Ponencia de Ariel Adrian New
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Ponencia de Ariel Adrian New
Pedagogical Sciences University
José de la Luz y Caballero
Liberal Arts Faculty
A SET OF PROFESSIONAL PEDAGOGICAL
COMMUNICATIVE SITUATIONS TO INCREASE
MOTIVATION TOWARDS THE PEDAGOGICAL
PROFESSIONAL STUDIES IN STUDENTS FROM
FIRST YEAR MAJOR IN EDUCATION IN ENGLISH AS
A FOREIGN LANGUAGE SPECIALTY
English Language 5th
Author: Ariel Adrian Infante Reinaldo
Tutor: Alberto Román Medina Betancourt
(PhD. & Full Professor)
The motivation factor for becoming English teachers in first year of pedagogical
higher education is affected, that is why it was necessary to try to find a way to solve
this situation. This paper is designed with the objective of serving as a tool for helping
teachers to increase pedagogical motivation in first year students from the
pedagogical higher education. This research is focused in the critical objective of the
trends about the teaching-learning process of English and proposes a set of
pedagogical communicative professional situations which allow the systematic
increase of motivation towards the pedagogical professional studies. The research
results presented here were obtained with the use of scientific methods of
pedagogical research, both theoretical and empirical. Among the first ones, analysis-
synthesis, historical-logical, abstract-concrete, and modeling are highlighted; while
the second ones, survey, interview, and observation were of great importance. The
proposal is based I he cognitive exploitation towards the study of the foreign language
with the goal of raising the motivational levels towards the pedagogical profession.
The results proved that they were effective and could be used to contribute to solve
the problem of lack of motivation towards the pedagogical career. These professional
situations made a positive difference.
General Conclusions ---------------------------------------------------------------------20
The Cuban society in these recent years has worked hard to offer students the
necessary conditions to develop their knowledge, habits and abilities. That is why it is
focused in a battle for a general comprehensive culture, which poses enormous
challenges to education; one of them is to ensure that Cuban students achieve
proficiency in at least one foreign language. In the present days the English language
is facing a very important decade of advanced development towards the reach to the
status of the first global lingua franca, since it has paramount importance in the world
of science, scientific information, and the development of the new technologies and
the scientific data.
The official documents which regulates the formation of English as a foreign language
teacher, that is, the Professional Model, expresses in its main objectives as well as in
its professional performance, scope of action and professional problems some
important challenges for which the future professional needs to form and develop
motivation towards the pedagogical profession. It has been demonstrated through
different researches that students start their major with high levels of motivation
towards the study of the foreign language, but they are partially or mostly unmotivated
towards the pedagogical career.
Although the Cuban educational authorities have made great efforts to make the
teaching of English an achievement, where children and young people achieve a
prominent development of performance in competitiveness and motivational language
in the exploratory study conducted by the author through observations, visiting
classes and having daily-teaching practice, the following situations have been found:
Appropriate levels of motivation towards the study of the English language, high
levels of acceptance of the Integrated English Practice lessons and their teacher,
adequate levels of the formation of a general comprehensive culture, disposition and
professional preparation on the part of the teacher to contribute to an effective
formation of the students, lack of motivation towards the pedagogical profession, lack
of activities in the Integrated English Practice lessons that contribute to the
reinforcement of the pedagogical vocational orientation, negative signs which show
apathy towards disciplines which contribute to the general and to the pedagogical
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formation, and insufficient exploitation of activities typical of the age of the students of
Under this circumstance, it is important to state that the students’ motivation and
desire to learn play an important role in the learning process. Teaching and learning
English is a priority in the Cuban system of Education. It responds to economic,
social, cultural and diplomatic realities. Such relevance has been analyzed in a
variety of investigations addressed at determining the most effective strategies for the
teaching-learning process of English.
Taking into account all these aspects, the author determined the following as a
research problem: the necessity to better up motivation towards the pedagogical
profession in students from first year major in Education in English as a foreign
language specialty, at José de la Luz y Caballero University of Pedagogical Sciences
In order to solve the problem the following research objective was formulated: to
structure a set of pedagogical professional situations to increase motivation towards
the pedagogical professional studies.
