Pedagogical Sciences University
José de la Luz y Caballero
Liberal Arts Faculty
English Department
Diploma Paper
A SET OF ...
SUMMARY
The motivation factor for becoming English teachers in first year of pedagogical
higher education is affected, tha...
INDEX
Contents Page
Introduction--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
Develo...
INTRODUCTION
The Cuban society in these recent years has worked hard to offer students the
necessary conditions to develop...
formation, and insufficient exploitation of activities typical of the age of the students of
higher education.
Under this ...
The theoretical methods were analysis-synthesis, as well as induction-deduction
methods were used mainly in the explorator...
DEVELOPMENT
According to the logical evolution of the research project conducted by the author, the
development of this pa...
tendency toward exploratory behavior, the need-or taste-for variety, aesthetic
reactions and curiosity. A person who lacks...
• The preliminary knowledge and conceptions the students have about the
curriculum to learn, their meaning and usefulness,...
a person who makes his own specific work with relevant capacity to accomplish
rationally his objectives, giving to him cer...
On the base of the exposed analysis, in which contributions of different investigators
have been considered, the author co...
definition: Professional and Pedagogical Oral Communicative Competence in English.
And its definition is:
Integration of c...
professional pedagogical approach in the subject of Integrated English Practice 1,
various empirical methods were applied....
previous stage, it is logical to assume such outcome, and the method applied so
confirms it.
Interview to professors:
Seco...
After tabulating the results of the observations and analyzing them, the following was
concluded: there were no noticeable...
A set of pedagogical communicative professional situations to better up
motivation towards the pedagogical profession
This...
teachers, interacting with one another, while the teacher will play the role of
facilitator.
c) Taking into consideration ...
You are traveling on a light plane and suddenly one of its engines explodes, seven
people are traveling with you and the o...
Situation Number Two
Title: “Ideas Approach”
Objective: To provide arguments that support, are against and reveal the most...
Objective: To offer their personal critical opinion about the pedagogical profession,
under the teacher’s guidance, with e...
in a chest those qualities which are below the level we want, let’s say the professional
weakness which must stay.”
The wh...
departing form a deep analysis of different topics. The 65 % of them have good
results in English.
After the pedagogical e...
GENERAL CONCLUSIONS
The first stage of the investigation demonstrated that an approximation to the state of
the art relate...
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. ACOSTA, P. R. (2009). La competencia comunicativa y el magisterio. Ed.
Pueblos. México.
2. ADDINE, F. (200...
Appendixes
Appendix 1
Survey to Students
Objective: To explore the opinions of the students of first year in the specialty...
Appendix 2
Interview to teachers
Objective: To obtain information on aspects related to the preparation and
presentation o...
Appendix 3
Observation Guide
Objective: To determine how the professor deals with the motivation towards the
pedagogical p...
Appendix 4
Lesson: Visit:
Note: In all cases
a. Indicates a high positive corroboration of the indicator.
b. Indicates an ...
Appendix 5
Survey to Students
Objective: To know the opinion of the students involved in the process (recipients of
the pr...
of 29

Ponencia de Ariel Adrian New

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Ponencia de Ariel Adrian New

  • 1. Pedagogical Sciences University José de la Luz y Caballero Liberal Arts Faculty English Department Diploma Paper A SET OF PROFESSIONAL PEDAGOGICAL COMMUNICATIVE SITUATIONS TO INCREASE MOTIVATION TOWARDS THE PEDAGOGICAL PROFESSIONAL STUDIES IN STUDENTS FROM FIRST YEAR MAJOR IN EDUCATION IN ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE SPECIALTY English Language 5th year Author: Ariel Adrian Infante Reinaldo Tutor: Alberto Román Medina Betancourt (PhD. & Full Professor) 2014
  • 2. SUMMARY The motivation factor for becoming English teachers in first year of pedagogical higher education is affected, that is why it was necessary to try to find a way to solve this situation. This paper is designed with the objective of serving as a tool for helping teachers to increase pedagogical motivation in first year students from the pedagogical higher education. This research is focused in the critical objective of the trends about the teaching-learning process of English and proposes a set of pedagogical communicative professional situations which allow the systematic increase of motivation towards the pedagogical professional studies. The research results presented here were obtained with the use of scientific methods of pedagogical research, both theoretical and empirical. Among the first ones, analysis- synthesis, historical-logical, abstract-concrete, and modeling are highlighted; while the second ones, survey, interview, and observation were of great importance. The proposal is based I he cognitive exploitation towards the study of the foreign language with the goal of raising the motivational levels towards the pedagogical profession. The results proved that they were effective and could be used to contribute to solve the problem of lack of motivation towards the pedagogical career. These professional situations made a positive difference.
