitution itself states that the flag must be recognized by law, it implies that certain aspects of the flag are subject to change through legislative action. Principle of Civilian Supremacy (Q6-2006) 2. What Constitutional provisions institutionalize the principle of civilian supremacy? (2.5%) SUGGESTED ANSWER: The following constitutional provisions institutionalize the principle of civilian supremacy: a. Civilian authority is at all times supreme over the military. [Article II, Section 3] b. The installation of the President, the highest civilian authority, as the Commander-in-Chief of the military. [Ar-ticle VII, Section 18] c. The requirement that members of the AFP swear to uphold and defend the Constitution, which is the fundamental law of the civil government. [Article XVI, Section 5(1)] d. The requirement that members of the AFP shall have respect for people's rights in the performance of their duty. [Article XVI, Section 5(2)] e. Professionalism in the armed forces. [Article XVI, Section 5(3)] f. Insulation of the AFP from partisan politics. [Article XVI, Section 5(3)] g. Prohibition against the appointment of an AFP member in the active service to a civilian position. [Article XVI, Section 5(4)] h. Compulsory retirement of officers without extension of service. [Article XVI, Section 5(5)] i. Requirement of proportional recruitment from all provinces and cities, so as to avoid any regional clique from forming within the AFP. [Article XVI, Section 5(7)] j. A 3-year limitation on the tour of duty of the Chief of Staff, which although extendible in case of emergency by the President, depends on Congressional declaration of emergency. [Article XVI, Section 5(6)] The establishment of a police force that is not only civilian in character but also under the local executives. [Article XVI, Section 5(7)] State Immunity from Suit (1991) No. 13; In February 1990, the Ministry of the Army. Republic of Indonesia, invited bids for the supply of 500,000 pairs of combat boots for the use of the Indonesian Army. The Marikina Shoe Corporation, a Philippine corporation, which has no branch office and no assets in Indonesia, submitted a bid to supply 500,000 pairs of BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006) 19
  • 20. combat boots at U.S. $30 per pair delivered in Jakarta on or before 30 October 1990. The contract was awarded by the Ministry of the Army to Marikina Shoe Corporation and was signed by the parties in Jakarta. Marikina Shoe Corporation was able to deliver only 200,000 pairs of combat boots in Jakarta by 30 October 1990 and it received payment for 100,000 pairs or a total of U.S. $3,000,000.00. The Ministry of the Army promised to pay for the other 100,000 pairs already delivered as soon as the remaining 300,000 pairs of combat boots are delivered, at which time the said 300,000 pairs will also be paid for. Marikina Shoe Corporation failed to deliver any more combat boots. On 1 June 1991, the Republic of Indonesia filed an action before the Regional Trial Court of Pasig. Rizal, to compel Marikina Shoe Corporation to perform the balance of its obligations under the contract and for damages. In its Answer, Marikina Shoe Corporation sets up a counterclaim for U.S. $3,000,000.00 representing the payment for the 100,000 pairs of combat boots already delivered but unpaid. Indonesia moved to dismiss the counterclaim, asserting that it is entitled to sovereign Immunity from suit. The trial court denied the motion to dismiss and issued two writs of garnishment upon Indonesian Government funds deposited in the Philippine National Bank and Far East Bank. Indonesia went to the Court of Appeals on a petition for certiorari under Rule 65 of the Rules of Court. How would the Court of Appeals decide the case? SUGGESTED ANSWER: The Court of Appeals should dismiss the petition insofar as it seeks to annul the order denying the motion of the Government of Indonesia to dismiss the counterclaim. The counterclaim in this case is a compulsory counterclaim since it arises from the same contract involved in the complaint. As such it must be set up otherwise it will be barred. Above all, as held in Froilan vs. Pan Oriental Shipping Co., 95 Phil. 905, by filing a complaint, the state of Indonesia waived its immunity from suit. It is not right that it can sue in the courts but it cannot be sued. The defendant therefore acquires the right to set up a compulsory counterclaim against it. However, the Court of Appeals should grant the petition of the Indonesian government insofar as it sought to annul the garnishment of the funds of Indonesia which were deposited in the Philippine National Bank and Far East Bank. Consent to the exercise of jurisdiction of a foreign court does not include waiver of the separate immunity from execution. (Brownlie, Principles of Public International Law, 4th ed., p. 344.) Thus, in Dexter vs. Carpenter vs. Kunglig Jarnvagsstyrelsen, 43 Fed 705, it was held the consent to be sued does not give consent to the attachment of the property of a sovereign government. State Immunity from Suit (1996) No. 6; The Republic of the Balau (formerly Palau Islands) opened and operated in Manila an office engaged in trading Balau products with Philippine products. In one transaction, the local buyer complained that the Balau goods delivered to him were substandard and he sued the Republic of Balau, before the Regional Trial Court of Pasig, for damages. a) How can the Republic of Balau invoke its sovereign immunity? Explain. b) Will such defense of sovereign immunity prosper? Explain. SUGGESTED ANSWER: A) The Republic of Balau can invoke its sovereign Immunity by filing a motion to dismiss in accordance with Section l(a), Rule 16 of the Rules of Court on the ground that the court has no