Taking into account the research problem, the objective and for the successful
development of this investigation the following research tasks were formulated:
1. To determine the theoretical and methodological referents of the teaching-
learning process of the English language in higher pedagogical education.
2. To determine the real state of motivation toward the pedagogical profession.
3. To structure a set of pedagogical professional situations to increase motivation
towards the pedagogical professional studies.
4. To corroborate the effectiveness of the set of pedagogical professional
situations through its application in the pedagogical practice.
Some research methods were applied with the purpose of approaching and studying
the theoretical information, to process the scientific data of the research, the
conceptual interpretation of the theoretical foundations and for the elaboration of the
set of pedagogical situations.
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The theoretical methods were analysis-synthesis, as well as induction-deduction
methods were used mainly in the exploratory stage to identify the problem situation
for raising the students´ motivation towards the pedagogical profession, and finding
different ways to raise it and also for the analysis of information collected and the
study of the different criteria posed by the authors of various latitudes to address the
The systemic method favored to establish a relationship between each of the parts of
the object, which has a specific structure whose components are closely interrelated
to help integrate the dynamics of the teaching-learning process towards the demands
and idiosyncrasy of the current socialistic society and to structure the proposal of
pedagogical professional situations.
The modelation method allowed the representation of the set of pedagogical
professional situations and its components, besides, it served as an essential element
of its conception, and design.
The Empirical Methods were:
Observation was applied with the purpose of testing the given treatment to
motivation towards the pedagogical profession to the students in class and their
Interview and survey were applied to teachers and students to know their view
points about the motivational states towards the pedagogical profession from first
year major in Education in English as a foreign language specialty, at José de la Luz
y Caballero University of Pedagogical Sciences in Holguin.
For the development of this research, the students from first year major in Education
in English as a foreign language specialty, at José de la Luz y Caballero University of
Pedagogical Sciences in Holguin, in the academic course 2013-2014, were
considered as population, which is 86, while the selected sample was 26 students
belonging to group Number One out of three.
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According to the logical evolution of the research project conducted by the author, the
development of this paper is structured in three main parts: It starts by offering the
theoretical and methodological referents of the teaching-learning process of English
language in higher education and their relation with motivation towards the
pedagogical profession as well as the current situation of motivation towards the
pedagogical profession and their relation to the effectiveness of learning English as a
foreign language. Then, the second part is centered in a set of pedagogical
professional situations which main goal is to better up motivation towards the
pedagogical profession. And then, the third part of the research is based in the
practical application of the novelty to the selected sample with its results.
Methodological referents of the teaching-learning process of English language
in higher education
In order to systematize the existing theory related to the object of the investigation, it
has been determined to start by an approximation to the concept of motivation, then
its relation to the professional pedagogical approach, and to round up the analysis,
the study of the formation and development of communicative competence in English,
as the final goal of the teaching-learning process.
Motivation is the feeling nurtured primarily by the teacher in the learning situation.
In humans, motivation encompasses both conscious and unconscious impulses.
Theories of motivation in psychology establish a primary motivation level, which refers
to the satisfaction of basic needs such as breathing, eating or drinking, and a
secondary referral to social needs, such as achievement or affection.
No theory of motivation has been universally accepted. First, many psychologists,
within the scope of behaviorism, argued that the minimum level of stimulation to an
organism was behaving in a way that tried to eliminate such stimulation, leading to a
desired state of absence of stimulation. In fact, Luther, K. (1995) states that much of
human physiology operates this way. However, recent cognitive theories of motivation
described human beings trying to optimize, rather than eliminate, their state of
stimulation. In doing so, these theories are more effective to explain the human
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tendency toward exploratory behavior, the need-or taste-for variety, aesthetic
reactions and curiosity. A person who lacks the motivation to have a preference may
be resigned to accept all the customs and can therefore develop a philosophy of
prudence. That person lives in this way, in accordance with the moral behavior of the
time and society. Due to the great diversity among students, educational facilities and
fields of study, has not yet formulated any comprehensive theory applicable to all
educational psychology. By contrast, psychologists work on theories about specific
phenomena of learning, motivation, development and education.
