International Relations & Diplomacy
International Relations
The State
 Nation State- main pattern of political life & main actor of International system
 Na...
International Relations
The State
 ‘A community of families & villages having for its end a perfect & self sufficing life...
International Relations
The State
 ‘The State is the politically organized people of a definite territory’ (Bluntschli)
...
International Relations
The State
Nation State
 ‘A political unit that is sovereign & whose inhabitants identify politica...
International Relations
The State
 12 Century: Feudalism declined rise of Kings (Monarchy)
 Rise of Kingdoms altered pol...
International Relations
The State
 ‘Extra – territorial authority decreased
 Loyalty solely political – attached to the ...
International Relations
The State
Elements of the State
 Population
 Land or Territory
 Sovereignty
 Government
International Relations
Elements of the State
Population
 State – an association of men living together
 How large shoul...
International Relations
Elements of the State
Territory
 Masses living on a definite portion of territory of an appropria...
International Relations
Elements of the State
Government
 People living permanently on a definite territory do not form a...
International Relations
Elements of the State
Sovereignty
 Supreme, original &unlimited power exercised over all persons ...
International Relations
Elements of the State
Difference between State & the Government
 The State is Abstract, Governmen...
International Relations
Elements of the State
Difference between State & Society
 Society is a broader term compared to t...
Introduction to Political Science
The State
Modern Concept of the State:
 Secular
 National
 Legal
International Relations
The State
Secularism
 Modern concept (2Oth century)
 State is separate from Religion
 Religion ...
International Relations
The State
Nationalism
 Modern Sate a Nation State?
 Nation: ‘A people united by the bonds of com...
International Relations
The State
Nationalism
 Nation State a modern phenomenon
 Loyalty primarily to lesser units or gr...
International Relations
The State
Legalism
 Modern State is based upon law
 ‘General rule of external conduct , passed &...
International Relations
Islamic Concept of the State
Islamic Concept of the State
 Islam: No separation of Religion from ...
International Relations
Islamic Concept of the State
Khilafat/Caliphate
 Political organization of the Muslim community
...
International Relations
Islamic Concept of the State
Government by Consultation
 Mutual consultation commandment of Holy ...
International Relations
Islamic Concept of State
Equality
 Equality of all mankind: Fundamental doctrine of Islam
 ‘The ...
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Nation state islamic concept of state

A Presentation Explainin Islamic concept of nation
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Nation state islamic concept of state

  • 1. International Relations & Diplomacy
  • 2. International Relations The State  Nation State- main pattern of political life & main actor of International system  Nation State – ‘nation within a State’ Nation  ‘Large community of people usually sharing a common history , language etc & living in a particular territory under one government’  3 Basic factors make a nation:  Certain similarities  Community  Desire to be separate
  • 3. International Relations The State  ‘A community of families & villages having for its end a perfect & self sufficing life by which we mean a happy & honorable life’ (Aristotle)  ‘I am the State’ King Louis XIV (1638- 1715)  ‘A numerous assemblage of human beings, generally occupying a certain territory, amongst whom the will of the majority or of an ascertainable class or persons is by the strength of such a majority or class is made to prevail against any of their number who oppose it. (Holland)  The marks of an independent State are that the community constituting it is permanently established for a political end, that it possesses a defined territory and that it is independent of external control’ (Hall)
  • 4. International Relations The State  ‘The State is the politically organized people of a definite territory’ (Bluntschli)  ‘A people organized for law within a definite territory’ (Woodrow Wilson)  ‘A territorial society divided into government and subjects claiming within its allotted physical area, supremacy over all other institutions’ (Harold J.Laski)  Society or people, territory or an allotted physical area, government & supremacy or sovereignty  ‘A community of persons, more or less numerous, permanently occupying a definite portion of territory, independent of external control & possessing an organized government to which the great body of inhabitants render habitual obedience’ (Garner)  ‘The state as a community of people in a definite territory with an organized governemnt which is free from external control.