  • 3. INDEX Contents Page Introduction--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 Development-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4 General Conclusions ---------------------------------------------------------------------20 Bibliography Appendixes
  • 4. INTRODUCTION The Cuban society in these recent years has worked hard to offer students the necessary conditions to develop their knowledge, habits and abilities. That is why it is focused in a battle for a general comprehensive culture, which poses enormous challenges to education; one of them is to ensure that Cuban students achieve proficiency in at least one foreign language. In the present days the English language is facing a very important decade of advanced development towards the reach to the status of the first global lingua franca, since it has paramount importance in the world of science, scientific information, and the development of the new technologies and the scientific data. The official documents which regulates the formation of English as a foreign language teacher, that is, the Professional Model, expresses in its main objectives as well as in its professional performance, scope of action and professional problems some important challenges for which the future professional needs to form and develop motivation towards the pedagogical profession. It has been demonstrated through different researches that students start their major with high levels of motivation towards the study of the foreign language, but they are partially or mostly unmotivated towards the pedagogical career. Although the Cuban educational authorities have made great efforts to make the teaching of English an achievement, where children and young people achieve a prominent development of performance in competitiveness and motivational language in the exploratory study conducted by the author through observations, visiting classes and having daily-teaching practice, the following situations have been found: Appropriate levels of motivation towards the study of the English language, high levels of acceptance of the Integrated English Practice lessons and their teacher, adequate levels of the formation of a general comprehensive culture, disposition and professional preparation on the part of the teacher to contribute to an effective formation of the students, lack of motivation towards the pedagogical profession, lack of activities in the Integrated English Practice lessons that contribute to the reinforcement of the pedagogical vocational orientation, negative signs which show apathy towards disciplines which contribute to the general and to the pedagogical Page | 1
  • 5. formation, and insufficient exploitation of activities typical of the age of the students of higher education. Under this circumstance, it is important to state that the students’ motivation and desire to learn play an important role in the learning process. Teaching and learning English is a priority in the Cuban system of Education. It responds to economic, social, cultural and diplomatic realities. Such relevance has been analyzed in a variety of investigations addressed at determining the most effective strategies for the teaching-learning process of English. Taking into account all these aspects, the author determined the following as a research problem: the necessity to better up motivation towards the pedagogical profession in students from first year major in Education in English as a foreign language specialty, at José de la Luz y Caballero University of Pedagogical Sciences in Holguin. In order to solve the problem the following research objective was formulated: to structure a set of pedagogical professional situations to increase motivation towards the pedagogical professional studies. Taking into account the research problem, the objective and for the successful development of this investigation the following research tasks were formulated: 1. To determine the theoretical and methodological referents of the teaching- learning process of the English language in higher pedagogical education. 2. To determine the real state of motivation toward the pedagogical profession. 3. To structure a set of pedagogical professional situations to increase motivation towards the pedagogical professional studies. 4. To corroborate the effectiveness of the set of pedagogical professional situations through its application in the pedagogical practice. Some research methods were applied with the purpose of approaching and studying the theoretical information, to process the scientific data of the research, the conceptual interpretation of the theoretical foundations and for the elaboration of the set of pedagogical situations. Page | 2
  • 6. The theoretical methods were analysis-synthesis, as well as induction-deduction methods were used mainly in the exploratory stage to identify the problem situation for raising the students´ motivation towards the pedagogical profession, and finding different ways to raise it and also for the analysis of information collected and the study of the different criteria posed by the authors of various latitudes to address the issue. The systemic method favored to establish a relationship between each of the parts of the object, which has a specific structure whose components are closely interrelated to help integrate the dynamics of the teaching-learning process towards the demands and idiosyncrasy of the current socialistic society and to structure the proposal of pedagogical professional situations. The modelation method allowed the representation of the set of pedagogical professional situations and its components, besides, it served as an essential element of its conception, and design. The Empirical Methods were: Observation was applied with the purpose of testing the given treatment to motivation towards the pedagogical profession to the students in class and their tendencies. Interview and survey were applied to teachers and students to know their view points about the motivational states towards the pedagogical profession from first year major in Education in English as a foreign language specialty, at José de la Luz y Caballero University of Pedagogical Sciences in Holguin. For the development of this research, the students from first year major in Education in English as a foreign language specialty, at José de la Luz y Caballero University of Pedagogical Sciences in Holguin, in the academic course 2013-2014, were considered as population, which is 86, while the selected sample was 26 students belonging to group Number One out of three. Page | 3
