Pongamia power point
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Pongamia power point
..AS AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL PRESENTING BYRR R.ARUN KRISHNA K.KIRAN KUMARNARASARAOPETA ENGINEERING COLLEGE
CONTENTS: ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION WHAT IS BIO DIESEL UTILISATION AND SAFETY PONGAMIA OIL TECHNICAL DATA TEST RESULTS ECONOMICS OF PONGAMIA OIL CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS REFERENCES
ABSTRACT: Petroleum products resources are limited and their consumption is increasing very fast with globalization development since last decade. Diesel consumption is about 45% of the total consumption of petroleum products. Over the last 15 years the demand for petroleum products in India has risen and the situation could be more difficult for diesel engines. Apart from conservation there is a global threat to the environment due to polluting nature of conventional fuels. The solution to these twin problems will be utilizing the vegetable oils.
CONT.. A lot of research is going on the potential use of many vegetable oils – castor, Soya bean, cottonseed, rapeseed, palm oil, PONGAMIA- OILetc. This paper provides detailed information, based on experimental work, on the use of PONGAMIA-OIL as bio fuel. Tucked away in forests where electricity was ruled out due to practical problems, tribes in Adilabad district have been resorting to tapping this tree for oil. Today, they have power supply from generators run on PONGAMIA- OIL. Presently research agendas include testing engine durability are made regarding of PONGAMIA-OIL as an alternative fuel in the Indian context.
INTRODUCTION: In the present industrialized world, the consumption of petroleum products has become an index of country’s prosperity. The consumption of petroleum products has started as a few tons/year about 140 years ago has reached over 3000 million metric tons/year. Vehicle population is increasing considerably and according to the Association of Indian Automobile Manufacturer (AIAM). The increased use of petroleum fuels by automobiles in India is not only causing fuel scarcities, price hikes, higher import bills and economic imbalance.
Hence, there is a need to substitute conventional petroleum fuels by suitable eco-friendly alternative fuels such as natural gas, bio fuels etc. We suggest the solution to these twin problems of fuel scarcity and exhaust pollution lies in utilizing bio fuels to the maximum extent.
WHAT IS BIO DIESEL?A substitute for or an additive to dieselfuel that is derived from the oils andfats of plants.A renewable, domestically producedliquid fuel that can help reducedependence on foreign oil importsProduced from renewable sources suchas vegetable oils, animal fats, andrecycled cooking oilsIt is defined as the mono alkaline estersof long chain fatty acids derived fromrenewable liquid sources
UTILIZATION AND SAFETY: In general, no significant engine, ignition system, or fuel injector modifications are needed for standard diesel engines to operate on biodiesel.
Cont.. Some trials were made with oil and diesel blends at the rate 80/20 or 75/25 or 50/50 etc. Such blends were found to require no engine modification at some optimum ratio. Several tests carried out in Italy using pure(100%)vegetable oil methyl ester during the early 90s confirmed the need to perform some small, not very expensive modifications of the engine
Lower emissions of biodiesel compared with petro diesel• When comparing biodiesel performance to that of convention diesel fuels, horsepower is not noticeably different.• Biodiesel has a high flash point, it does not produce explosive air/fuel vapors it has very low toxicity and it is biodegradable.
PONGAMAI OIL – A CASE STUDY: PONGAMIA SEEDS PONGAMIA PIMMATA is the botanical name for KANUGA in Telugu, HONGE in Kannada and KARANJ in Hindi. Most of trees based oil seeds yield about 25% oil and 79% cake considering 5% losses in the process of oil extraction.
The cake has multiple uses but if it becomes available in large quantities, the sludge can be used as a quality fertilizer. This PONGAMIA can grow anywhere –road sides, borders of crop lands, school compounds etc. PONGAMIA TREES
CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONCOMPOUND PERCENTAGE(%) CARBON 70.44HYDROGEN 12.08 OXYGEN 17.45NITROGEN 0.011
TECHNICAL DATA: Particulars Pongamia Diesel PONGAMIA-OIL is a deep yellow, or reddish- ------ brown oil extracted from the seeds of east Density (kg 925 850 Indian tree PONGAMIA. /m3) Viscosity (C S 2.0to6 1.2to2 The various physical properties of PONGAMIA ) T oil have been determined experimentally Net Calorific 37000 42000 and are compared with those of diesel. Value(kJ/kg) Gross Calorific 40000 44000 Most of the properties except its viscosity areValue(kJ/kg) nearer to diesel properties which makes it so suitable for diesel. Moisture and 0.1% 25% volatile matter Acid value 2 0.06 Iodine value 105 38.3
TEST RESULTS: Pongamia oil has been directly used in a diesel engine with 25%, 50 % 75% and EXTRACTION OF OIL finally 100% pongamia. Performance is found to be satisfactory with clear smoke. But at the same time some minor problems like chocking of fuel filter, restricted fuel flow are found. It’s worth mentioning here that an oil extraction unit is also made available to the people by the tribal welfare department under ‘VELUGU’ project has one year.
ECONOMICS OF PONGAMAI OIL: The pongamia tree yields about 160 kilos of seeds per year and about 10 to 15 tones of seeds per hectare. One kilo of oil generates three units of electricity, and the economics of this entire works out too much lower than the current price of diesel.• Local price of pongamia seeds per kg = Rs 5.00• Oil extraction and transportation charges per kg = Rs 1.00• Now, cost of 4 kilos of seeds = 4*5 = Rs .20.00• Oil extraction cost = 4*1 = Rs 4.00• Total cost = Rs .24.00• Income from sale of 3 kilos of cake = 3*4.50 = Rs .13.50
CONCLUSIONS & RECOMENDATIONS: It is possible to replace fossil fuels (diesel) with all its economic and ecological disadvantages, with bio fuels which are renewable. Projects involving large scale growing of non-edible vegetable oils useful as biodiesels should be encouraged . Vehicles running on such oils should be continuously demonstrated in all major cities and towns to popularize the concept and thus the gap between technology and end user should be bridged. 30 Million-hectare equivalent can completely replace current use of fossil fuels which will eliminate the spending of 6 Billion dollars for importing oils.
REFRENCES: Internal combustion engine fundamentals- JOHN-B-WAYHOOD Internal combustion engines- V.GANESHAN - Exhaust emissions of a DI diesel engine with blends of biodiesel SAE paper 1997Compatibilitofelastomers and metals in biodiesel fuel blends-SAE paper 19Energy fact sheet-energy educators of Ontario- 1993