Scholastic motivation is not a technique or method of tutoring, but a cognitive
affective factor present in every act of learning and teaching process at all, either
implicitly or explicitly. The teacher should be focused on inducing motifs in their
students regarding their learning and behavior to apply voluntarily to class work,
giving meaning to homework and providing them with a specific purpose, so that
students develop a real taste for school activity and understand their personal and
According to Kramer, A. (1986) the role of motivation in the achievement of
meaningful learning relates to the need to induce in the students’ interest and effort,
and work of the teacher is providing the direction and guidance relevant to the
situation. It would be ideal to expect the attention, effort and the students’ thoughts
guided by the desire to understand, to develop and to integrate information
significantly, but an experienced teacher knows that this does not always exclusively
occurs. The attention of students is determined by their fear of failing or seeking a
personal acceptance. In fact, motivation for learning is a very complex phenomenon,
conditioned by aspects such as:
• The real possibility that the student has to achieve the proposed goals and
perspectives to the assumed studies.
• The student knows how to act, what further learning process (like thinking) to
successfully meet the presented tasks and problems.
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• The preliminary knowledge and conceptions the students have about the
curriculum to learn, their meaning and usefulness, and the strategies to be
• The context defines the teaching situation itself, particularly the messages
received by the student by the teacher and classmates, the organization of
school activities and forms of assessment of learning.
• The values and behaviors the teacher models in students, which may facilitate
or inhibit their interest in learning.
• The usage of a series of motivational principles that teachers can use in the
design and conduction of the teaching-learning process.
Most language teachers will agree that the motivation of the students is one of the
most important factors influencing their success or failure in learning the language.
The sociological factors affecting language learning situations which Schumann, S.
(1985) refers to as creating social distance play an important role. There are some
dangers inherent in the blanket term motivation. For example, some inexperienced
teachers may confuse the generating of enthusiasm, undoubtedly an important
motivational element, with the whole task of motivating the students to undertake and
persevere with work.
Willingness to learn maybe related to parental encouragement, not necessarily
positively, or to happy learning experiences in other subjects, or to some
temperamental trait. Interest may be original to the student, or it may have come via
parent, another relative, another student, a visit, or a television show. Interest is often
regarded as being a major element, incentives, variety of classroom activity are
further tactics available to the teacher, but their effects on success will depend on
After analyzing the previous issue, the author wants to highlight a few more elements
that are of paramount importance for the development of this research such as the
pedagogical professional approach, which constitutes the matter subject of such
investigation. According to López, C. (1995) professionalism is based on the quality of
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a person who makes his own specific work with relevant capacity to accomplish
rationally his objectives, giving to him certain lifestyle. This can be approached in the
use of principles, methods, ways, technologies and media corresponding to each
case, with a higher preparation (including experience) to transform and to produce
some new knowledge and values for a better performance. Professionalism is
manifested in individual full satisfaction when actions are executed with attention,
carefulness, accuracy and rapidity.
Mirtha, C. (1990) defines pedagogical professional approach as:
…the orientation of the pedagogical process in the formation of professionals
for the education, which content is given in the existing relation among the
students´ formative orientation and the necessities of the graduated from
pedagogical university studies´ social practice. The essence of this relation is
constituted by the settled demands to education taking into account the
development universal tendencies and the historical concrete conditions of
each country. Pedagogical professional approach is multidimensional and
includes various factors such as: Methodological instruction, development in
the autodidactic capacity, pedagogical and curricular domain in the
knowledge system, and development of an alternative thinking. (Translated
by the author)
Addine, F. (2002) deepens in the topic and declares that:
Professional approach is expressed in the organization and direction of the
educative influences system departing from the professional practice
demands of the future graduated, which implies the necessity of forming the
student in the professional practice and for the professional practice allowing
simultaneously and in a gradual way in the development of interests,
knowledge, and professional abilities, such as the formation of an adequate
auto-evaluation of the student in his professional effort and the development
of his reflexive and flexible thinking in the application of such problems in the
professional practice. (Translated by the author)
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On the base of the exposed analysis, in which contributions of different investigators
have been considered, the author considers necessary to take into account the
following features in this definition:
• It is an organization and general direction that supports the educative
influences’ system of the board of teachers in each year as the integrating core
of the pedagogical professional formation in the pedagogical sciences
• Since the recognition of the professionalization of teaching-learning process
the preparation of the student to identify and to solve professional problems is
been prioritized from the first year in their university studies.