  • 7. DEVELOPMENT According to the logical evolution of the research project conducted by the author, the development of this paper is structured in three main parts: It starts by offering the theoretical and methodological referents of the teaching-learning process of English language in higher education and their relation with motivation towards the pedagogical profession as well as the current situation of motivation towards the pedagogical profession and their relation to the effectiveness of learning English as a foreign language. Then, the second part is centered in a set of pedagogical professional situations which main goal is to better up motivation towards the pedagogical profession. And then, the third part of the research is based in the practical application of the novelty to the selected sample with its results. Methodological referents of the teaching-learning process of English language in higher education In order to systematize the existing theory related to the object of the investigation, it has been determined to start by an approximation to the concept of motivation, then its relation to the professional pedagogical approach, and to round up the analysis, the study of the formation and development of communicative competence in English, as the final goal of the teaching-learning process. Motivation is the feeling nurtured primarily by the teacher in the learning situation. In humans, motivation encompasses both conscious and unconscious impulses. Theories of motivation in psychology establish a primary motivation level, which refers to the satisfaction of basic needs such as breathing, eating or drinking, and a secondary referral to social needs, such as achievement or affection. No theory of motivation has been universally accepted. First, many psychologists, within the scope of behaviorism, argued that the minimum level of stimulation to an organism was behaving in a way that tried to eliminate such stimulation, leading to a desired state of absence of stimulation. In fact, Luther, K. (1995) states that much of human physiology operates this way. However, recent cognitive theories of motivation described human beings trying to optimize, rather than eliminate, their state of stimulation. In doing so, these theories are more effective to explain the human Page | 4
  • 8. tendency toward exploratory behavior, the need-or taste-for variety, aesthetic reactions and curiosity. A person who lacks the motivation to have a preference may be resigned to accept all the customs and can therefore develop a philosophy of prudence. That person lives in this way, in accordance with the moral behavior of the time and society. Due to the great diversity among students, educational facilities and fields of study, has not yet formulated any comprehensive theory applicable to all educational psychology. By contrast, psychologists work on theories about specific phenomena of learning, motivation, development and education. Scholastic motivation is not a technique or method of tutoring, but a cognitive affective factor present in every act of learning and teaching process at all, either implicitly or explicitly. The teacher should be focused on inducing motifs in their students regarding their learning and behavior to apply voluntarily to class work, giving meaning to homework and providing them with a specific purpose, so that students develop a real taste for school activity and understand their personal and social utility. According to Kramer, A. (1986) the role of motivation in the achievement of meaningful learning relates to the need to induce in the students’ interest and effort, and work of the teacher is providing the direction and guidance relevant to the situation. It would be ideal to expect the attention, effort and the students’ thoughts guided by the desire to understand, to develop and to integrate information significantly, but an experienced teacher knows that this does not always exclusively occurs. The attention of students is determined by their fear of failing or seeking a personal acceptance. In fact, motivation for learning is a very complex phenomenon, conditioned by aspects such as: • The real possibility that the student has to achieve the proposed goals and perspectives to the assumed studies. • The student knows how to act, what further learning process (like thinking) to successfully meet the presented tasks and problems. Page | 5
  • 9. • The preliminary knowledge and conceptions the students have about the curriculum to learn, their meaning and usefulness, and the strategies to be employed. • The context defines the teaching situation itself, particularly the messages received by the student by the teacher and classmates, the organization of school activities and forms of assessment of learning. • The values and behaviors the teacher models in students, which may facilitate or inhibit their interest in learning. • The usage of a series of motivational principles that teachers can use in the design and conduction of the teaching-learning process. Most language teachers will agree that the motivation of the students is one of the most important factors influencing their success or failure in learning the language. The sociological factors affecting language learning situations which Schumann, S. (1985) refers to as creating social distance play an important role. There are some dangers inherent in the blanket term motivation. For example, some inexperienced teachers may confuse the generating of enthusiasm, undoubtedly an important motivational element, with the whole task of motivating the students to undertake and persevere with work. Willingness to learn maybe related to parental encouragement, not necessarily positively, or to happy learning experiences in other subjects, or to some temperamental trait. Interest may be original to the student, or it may have come via parent, another relative, another student, a visit, or a television show. Interest is often regarded as being a major element, incentives, variety of classroom activity are further tactics available to the teacher, but their effects on success will depend on their quality. After analyzing the previous issue, the author wants to highlight a few more elements that are of paramount importance for the development of this research such as the pedagogical professional approach, which constitutes the matter subject of such investigation. According to López, C. (1995) professionalism is based on the quality of Page | 6