  • 5. International Relations The State Nation State  ‘A political unit that is sovereign & whose inhabitants identify politically with it & support it’ (Rourk)  ‘Pattern of political life in which people are separately organised into sovereign state’  Concept of ‘Nation State’ emerged in 17 th century  Roman Empire : origin of nation state  Political loyalties to the Emperor  Fall of Roman Empire resulted in rise of Feudal system & ‘Catholic Christian Church’  Political life & loyalties were divided  Politics (Feudal Lords) & Religion (Church)
  • 6. International Relations The State  12 Century: Feudalism declined rise of Kings (Monarchy)  Rise of Kingdoms altered political life & loyalties shifted in favour of monarchies  14th &15th century: clashes between Monarchy & Religious authorities  Renaissance & Reformation Movements ( 1350-1550) resulted in secular views  Religious leaders authority decreased – making the King (monarchy) strong
  • 7. International Relations The State  ‘Extra – territorial authority decreased  Loyalty solely political – attached to the King (who is sovereign in a definite territory)  Creation of concept of the ‘State’  Creation of States in Europe due to (revolutions, transport & communication, interdependence, diplomacy etc )  Nationalism :strong sense of attachment amongst people towards the State
  • 8. International Relations The State Elements of the State  Population  Land or Territory  Sovereignty  Government
  • 9. International Relations Elements of the State Population  State – an association of men living together  How large should be the population of a state  Plato: Ideal state’s population 5050 persons  Aristotle: 10,000 – 1 lakh  Neither too large or too small – large enough to be self sufficient & small enough to be well governed (city states)
  • 10. International Relations Elements of the State Territory  Masses living on a definite portion of territory of an appropriate size  Unlike wandering /nomadic tribes – who don't form a state  People living together on a particular territory develop community of interests &  patriotism - necessary for statehood  Size of the territory of a State ?  Small enough to be well administered  Small State proportionately stronger than a large one?  Current trend: Large States
  • 11. International Relations Elements of the State Government  People living permanently on a definite territory do not form a State without government to which they render habitual obedience  State is nothing without a government to make it real  People without a govt – mere assemblage of humans & not politically organized  Government; machinery/agency through which the will of the State is  formulated & expressed  State plans & acts through the government  Government: administers ,keeps law & order, formulates policy of the State  People (limbs) & Government (head) of the body
  • 12. International Relations Elements of the State Sovereignty  Supreme, original &unlimited power exercised over all persons & associations within  boundaries of the State, independent of external power  Sovereignty – soul of a State  Two Aspects (internal & external)  Internally State is supreme over all persons & associations  Externally it is independent of all foreign control or power Other Features of the State  Unity  Continuity or Permanence  Equality
  • 13. International Relations Elements of the State Difference between State & the Government  The State is Abstract, Government is concrete  Government is a narrow term compared to the State  State is permanent – Government is temporary  Sovereignty belongs to the State – not the government  Territory is an essential characteristic of the State but not of the government  State is an association – government is an organization  The individual can have rights against the government but not against the State
  • 14. International Relations Elements of the State Difference between State & Society  Society is a broader term compared to the State  State has territorial reference – Society does not  State is sovereign – Society is not  State cannot exist without a government – Society may not be politically organized  State & Society differ in purpose
  • 15. Introduction to Political Science The State Modern Concept of the State:  Secular  National  Legal
  • 16. International Relations The State Secularism  Modern concept (2Oth century)  State is separate from Religion  Religion – private affair of the individual Sate should & cannot interfere  Religion is not to interfere in matters of politics & State  Secular State irreligious?  Modern concept of State different from Greek (ethical) &medieval (religious) concept of State  Machiavelli – Rulers use religion for political purposes  Idea of Secularism advocated in the ‘Age of Enlightenment in France’ (18 Century)  Church & State should be separate from one another  India & secularism: Power play or propaganda ?