• It takes into account a correct formation and development of communicative
competence and methodology to allow facing the professional performance
with a comprehensive and contextualized character.
Foreign languages special didactics, in these recent years, has used in a plentiful
way, a specific term to design the kind of communication that the teacher of foreign
languages must use to direct the teaching-learning process. The author is talking
about “teacher talk”, which is defined by Osborne, D. (1999) as a speech used by
teacher that is characteristically modified in four areas: lexis, syntax, morphology, and
discourse. However, the differences in teacher talk as compared to a typical
sociolinguistic domain are not systematic or widespread enough, and they tend to
disappear as the class advances. That is why it may not get forgotten due of its
incidence in the English teaching-learning process, and although it does not
constitute a competence in itself, it is present in the whole performance of the foreign
languages teacher, since it constitutes the socio-linguistic variable used by the
teacher to make himself comprehensible in the class.
In the Pedagogical Sciences University of Holguin, an English teacher, Rodriguez, J.
C. (2014) developed a scientific study to obtain his PhD. in Pedagogical Sciences
based on the study of teacher talk. This author has demonstrated the inconsistencies
of this category to satisfy the communicative needs for the formation of English
teachers. In this context he has provided a new concept with its corresponding
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definition: Professional and Pedagogical Oral Communicative Competence in English.
And its definition is:
Integration of capacities, knowledge, abilities and linguistic and extra linguistic
habits that are manifested during the communicative act of the foreign
language through its proper use as an essential tool to direct the teaching-
learning process. This process takes place within an organization and general
direction which are part of the system of educational influence of the teaching
staff as the basis of the pedagogical and professional formation in the
universities of pedagogical sciences. The professional character of the
teaching-learning process of English prepares the students to identify and
solve professional situations starting at freshman level, focusing on an
adequate communicative formation to face their practice teaching with a
comprehensive and contextualized approach. (Translated by the author)
After concluding the previous analysis, the author considers that it is necessary to
move forward the investigation on the basis of the research of the pedagogical
communicative competence. Acosta, R. (2009) defines communicative competence
as the psychological configuration that the individual develops to precisely determine
what to say, to who, why, how, where and when to say it, and to perform a proper and
correct use of the language.
Communicative competence is the supreme objective of teaching, although it
becomes, in time, in a means to the multilateral formation of the students, which is
finally, the end of education. Stephen, N. (1996) states that during initial preparation,
the development of the pedagogical professional communicative competence goes
through four main stages, they are: Imitative professional expression, critical-reflexive
professional expression, reconstructive professional expression, and independent
Current situation of motivation towards the pedagogical profession
To characterize the current state of motivation towards the pedagogical profession in
the first year students from the specialty of foreign languages at the Pedagogical
Sciences University Jose de la Luz Caballero and basing the analysis on the
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professional pedagogical approach in the subject of Integrated English Practice 1,
various empirical methods were applied.
Firstly, a survey to students was used to determine their interests and motivations
towards the pedagogical profession. Then, an interview to teachers of the specialty
was applied with the objective of obtaining information about the teachers’
performance to favor motivation towards the pedagogical profession in the first year
students of the Foreign Languages major.
The results obtained in the already mentioned methods paved the way for the
application of a more generalizing method, the scientific observation. This was used
with the goal of verifying the favoring motivational actions towards the pedagogical
profession in lessons of Integrated English Practice 1.
The analysis of the professional motivational state was carried out with 30 students
integrated in two groups; taking into account this in the first year of university studies
for those who entered higher education and in particular to the languages studies, it
is known the lower level with which these students enter to the specialty and the
varied interests they have, in most of the cases, with no relation with the practice of
the pedagogical profession.
Survey to students:
The survey (See Appendix 1) was applied to 10 students of the group object of the
This method rendered the following regularities:
A. The students do not discern on the importance of being a teacher, nor as a means
to educate and enrich other cultural backgrounds.
B. The students see the pedagogical preparation in class as a burden, a punishment,
a waste of time in class, with no clear values in sight. According to them, pedagogy is
strenuous, tiresome and empty.