  • 10. a person who makes his own specific work with relevant capacity to accomplish rationally his objectives, giving to him certain lifestyle. This can be approached in the use of principles, methods, ways, technologies and media corresponding to each case, with a higher preparation (including experience) to transform and to produce some new knowledge and values for a better performance. Professionalism is manifested in individual full satisfaction when actions are executed with attention, carefulness, accuracy and rapidity. Mirtha, C. (1990) defines pedagogical professional approach as: …the orientation of the pedagogical process in the formation of professionals for the education, which content is given in the existing relation among the students´ formative orientation and the necessities of the graduated from pedagogical university studies´ social practice. The essence of this relation is constituted by the settled demands to education taking into account the development universal tendencies and the historical concrete conditions of each country. Pedagogical professional approach is multidimensional and includes various factors such as: Methodological instruction, development in the autodidactic capacity, pedagogical and curricular domain in the knowledge system, and development of an alternative thinking. (Translated by the author) Addine, F. (2002) deepens in the topic and declares that: Professional approach is expressed in the organization and direction of the educative influences system departing from the professional practice demands of the future graduated, which implies the necessity of forming the student in the professional practice and for the professional practice allowing simultaneously and in a gradual way in the development of interests, knowledge, and professional abilities, such as the formation of an adequate auto-evaluation of the student in his professional effort and the development of his reflexive and flexible thinking in the application of such problems in the professional practice. (Translated by the author) Page | 7
  • 11. On the base of the exposed analysis, in which contributions of different investigators have been considered, the author considers necessary to take into account the following features in this definition: • It is an organization and general direction that supports the educative influences’ system of the board of teachers in each year as the integrating core of the pedagogical professional formation in the pedagogical sciences universities. • Since the recognition of the professionalization of teaching-learning process the preparation of the student to identify and to solve professional problems is been prioritized from the first year in their university studies. • It takes into account a correct formation and development of communicative competence and methodology to allow facing the professional performance with a comprehensive and contextualized character. Foreign languages special didactics, in these recent years, has used in a plentiful way, a specific term to design the kind of communication that the teacher of foreign languages must use to direct the teaching-learning process. The author is talking about “teacher talk”, which is defined by Osborne, D. (1999) as a speech used by teacher that is characteristically modified in four areas: lexis, syntax, morphology, and discourse. However, the differences in teacher talk as compared to a typical sociolinguistic domain are not systematic or widespread enough, and they tend to disappear as the class advances. That is why it may not get forgotten due of its incidence in the English teaching-learning process, and although it does not constitute a competence in itself, it is present in the whole performance of the foreign languages teacher, since it constitutes the socio-linguistic variable used by the teacher to make himself comprehensible in the class. In the Pedagogical Sciences University of Holguin, an English teacher, Rodriguez, J. C. (2014) developed a scientific study to obtain his PhD. in Pedagogical Sciences based on the study of teacher talk. This author has demonstrated the inconsistencies of this category to satisfy the communicative needs for the formation of English teachers. In this context he has provided a new concept with its corresponding Page | 8
  • 12. definition: Professional and Pedagogical Oral Communicative Competence in English. And its definition is: Integration of capacities, knowledge, abilities and linguistic and extra linguistic habits that are manifested during the communicative act of the foreign language through its proper use as an essential tool to direct the teaching- learning process. This process takes place within an organization and general direction which are part of the system of educational influence of the teaching staff as the basis of the pedagogical and professional formation in the universities of pedagogical sciences. The professional character of the teaching-learning process of English prepares the students to identify and solve professional situations starting at freshman level, focusing on an adequate communicative formation to face their practice teaching with a comprehensive and contextualized approach. (Translated by the author) After concluding the previous analysis, the author considers that it is necessary to move forward the investigation on the basis of the research of the pedagogical communicative competence. Acosta, R. (2009) defines communicative competence as the psychological configuration that the individual develops to precisely determine what to say, to who, why, how, where and when to say it, and to perform a proper and correct use of the language. Communicative competence is the supreme objective of teaching, although it becomes, in time, in a means to the multilateral formation of the students, which is finally, the end of education. Stephen, N. (1996) states that during initial preparation, the development of the pedagogical professional communicative competence goes through four main stages, they are: Imitative professional expression, critical-reflexive professional expression, reconstructive professional expression, and independent professional expression. Current situation of motivation towards the pedagogical profession To characterize the current state of motivation towards the pedagogical profession in the first year students from the specialty of foreign languages at the Pedagogical Sciences University Jose de la Luz Caballero and basing the analysis on the Page | 9