jurisdiction over its person. According to the Holy See vs. Rosario, 238 SCRA 524, in Public International Law, when a State wishes to plead sovereign immunity in a foreign court, it requests the Foreign Office of the State where it is being sued to convey to the court that it is entitled to immunity. In the Philippines, the practice is for the foreign government to first secure an executive endorsement of its claim of sovereign immunity. In some cases, the defense of sovereign immunity is submitted directly to the local court by the foreign government through counsel by filing a motion to dismiss on the ground that the court has no Jurisdiction over its person. b) No, the defense of sovereign Immunity will not prosper. The sale of Balau products is a contract involving a commercial activity. In United States vs. Ruiz, 136SCRA487 and United States vs. Guinto, 182 SCRA 644, it was stated that a foreign State cannot invoke Immunity from suit if it enters into a commercial contract. The Philippines adheres to RESTRICTIVE SOVEREIGN IMMUNITY. State Immunity from Suit (1989) No. 13: A property owner filed an action directly in court against the Republic of the Philippines BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006) 20
  • 21. seeking payment for a parcel of land which the national government utilized for a road widening project. (1) Can the government invoke the doctrine of non-suitability of the state? (2) In connection with the preceding question, can the property owner garnish public funds to satisfy his claim for payment? Explain your answers. SUGGESTED ANSWER: (1) No, the government cannot invoke the doctrine of state of immunity from suit. As held in Ministerio vs. Court of First Instance of Cebu, 40 SCRA 464, when the government expropriates property for public use without paying just compensation, it cannot invoke its immunity from the suit. Otherwise, the right guaranteed in Section 9, Article III of the 1987 Constitution that private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation will be rendered nugatory. (2) No, the owner cannot garnish public funds to satisfy his claim for payment, Section 7 of Act No. 3083 prohibits execution upon any judgment against the government. As held in Republic vs. Palacio, 23 SCRA 899, even if the government may be sued, it does not follow that its properties may be seized under execution. ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: (2) No, funds of the government on deposit in the bank cannot be garnished for two reasons: 1. Under Art. II, Sec. 29 (1) public funds cannot be spent except in pursuance of an appropriation made by law, and 2. essential public services will be impaired if funds of the government were subject to execution, (Commissioner of Public Highways vs. San Diego, 31 SCRA 616 (1970)). The remedy of the prevailing party is to have the judgment credit in his favor included in the general appropriations law for the next year. State Immunity from Suit (1994) No. 6; Johnny was employed as a driver by the Municipality of Calumpit, Bulacan. While driving recklessly a municipal dump truck with its load of sand for the repair of municipal streets, Johnny hit a jeepney. Two passengers of the jeepney were killed. The Sangguniang Bayan passed an ordinance appropriating P300,000 as compensation for the heirs of the victims. 1) Is the municipality liable for the negligence of Johnny? 2) Is the municipal ordinance valid? SUGGESTED ANSWER: 1) Yes, the Municipality of Calumpit is liable for the negligence of its driver Johnny. Under Section 24 of the Local Government Code, local government units are not exempt from liability for death or injury to persons or damage to property. ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: No, the municipality is not liable for the negligence of Johnny, the prevailing rule in the law of municipal corporations is that a municipality is not liable for the torts committed by its regular employees in the discharge of governmental functions. The municipality is answerable only when it is acting in a proprietary capacity. In the case at bar, Johnny was a regular employee of the Municipality of Calumpit as driver of its dump truck; he committed a tortious act while discharging a governmental function for the municipality, ie., driving recklessly the said truck loaded with sand for the repair of municipal streets. Undoubtedly then, Johnny as driver of the dump truck was performing a duty or task pertaining to his office. The construction or maintenance of public streets are admittedly governmental activities. At the time of the accident, Johnny was engaged in the discharge of governmental functions. Hence, the death of the two passengers of the jeepney -tragic and deplorable though it may be - imposed on the municipality no duty to pay monetary compensation, as held in Municipality of San. Fernando v. Firme, 195 SCRA 692. State Immunity from Suit (1992) No. 9: The Northern Luzon Irrigation Authority (NLIA) was established by a legislative charter to strengthen the irrigation systems that supply water to farms and commercial growers in the area. While the NLIA is able to generate revenues through its operations, it receives an annual appropriation from Congress. The NLIA is authorized to "exercise all the powers of a corporation under the Corporation Code." Due to a miscalculation by some of its employees, there was a massive irrigation overflow causing a flash flood in Barrio Zanjera. A child drowned in the incident and his parents now file suit against The NLIA for damages. May the NLIA validly invoke the immunity of the State from suit? Discuss thoroughly. SUGGESTED ANSWER: BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006) 21

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