The completion of the surveying stage allows asserting that the students’ motivation
towards the pedagogical profession is very low. Given what was detected in the
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previous stage, it is logical to assume such outcome, and the method applied so
Interview to professors:
Secondly, an interview was applied to four professors of the specialty, with a long
teaching experience in the subject Integrated English Practice in general. (See
The answers to questions one and two were unanimous: The pedagogical formation
is an important activity that must be developed alongside the lesson, and it is basic to
motivate the students towards their future goals and towards any other skill.
Question three elicited that the professors prepare the lesson and themselves
devotedly. As to enhance motivation towards the profession, they posited that such
motivating session carries the same amount of preparation. They added that creative
exercises are the best ground for motivating the students towards the pedagogical
The professors replied that there is no key moment to include motivating pedagogical
activities in the lesson; the motivation towards the pedagogical career can be
presented in any of the three stages of the lesson.
They said that the tasks they devise for motivating the students towards teaching are
‘most of the times’ varied, and try to stimulate the students towards the profession.
Finally, in the last question the answers provided coincide on the fact they know the
students are not very much prone to the profession, they are rather biased and do
not really welcome such activities in class, protesting sometimes.
Observation to lessons:
Thirdly, observations were carried out to determine how the professors dealt
motivation towards the pedagogical profession in class to motivate the students
towards it. Seven lessons were visited in the current 2013 first-year of the specialty of
English. Indicators that would approach the main concerns of the observation as a method
were designed. (See Appendix 3)
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After tabulating the results of the observations and analyzing them, the following was
concluded: there were no noticeable intentions by the professor that would indicate a
motivational approach in the lesson towards the profession in particular; the tasks
used were presented with a tendency to follow the standard way, with no systematic
specific attention to the fact that the students were to confront acts towards the
profession; the orientation, execution, follow-up and control of the skills did not differ
from the usual procedures. No special attention was given to the professional
The completion of the observation stage allows to state that the degrees of motivation
that must be activated in class to encourage the students are not satisfactory, which
has an impact on the stimulation of their professional performances.
The triangulation of the results obtained with the use of the different empirical
methods made it possible to determine the following regularities:
• Most of the students are partially unmotivated towards the profession.
• The blank space in motivation goes back to lesson quality and unfulfilled
professional orientation in previous years.
• The students seem to limit their professional formation to what they
mechanically know about the teaching subject.
• The tasks and activities to which they are exposed are not creative, nor
attainable in some cases, definitely not varied, and hardly systematic.
• Language problems affect the students’ performance in writing, and by
extension modify unconstructively their levels of motivation towards the skill, in
a vicious circle.
• Teachers are not aware of the negative response of students towards the
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A set of pedagogical communicative professional situations to better up
motivation towards the pedagogical profession
This research is based on the need of a significant increase of motivation towards the
pedagogical profession. The novelty of this work lies in presenting a proposal of
tasks that increase motivation towards the pedagogical profession in students from
first year who are studying to become bachelors in Education in English as a foreign
language specialty, at José de la Luz y Caballero University of Pedagogical Sciences
in Holguin. This proposal has particular characteristics: it addresses an important
area within the comprehensive formation of students’ personality with the motivation
for learning a foreign language.
According to Medina, A. (2012) the term professional situation means to bring to life
in the classroom what normally happens in real life and integrates it into some kind of
communicative event. Van, E. (2012) considers it as the complex of extra linguistic
conditions which determine the nature of a language act, of which four components
• The social role which the learner will be able to play
• The psychological roles which the learner will be able to play
• The settings in which the learner will be able to use the language
• The topics which the learner will be able to deal with in the language.
It has been the author´s purpose to base this proposal on the following
a) Every task, in content and in form, should suit the learners´ interest, both
individually and collectively, so as to foster motivation towards the pedagogical
career emphasizing the motivation towards the profession.
b) The way in which these tasks will be carried out in class will grant the
permanent processes of interaction among the learners, so that they will be
active all the time while expressing the importance of their profession as future
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teachers, interacting with one another, while the teacher will play the role of
c) Taking into consideration the level of the students, that is, higher level, the
tasks have been designed so as to favor oral communication. However, the
four communicative skills are used in an integrated way; using one contributes
to the development of the others. Under these circumstances, the activities will
follow an integrative approach.