  • 13. professional pedagogical approach in the subject of Integrated English Practice 1, various empirical methods were applied. Firstly, a survey to students was used to determine their interests and motivations towards the pedagogical profession. Then, an interview to teachers of the specialty was applied with the objective of obtaining information about the teachers’ performance to favor motivation towards the pedagogical profession in the first year students of the Foreign Languages major. The results obtained in the already mentioned methods paved the way for the application of a more generalizing method, the scientific observation. This was used with the goal of verifying the favoring motivational actions towards the pedagogical profession in lessons of Integrated English Practice 1. The analysis of the professional motivational state was carried out with 30 students integrated in two groups; taking into account this in the first year of university studies for those who entered higher education and in particular to the languages studies, it is known the lower level with which these students enter to the specialty and the varied interests they have, in most of the cases, with no relation with the practice of the pedagogical profession. Survey to students: The survey (See Appendix 1) was applied to 10 students of the group object of the investigation. This method rendered the following regularities: A. The students do not discern on the importance of being a teacher, nor as a means to educate and enrich other cultural backgrounds. B. The students see the pedagogical preparation in class as a burden, a punishment, a waste of time in class, with no clear values in sight. According to them, pedagogy is strenuous, tiresome and empty. The completion of the surveying stage allows asserting that the students’ motivation towards the pedagogical profession is very low. Given what was detected in the Page | 10
  • 14. previous stage, it is logical to assume such outcome, and the method applied so confirms it. Interview to professors: Secondly, an interview was applied to four professors of the specialty, with a long teaching experience in the subject Integrated English Practice in general. (See Appendix 2). The answers to questions one and two were unanimous: The pedagogical formation is an important activity that must be developed alongside the lesson, and it is basic to motivate the students towards their future goals and towards any other skill. Question three elicited that the professors prepare the lesson and themselves devotedly. As to enhance motivation towards the profession, they posited that such motivating session carries the same amount of preparation. They added that creative exercises are the best ground for motivating the students towards the pedagogical career. The professors replied that there is no key moment to include motivating pedagogical activities in the lesson; the motivation towards the pedagogical career can be presented in any of the three stages of the lesson. They said that the tasks they devise for motivating the students towards teaching are ‘most of the times’ varied, and try to stimulate the students towards the profession. Finally, in the last question the answers provided coincide on the fact they know the students are not very much prone to the profession, they are rather biased and do not really welcome such activities in class, protesting sometimes. Observation to lessons: Thirdly, observations were carried out to determine how the professors dealt motivation towards the pedagogical profession in class to motivate the students towards it. Seven lessons were visited in the current 2013 first-year of the specialty of English. Indicators that would approach the main concerns of the observation as a method were designed. (See Appendix 3) Page | 11
  • 15. After tabulating the results of the observations and analyzing them, the following was concluded: there were no noticeable intentions by the professor that would indicate a motivational approach in the lesson towards the profession in particular; the tasks used were presented with a tendency to follow the standard way, with no systematic specific attention to the fact that the students were to confront acts towards the profession; the orientation, execution, follow-up and control of the skills did not differ from the usual procedures. No special attention was given to the professional activities. The completion of the observation stage allows to state that the degrees of motivation that must be activated in class to encourage the students are not satisfactory, which has an impact on the stimulation of their professional performances. The triangulation of the results obtained with the use of the different empirical methods made it possible to determine the following regularities: • Most of the students are partially unmotivated towards the profession. • The blank space in motivation goes back to lesson quality and unfulfilled professional orientation in previous years. • The students seem to limit their professional formation to what they mechanically know about the teaching subject. • The tasks and activities to which they are exposed are not creative, nor attainable in some cases, definitely not varied, and hardly systematic. • Language problems affect the students’ performance in writing, and by extension modify unconstructively their levels of motivation towards the skill, in a vicious circle. • Teachers are not aware of the negative response of students towards the career. Page | 12
  • 16. A set of pedagogical communicative professional situations to better up motivation towards the pedagogical profession This research is based on the need of a significant increase of motivation towards the pedagogical profession. The novelty of this work lies in presenting a proposal of tasks that increase motivation towards the pedagogical profession in students from first year who are studying to become bachelors in Education in English as a foreign language specialty, at José de la Luz y Caballero University of Pedagogical Sciences in Holguin. This proposal has particular characteristics: it addresses an important area within the comprehensive formation of students’ personality with the motivation for learning a foreign language. According to Medina, A. (2012) the term professional situation means to bring to life in the classroom what normally happens in real life and integrates it into some kind of communicative event. Van, E. (2012) considers it as the complex of extra linguistic conditions which determine the nature of a language act, of which four components are distinguished: • The social role which the learner will be able to play • The psychological roles which the learner will be able to play • The settings in which the learner will be able to use the language • The topics which the learner will be able to deal with in the language. It has been the author´s purpose to base this proposal on the following methodological foundation: a) Every task, in content and in form, should suit the learners´ interest, both individually and collectively, so as to foster motivation towards the pedagogical career emphasizing the motivation towards the profession. b) The way in which these tasks will be carried out in class will grant the permanent processes of interaction among the learners, so that they will be active all the time while expressing the importance of their profession as future Page | 13