  • 17. International Relations The State Nationalism  Modern Sate a Nation State?  Nation: ‘A people united by the bonds of common language, religion, culture or race & common historical experience, aspiring to establish or maintain their separate & independent State’  Nation State has objective & subjective elements  Objective factors: common geography or territory, common language, religion, culture & common historical experience of national liberation struggles (past & present)  Subjective factors: National feelings & consciousness  ‘It is not mountains and valleys that make a people a nations, it is their consciousness of being a nation that makes them so’ (Dankwart A. Rustow)
  • 18. International Relations The State Nationalism  Nation State a modern phenomenon  Loyalty primarily to lesser units or groups (tribes, clans, races etc)  Secondary & limited to Ruler (King /Emperor)  Christian Church : concept of universal community of Christianity  No Nation State is without a minority or ethnic group (India & Israel)  Leads to political tension & instability in the ‘Nation State’  Revolts & Liberation struggles (Sri Lanks, Sudan, South Afria, Israel, India)
  • 19. International Relations The State Legalism  Modern State is based upon law  ‘General rule of external conduct , passed & enforced by the State’  Law is an instrument of social control to prevent conflict, violence & crime in the society ….  Law cannot exist without the coercive authority of the State & its administrative & judicial systems  Laws: authoritative norms made & enforced by the State  Law: legislative enactment & universal enforcement  Applied to citizens regardless of class, social rank or wealth  Modern State & Law developed simultaneously  The legislative system acquired the exclusive power to make laws  English Parliament (18th century)
  • 20. International Relations Islamic Concept of the State Islamic Concept of the State  Islam: No separation of Religion from Political life (State)  Unlike ‘render unto Caesar what is Caesar’s and unto Christ what is Christ’s’  Islam: an integrative view of human life (social, economic & political) Sovereignty of Allah  Sovereignty of Allah; Fundamental principle of Islamic Concept of State  'To Him belongs the dominion of the heavens and of the earth. It is He who gives life and death, and He has full knowledge of all things’  Sovereignty belongs to God alone & no one can claim to be sovereign  God is sovereign because He is Omnipotent  Dictatorship, Absolute Monarchy or Autocracy :not recognized in Islamic State  Allegiance of Muslims is to God & His laws
  • 21. International Relations Islamic Concept of the State Khilafat/Caliphate  Political organization of the Muslim community  Khilafa (Imam) Political & Religious duties of leadership of the Muslim community both in matters of the State &religion  ‘Under the sovereignty of God & the authority of His law – the Shariah of Islam the Caliph is temporal ruler of the State & the defender of the faith’  Hazrat Abu Bakr (632): First Caliph  Caliphat abolished in 1924 by Kamal Attaturk (Turkey)  Theories of Khilafat Al Mawardi , Al Ghazali, Ibn Khaldun
  • 22. International Relations Islamic Concept of the State Government by Consultation  Mutual consultation commandment of Holy Quran & Sunnah  ‘When they are said to put their trust in God, when they are regarded as shiners of evil, when they are said to be brave defenders of their rights, they are praised for taking each other’s counsel in time of need’ (Surah 42)  Majlis –e- Shoora (Parliment) from Khulfa –e- Rashideen  Consultation: foundation of democratic government in Islam Obedience of the Awulal Amr ( Ruler)  Quranic injunctions call upon Muslims to obey their ruler
  • 23. International Relations Islamic Concept of State Equality  Equality of all mankind: Fundamental doctrine of Islam  ‘The essence of Tuheed is equality, solidarity & freedom’  Islamic Polity: No distinction /discrimination between man on the basis of race, colour language, country etc.... Morality  Order (Rule) well & Punish the ‘Wrong’  Enforcement of duties as citizens  ‘Enjoin upon each other to do well and prevent others from committing wrong’ Zakat – (Essential function of the Islamic State)