The offered tasks are the result of the author’s endeavors. They emerge from the
revision of other sources (the advisor’s Lesson Plan, books and the activities provided
by didactic materials elaborated by the British Council) and their adaptation to first
year, in the circumstances currently marking the level and the type of student, as well
as the place of action in the framework of the subject as a reinforcement of the other
skills and mostly, though not always, during every phase.
Now the author of this paper presents the pedagogical situations, which application
can be combined, taking into account the psycho-pedagogical exigencies previously
pointed out. What is here presented is just a representative selection of the novelty,
since the real number of situations is eight and due to the normative of this kind of
research to be presented in the festival, the author highlighted the following four
Situation Number One
Title: “The Light Plane”
Objective: To reflect towards the importance and meaning of the pedagogical
profession for the students from their own elaboration, using mainly the oral
communicative skills, so as to contribute to the development of the positive affective
life experiences regarding the pedagogical profession.
Media: No special media required.
Procedures: The teacher selects seven students among which he distributes the
following roles: a lawyer, a pregnant woman, a teacher, a husband (head of a family),
a doctor, a farmer, and an artist. Then the teacher gives them the following situation:
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You are traveling on a light plane and suddenly one of its engines explodes, seven
people are traveling with you and the only way to survive is jumping off the plane but
there are only three parachutes for the most significant characters. According to their
roles, each of them has to prepare an argument in which they expose why they think
they deserve to be given one of the parachutes for saving their lives. They present
any argument and try not to reject the possibility of earn one of the parachutes. They
have to try to be chosen by the rest for taking one of the parachutes and be saved.
After developing the dramatizations, listening to the arguments and refutations of
those who thought should be saved, the seven characters decide among them,
through votes, which of them will occupy the three parachutes.
Then the analysis will be carried out to the whole group. The class will finally decide
which of the characters should take the parachutes after making the assessments
about the role each of the characters has in society.
The teacher will emphasize on the role of the teacher leading the reflections towards
the importance this profession has in society. With the objective of promoting the
discussion concerning the personal assessments made towards the pedagogical
profession, and towards the personal identification.
At the end of the situation the teacher will ask to the students:
Who identified himself as the teacher? Why?
How did you feel in the development of the situation?
How do you feel being a teacher to be?
Vocabulary hints to guide the students:
I think that…
My point of view is…
In my opinion…
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Situation Number Two
Title: “Ideas Approach”
Objective: To provide arguments that support, are against and reveal the most
interesting aspects of the pedagogical profession.
Media: A piece of paper, pencil or pen, blackboard
Procedures: The students will write individually on a piece of paper the positive,
negative and interesting aspects of being teacher.
The teacher will divide the blackboard in three columns, the first one for the positive
aspects, the second one for the negative aspects and the third one for the interesting
aspects individually selected towards the profession.
The teacher then will promote the collective reflection fostering the ideas of evaluating
if the positive, negative and interesting aspects of the profession are really as
positive, negative and interesting as they think they are, beginning by the positive
aspects and finishing by the interesting ones. The teacher should (after running out
the ideas and assessments) emphasize on the positive and interesting aspects, and
even try to seek the positive side in those aspects presented as negative towards the
profession, always departing from the collective analysis, the teacher will only guide
the reflection towards the wanted goal.
The teacher and the class will finally get to a balance among the three aspects,
demonstrating the superiority of the positive and interesting aspects over the negative
ones, linked to the objective of the profession.
At the end of the activity the teacher will ask to the students to express:
How did you feel during the activity?
Make a list of the emotions you had. Share with your classmates.
Situation Number Three
Title: “The Ball of Wool”
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Objective: To offer their personal critical opinion about the pedagogical profession,
under the teacher’s guidance, with emphasis on the affective sphere and making use
of their oral communicative competence.
Media: A thick ball of wool thread.