  • 17. teachers, interacting with one another, while the teacher will play the role of facilitator. c) Taking into consideration the level of the students, that is, higher level, the tasks have been designed so as to favor oral communication. However, the four communicative skills are used in an integrated way; using one contributes to the development of the others. Under these circumstances, the activities will follow an integrative approach. The offered tasks are the result of the author’s endeavors. They emerge from the revision of other sources (the advisor’s Lesson Plan, books and the activities provided by didactic materials elaborated by the British Council) and their adaptation to first year, in the circumstances currently marking the level and the type of student, as well as the place of action in the framework of the subject as a reinforcement of the other skills and mostly, though not always, during every phase. Now the author of this paper presents the pedagogical situations, which application can be combined, taking into account the psycho-pedagogical exigencies previously pointed out. What is here presented is just a representative selection of the novelty, since the real number of situations is eight and due to the normative of this kind of research to be presented in the festival, the author highlighted the following four situations. Situation Number One Title: “The Light Plane” Objective: To reflect towards the importance and meaning of the pedagogical profession for the students from their own elaboration, using mainly the oral communicative skills, so as to contribute to the development of the positive affective life experiences regarding the pedagogical profession. Media: No special media required. Procedures: The teacher selects seven students among which he distributes the following roles: a lawyer, a pregnant woman, a teacher, a husband (head of a family), a doctor, a farmer, and an artist. Then the teacher gives them the following situation: Page | 14
  • 18. You are traveling on a light plane and suddenly one of its engines explodes, seven people are traveling with you and the only way to survive is jumping off the plane but there are only three parachutes for the most significant characters. According to their roles, each of them has to prepare an argument in which they expose why they think they deserve to be given one of the parachutes for saving their lives. They present any argument and try not to reject the possibility of earn one of the parachutes. They have to try to be chosen by the rest for taking one of the parachutes and be saved. After developing the dramatizations, listening to the arguments and refutations of those who thought should be saved, the seven characters decide among them, through votes, which of them will occupy the three parachutes. Then the analysis will be carried out to the whole group. The class will finally decide which of the characters should take the parachutes after making the assessments about the role each of the characters has in society. The teacher will emphasize on the role of the teacher leading the reflections towards the importance this profession has in society. With the objective of promoting the discussion concerning the personal assessments made towards the pedagogical profession, and towards the personal identification. At the end of the situation the teacher will ask to the students: Who identified himself as the teacher? Why? How did you feel in the development of the situation? How do you feel being a teacher to be? Vocabulary hints to guide the students: I think that… I consider… My point of view is… In my opinion… Page | 15
  • 19. Situation Number Two Title: “Ideas Approach” Objective: To provide arguments that support, are against and reveal the most interesting aspects of the pedagogical profession. Media: A piece of paper, pencil or pen, blackboard Procedures: The students will write individually on a piece of paper the positive, negative and interesting aspects of being teacher. The teacher will divide the blackboard in three columns, the first one for the positive aspects, the second one for the negative aspects and the third one for the interesting aspects individually selected towards the profession. The teacher then will promote the collective reflection fostering the ideas of evaluating if the positive, negative and interesting aspects of the profession are really as positive, negative and interesting as they think they are, beginning by the positive aspects and finishing by the interesting ones. The teacher should (after running out the ideas and assessments) emphasize on the positive and interesting aspects, and even try to seek the positive side in those aspects presented as negative towards the profession, always departing from the collective analysis, the teacher will only guide the reflection towards the wanted goal. The teacher and the class will finally get to a balance among the three aspects, demonstrating the superiority of the positive and interesting aspects over the negative ones, linked to the objective of the profession. At the end of the activity the teacher will ask to the students to express: How did you feel during the activity? Make a list of the emotions you had. Share with your classmates. Situation Number Three Title: “The Ball of Wool” Page | 16
  • 20. Objective: To offer their personal critical opinion about the pedagogical profession, under the teacher’s guidance, with emphasis on the affective sphere and making use of their oral communicative competence. Media: A thick ball of wool thread. Procedures: All the students have to stand up and form a circle. The teacher will give to one of them a ball of wool, this student will give his criteria about the pedagogical profession, then he will take the tip of the thread and he will throw the ball to another student who also has to express his/her opinion. The action will be repeated until every student has participated. Once they have said their own criteria about the pedagogical profession, the last student who got the ball will have to express the opinion of the one that threw the ball to him, and the other student will have to do the same operation allowing the ball to travel back until it gets to the first student who threw it. The teacher must warn the students to be attentive to the opinions of their partners, since they will not know who will be the next to receive the ball. Situation Number Four Title: “The Professional Suitcase” Objective: To reflect on the attributes the students have to form for becoming good professionals and to determine those they need for fulfilling their own interests as future educators; meanwhile, they will make use of communicative skills with emphasis on the oral ones. Procedures: The teacher must make the students play a role in the following situation: “We are all teachers and we are gathered in the meetings room of the school where we work. The information is about the government for going on a mission to the different countries of the Latin American continent. Since the election of those who will go to the mission will be very strict, we need to place in a suitcase our best qualities as teachers, since these are the ones we will carry with us, and we will place Page | 17
  • 21. in a chest those qualities which are below the level we want, let’s say the professional weakness which must stay.” The whole group will do a collective analysis departing from what each one of the students placed in the suitcase or in the chest. This set of pedagogical situations was elaborated with the objective of leading students to look for new sources of information, to widen their knowledge and cultural background through some teaching-learning activities, taking into account the students´ necessities and interests to awaken their interest in loving the pedagogical career and learning the foreign language. Corroboration of the Effectiveness of the Application of the Proposal in Class Due to the characteristics of this investigation, the proposal of Pedagogical Professional Situations could not be carried out by the researcher himself. So, one of the experienced teachers belonging to the staff in charge of Integrated English Practice was selected for the application. Besides her experience, it was taken into consideration that she carried out her research to obtain her degree as a Specialists in topic related to this investigation. So, the author of the Paper visited three lessons in the 2014 first-year group. He familiarized himself with the group of students where he was to be a visitor, not to be an alien element in the classroom while applying the observation guide, by conducting lesson moments in the group and applying the initial and closing surveys. This allowed the process to move naturally. The indicators and parameters used were adjusted to suit the context and scope of the Diploma Paper. This process of validation was possible through practice with an observation guide. (See appendix 4) The effectiveness of the novelty was by means of a pedagogical experience. The population of first year students at José de la Luz y Caballero Pedagogical Sciences University is 86 students and the sample chosen was integrated by 26 students. The students of this group keep a climate of trust and respect towards each other and towards the teachers. They share interests and wishes. Most of them have achieved a relative psychological maturity. They are critical and able to offer their opinions Page | 18
  • 22. departing form a deep analysis of different topics. The 65 % of them have good results in English. After the pedagogical experience a survey was applied to 10 students of first year from the already mentioned class and university. This process of validation was possible through the application of the survey. (See appendix 5) The results of the survey indicated that there was a high degree of acceptation and motivation from the students, what adds to the results obtained in the survey to the professors and the validation in practice. In the survey to professors an analysis of the results obtained in this instrument shows that the novelty proposed have potential enough, therefore, they qualify as an adequate alternative to be applied in the teaching-learning process. The tabulations show that during the observation to lessons the students have progressively adapted and responded to the tasks in the main aspects controlled. Each validation moment proved the efficacy of the tasks. Criteria from experienced professors, a practical implementation in class and its description, an explanation with scientific methods, and finally an approach to the opinions of the recipients of the situations permit to state that the proposal is valid. Page | 19
  • 23. GENERAL CONCLUSIONS The first stage of the investigation demonstrated that an approximation to the state of the art related to an interaction between motivation and pedagogical professional approach permitted to determine the existence of general referents, and the lack of a specific proposal to foster the motivation towards the pedagogical profession in students of first year to become future English professors. In general terms, it was determined that motivation is related to the following terms: interest, enthusiasm, motive and emotion. On the other hand, it is necessary to mention that pedagogical professional approach is a multidimensional phenomenon which includes various factors such as methodological instruction, development in the autodidactic capacity, pedagogical and curricular domain in the knowledge system, and favors the development of an alternative thinking. In the second stage of the investigation, an attempt has been made to elaborate a proposal to solve the research problem. This first try is built up by two main parts: The first one consisting in the theoretical and methodological basis needed for the elaboration and application of the pedagogical situations; and second one, the professional situations as such, which consists in a set of pedagogical professional situations, with the same structure and adapted to the specific requirements of the students subjects of this investigation. This proposal takes into account the students´ preferences and the methodological foundations of the activities, which main features are: emphasis on the motivational aspect towards the pedagogical profession, interactive approach, cooperative learning and participative learning. Through the proposed set of professional situations, motivation towards the career in the students was achieved. These situations were devised, implemented and validated by the author. The results proved that they were effective and could be used to contribute to solve the problem of lack of motivation towards the pedagogical career in the first year mayor students. These professional situations did make a positive difference. Motivation and involvement were the common element. Page | 20