Procedures: All the students have to stand up and form a circle. The teacher will give
to one of them a ball of wool, this student will give his criteria about the pedagogical
profession, then he will take the tip of the thread and he will throw the ball to another
student who also has to express his/her opinion. The action will be repeated until
every student has participated. Once they have said their own criteria about the
pedagogical profession, the last student who got the ball will have to express the
opinion of the one that threw the ball to him, and the other student will have to do the
same operation allowing the ball to travel back until it gets to the first student who
The teacher must warn the students to be attentive to the opinions of their partners,
since they will not know who will be the next to receive the ball.
Situation Number Four
Title: “The Professional Suitcase”
Objective: To reflect on the attributes the students have to form for becoming good
professionals and to determine those they need for fulfilling their own interests as
future educators; meanwhile, they will make use of communicative skills with
emphasis on the oral ones.
Procedures: The teacher must make the students play a role in the following
“We are all teachers and we are gathered in the meetings room of the school where
we work. The information is about the government for going on a mission to the
different countries of the Latin American continent. Since the election of those who
will go to the mission will be very strict, we need to place in a suitcase our best
qualities as teachers, since these are the ones we will carry with us, and we will place
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in a chest those qualities which are below the level we want, let’s say the professional
weakness which must stay.”
The whole group will do a collective analysis departing from what each one of the
students placed in the suitcase or in the chest.
This set of pedagogical situations was elaborated with the objective of leading
students to look for new sources of information, to widen their knowledge and cultural
background through some teaching-learning activities, taking into account the
students´ necessities and interests to awaken their interest in loving the pedagogical
career and learning the foreign language.
Corroboration of the Effectiveness of the Application of the Proposal in Class
Due to the characteristics of this investigation, the proposal of Pedagogical
Professional Situations could not be carried out by the researcher himself. So, one of
the experienced teachers belonging to the staff in charge of Integrated English
Practice was selected for the application. Besides her experience, it was taken into
consideration that she carried out her research to obtain her degree as a Specialists
in topic related to this investigation. So, the author of the Paper visited three lessons
in the 2014 first-year group. He familiarized himself with the group of students where
he was to be a visitor, not to be an alien element in the classroom while applying the
observation guide, by conducting lesson moments in the group and applying the initial
and closing surveys. This allowed the process to move naturally. The indicators and
parameters used were adjusted to suit the context and scope of the Diploma Paper.
This process of validation was possible through practice with an observation guide.
(See appendix 4)
The effectiveness of the novelty was by means of a pedagogical experience. The
population of first year students at José de la Luz y Caballero Pedagogical Sciences
University is 86 students and the sample chosen was integrated by 26 students.
The students of this group keep a climate of trust and respect towards each other and
towards the teachers. They share interests and wishes. Most of them have achieved
a relative psychological maturity. They are critical and able to offer their opinions
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departing form a deep analysis of different topics. The 65 % of them have good
results in English.
After the pedagogical experience a survey was applied to 10 students of first year
from the already mentioned class and university. This process of validation was
possible through the application of the survey. (See appendix 5)
The results of the survey indicated that there was a high degree of acceptation and
motivation from the students, what adds to the results obtained in the survey to the
professors and the validation in practice. In the survey to professors an analysis of
the results obtained in this instrument shows that the novelty proposed have potential
enough, therefore, they qualify as an adequate alternative to be applied in the
The tabulations show that during the observation to lessons the students have
progressively adapted and responded to the tasks in the main aspects controlled.
Each validation moment proved the efficacy of the tasks. Criteria from experienced
professors, a practical implementation in class and its description, an explanation with
scientific methods, and finally an approach to the opinions of the recipients of the
situations permit to state that the proposal is valid.
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The first stage of the investigation demonstrated that an approximation to the state of
the art related to an interaction between motivation and pedagogical professional
approach permitted to determine the existence of general referents, and the lack of a
specific proposal to foster the motivation towards the pedagogical profession in
students of first year to become future English professors. In general terms, it was
determined that motivation is related to the following terms: interest, enthusiasm,
motive and emotion. On the other hand, it is necessary to mention that pedagogical
professional approach is a multidimensional phenomenon which includes various
factors such as methodological instruction, development in the autodidactic capacity,
pedagogical and curricular domain in the knowledge system, and favors the
development of an alternative thinking.
In the second stage of the investigation, an attempt has been made to elaborate a
proposal to solve the research problem. This first try is built up by two main parts: The
first one consisting in the theoretical and methodological basis needed for the
elaboration and application of the pedagogical situations; and second one, the
professional situations as such, which consists in a set of pedagogical professional
situations, with the same structure and adapted to the specific requirements of the
students subjects of this investigation. This proposal takes into account the students´
preferences and the methodological foundations of the activities, which main features
are: emphasis on the motivational aspect towards the pedagogical profession,
interactive approach, cooperative learning and participative learning.
Through the proposed set of professional situations, motivation towards the career in
the students was achieved. These situations were devised, implemented and
validated by the author. The results proved that they were effective and could be used
to contribute to solve the problem of lack of motivation towards the pedagogical
career in the first year mayor students. These professional situations did make a
positive difference. Motivation and involvement were the common element.
Page | 20
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5. LÓPEZ, C. (1995). Profesionalismo Pedagógico. Gente Nueva. La Habana. C.
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10.SCHUMANN, S. (1985). Language and School treatment. Der Heralt Ed.
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13. Web Sites: www.ellapicero.com.org/motivationinenglish
Survey to Students
Objective: To explore the opinions of the students of first year in the specialty of
English, the 2012-2013 class, about the pedagogical profession.
Dear student: We are carrying out a research on motivational aspects of the
pedagogical profession in your level. Your opinions on the issue are a key to find
ways to improve the lessons you are taking. Please answer the following survey.
Do you like the lessons you are taking at present?
YES_____ NO______ SOME TIMES______
Do you enjoy the tasks with pedagogical approach proposed by your professors in
YES_____ NO______ SOME TIMES______
Mark with an X all the activities you do in class for developing your ability as a
___ Role plays
___ Answering written questions
___ Answering oral questions
___ Searching for information
___ Situations in English
___ Resorting to personal experiences
___ OTHERS. Which?
Interview to teachers
Objective: To obtain information on aspects related to the preparation and
presentation of the pedagogical formation to the students
We have embarked on a research about motivational issues in the lesson of English,
particularly those related to the pedagogical profession and student motivation
towards it. Your answers in this interview will be crucial in charting our research
course. Thank you.
Do you deem the pedagogical formation as an important activity to be developed in
Do you consider it relevant to motivate the students in class towards the profession?
How do you prepare yourself and plan the lesson to achieve high levels of motivation
in class towards the pedagogical profession in special?
In your opinion, which is the key moment in class to include pedagogical activities to
motivate the students towards the career?
Are the tasks you devise for motivating the pedagogical profession varied and
Are you aware of your students’ attitudes and disposition towards developing such
activities in class?
Objective: To determine how the professor deals with the motivation towards the
pedagogical profession in class.
Activity: _____________ Year: _______ Lesson: _________
1. General motivation of the lessons
2. Presentation of the pedagogical tasks proposed
3. Student involvement
4. Variety of the pedagogical tasks proposed
5. Attractiveness of the topics towards the pedagogical profession
6. Time allotted to the pedagogical development
Note: In all cases
a. Indicates a high positive corroboration of the indicator.
b. Indicates an average (mid) corroboration.
c. Indicates a low negative corroboration.
Objective: To obtain preliminary reliable data on the actual effectiveness in class of
the application of the proposal.
I. In communication.
1. Quality of the motivational ideas stated.
2. Richness of the pedagogical ideas expressed.
II. In activity.
1. Participation in the work sessions in class.
2. Enthusiasm (motivation) shown.
3. Individual, collective or pair-work cohesion when demanded to carry out the
Survey to Students
Objective: To know the opinion of the students involved in the process (recipients of
the proposal) about the new pedagogical professional situations proposed to them in
Dear Student: As you know, we have been working together to optimize the lessons
you receive. We are carrying out a research on motivational aspects of the
pedagogical profession in your level. This survey will give us much insight into how
you have felt with the new proposals made by your professor in class. Thank you in
advance for your answers.
1- The pedagogical tasks previously assigned to you in other lessons, before you
worked with the new proposal, have been: (Mark with an X)
Excellent Standard OTHERS
2- The new pedagogical situations implemented by your professor have been: (Mark
with an X)
Excellent Standard OTHERS
3- Has the new proposal improved your English in general and your motivation
towards the pedagogical career?
Yes No I don’t know