  • 24. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. ACOSTA, P. R. (2009). La competencia comunicativa y el magisterio. Ed. Pueblos. México. 2. ADDINE, F. (2002). La comunicación y el maestro. Ed. Gente Nueva. Habana. 3. CÁRDENAS, MIRTHA (1990). Pedagogía y Motivación. Ed. Pueblo y Educación. Habana 4. KRAMER, A. (1986). Teaching towards Motivation. Der Heralt. Berlin. 5. LÓPEZ, C. (1995). Profesionalismo Pedagógico. Gente Nueva. La Habana. C. 6. LUTHER, K (1995). Motivation and Stimulation. Open Ed. Berlin. 7. MEDINA BETANCOURT, ALBERTO R. (2012). Glossary: Improve your methodological technical register with more than 800 terms. Digital Software. 8. MODELO DEL PROFESIONAL, PLAN DE ESTUDIO “D”, CARRERA DE LENGUAS EXTRANJERAS. (2010) Ministerio de Educación. 9. OSBORNE, D. (1999). Teachers’ Oral Expression. British Benchmark. UK. 10.SCHUMANN, S. (1985). Language and School treatment. Der Heralt Ed. Berlin. 11. STEPHEN, N. ELLIOT (1996). Educational Psychology. Brown and Benchmark. Chapter 10. UK. 12. VAN, E. (2012). Professional Situation’s Role. New Light Ed. Nova Scotia. Canada. 13. Web Sites: www.ellapicero.com.org/motivationinenglish www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/motivation www.teachersfundation.com/article/how-to-motivate www.getreadytoteach.uk/blogs/motivatingpupils
  • 25. Appendixes Appendix 1 Survey to Students Objective: To explore the opinions of the students of first year in the specialty of English, the 2012-2013 class, about the pedagogical profession. Dear student: We are carrying out a research on motivational aspects of the pedagogical profession in your level. Your opinions on the issue are a key to find ways to improve the lessons you are taking. Please answer the following survey. Thank you. Do you like the lessons you are taking at present? YES_____ NO______ SOME TIMES______ Why? Do you enjoy the tasks with pedagogical approach proposed by your professors in class? YES_____ NO______ SOME TIMES______ Why? Mark with an X all the activities you do in class for developing your ability as a teacher: ___ Role plays ___ Answering written questions ___ Answering oral questions ___ Searching for information ___ Narrations ___ Situations in English ___ Dramatizations ___ Dialogs ___ Resorting to personal experiences ___ OTHERS. Which?
  • 26. Appendix 2 Interview to teachers Objective: To obtain information on aspects related to the preparation and presentation of the pedagogical formation to the students Esteemed colleague: We have embarked on a research about motivational issues in the lesson of English, particularly those related to the pedagogical profession and student motivation towards it. Your answers in this interview will be crucial in charting our research course. Thank you. Do you deem the pedagogical formation as an important activity to be developed in class? Why? Do you consider it relevant to motivate the students in class towards the profession? How do you prepare yourself and plan the lesson to achieve high levels of motivation in class towards the pedagogical profession in special? In your opinion, which is the key moment in class to include pedagogical activities to motivate the students towards the career? Are the tasks you devise for motivating the pedagogical profession varied and stimulating? Are you aware of your students’ attitudes and disposition towards developing such activities in class?
  • 27. Appendix 3 Observation Guide Objective: To determine how the professor deals with the motivation towards the pedagogical profession in class. Activity: _____________ Year: _______ Lesson: _________ INDICATORS 1. General motivation of the lessons 2. Presentation of the pedagogical tasks proposed 3. Student involvement 4. Variety of the pedagogical tasks proposed 5. Attractiveness of the topics towards the pedagogical profession 6. Time allotted to the pedagogical development
  • 28. Appendix 4 Lesson: Visit: Note: In all cases a. Indicates a high positive corroboration of the indicator. b. Indicates an average (mid) corroboration. c. Indicates a low negative corroboration. Observation Guide: Objective: To obtain preliminary reliable data on the actual effectiveness in class of the application of the proposal. I. In communication. 1. Quality of the motivational ideas stated. a. Good b. Fair c. Bad 2. Richness of the pedagogical ideas expressed. a. Good b. Fair c. Bad II. In activity. 1. Participation in the work sessions in class. a. Good b. Fair c. Bad 2. Enthusiasm (motivation) shown. a. Good b. Fair c. Bad 3. Individual, collective or pair-work cohesion when demanded to carry out the pedagogical situations. a. Good b. Fair c. Bad
  • 29. Appendix 5 Survey to Students Objective: To know the opinion of the students involved in the process (recipients of the proposal) about the new pedagogical professional situations proposed to them in class. Dear Student: As you know, we have been working together to optimize the lessons you receive. We are carrying out a research on motivational aspects of the pedagogical profession in your level. This survey will give us much insight into how you have felt with the new proposals made by your professor in class. Thank you in advance for your answers. Guide: 1- The pedagogical tasks previously assigned to you in other lessons, before you worked with the new proposal, have been: (Mark with an X) Excellent Standard OTHERS Good Bad 2- The new pedagogical situations implemented by your professor have been: (Mark with an X) Excellent Standard OTHERS Good Bad 3- Has the new proposal improved your English in general and your motivation towards the pedagogical career? Yes No I don’t know

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