Environnement Engineering
in Ancient India
Presentation By
Dr.A.S.Nene
Professor of Civil Engineering, (Retd.)
VNIT Nagpur...
The word "Paryavaranam" is combination of
four words , "Pari+ang+vru+lyut"
A Sanskrit word "Paryavaranam" was prevalent in...
3
Western Definition: The environment is
defined as the physical, non-living and
living surrounding of a society, with
whi...
Environment means neighborhood of
5
1) Earth – Prithwi
2) Water – Aap
3) Air – Vayu
4) Sky – Aakash
5) Light- Tej
Aitariya Upanishad gave the concept of
Panch...
1- Prithwi-Earth
‘Earth is my mother, I am her son.'
Earth is not for the different races of men
alone but for other creat...
O Prithivi! thy centre, thy navel, all forces that have
issued from thy body, Set us amid those forces;
breathe upon us.’
...
Prayer of Motherland
Ideal Environment : Land, which contains oceans, rivers
and canals; Whose farmers produce food grains...
2- Aapah- Water
Water occurs in five forms: Rain water, Natural spring,
Wells and canals, Lakes and Rivers
Waters are nect...
Water is nectar. It is source of all
plants and gives of good health.
From ocean waters reach to sky and from
sky come bac...
Jala Shastra = Water Resources Engineering
• Sanchetan = Water Supply
• Samharan = Drainage
• Stambhan = Storage of water
...
3-Vayu - Air
Yadya is best sacrifice
Air is nectar, it gives us long life. The pure
air which we inhale enriches good heal...
O Air! You are our father, the protector.
Rigveda 10-186-2
Air has medicinal values.Rigved 1-37-2
Prana, Vrana, Apana, Uda...
Two types of ether i.e.- one inside
the body and the other outside the
body.
Do not destroy anything of the sky
and do not...
Worship trees which gives us medicines
16
Plants came to existence on earth first. Rigveda 10-97-1
Forbidden Trees
• Milky Trees: (with poisonous juices): milk bush .
• Thorny Trees: Babul or Prickly pear.
• Trees having ...
Tree Recommended near Habitat
High trees or fruit bearing trees may be
allowed, provided they cast no shadow at noon
or ov...
Trees permitted to grow near Habitat
19
Confinement of trees (Vratabandha)
Some holy trees may be allowed to grow near
buildings, but they should be confined to a...
Forests should not be destroyed.
Rigveda 8-1-13
Chlorophyll is the cause of greenness in trees
Plants are live.
22
Trees save those, who saves trees
One tree is equal to ten sons.
 Kills the germs of T.B., measles, smallpox and
cow-pox.
 Lessens the effect of atomic radiation to a
great extent.
 Co...
Yadya is considered as the noblest action.
Yajna cleans atmosphere through its
medicinal smoke, and provides
longevity, br...
Peace should remain everywhere. peace of
sky, peace of mid-region, peace of earth,
peace of waters, peace of plants, peace...
26
The Arthshashtra contains provisions meant to
regulate a number of aspects related to the
environment.
Kautilya (350 B.C -...
28
The fifth pillar edict of Emperor Ashoka contains
such regulations for environment protection.
(269 BC to 231 BC)
King ...
Germination property, temperature & humidity ,
oxygen present, Smell and and taste of soil.
A site is selected on the basi...
30
Germination Test
In this test certain types of seeds are sown at the
proposed site. Depending upon the time taken for
g...
31
Flower Test
In this test flowers of four colors namely white, red,
yellow and blue are placed in leaf cones at the four...
32
Lamp Test
In this test four oil lamps are lit in the four directions
(east, north, west and south) in the foundation pi...
Nitisutras of Chanakya predicts;
God Vishnu and River Ganges would abandon this
earth after ten and five thousand years
(r...
 Ants coming out from their caves usually
excavating or storing food.
 Frogs croak near swampy areas
 Lesser coucal mak...
 Dragonflies fly low.
 Ring around the moon or sun (Lunar / Solar corona).
 Feathery clouds.
 Fruits of trees ripen ea...
 Rock outcrop,
 Types of trees and their foliage,
 Presence of anthill,
 Presence of hibernating animals.
Brihat Samhi...
One who destroys wells, tanks or temples is a
wicked person.
The person who pollutes waters of ponds, wells or
lakes goes ...
One who renovates wells, tanks, temples gets
eight times results than that of constructing
new structures.
38
If ground is waterlogged, then the water should be
drained out by digging drains parallel to north east
and refilling the ...
Water drains should be below ground, The bottom
surface should be smooth and sloping, If such drain is
not provided then t...
Waste disposal sites should be on north east side and
far away from residential areas.
Rivers, roads, agricultural fields,...
One should not excrete or urinate in water,
one should not spit or take bath without any
cloths on the body .
Taittiriyara...
43
Waste Disposal
Kautilya fixed Fines for
social offences
44
Noise pollution- Aapstamb Gruhyasutra
Students should observe silence from evening till
the stars appear in the sky.
The v...
Pollution of Space
Effect of wireless communication on birds.
46
Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from mobile
communication...
47
Effect of mobiles on human health.
A Danish group's study report of 2006 indicates
a close connection between mobile ph...
• Sage Parashar developed astronomical
methods to predict rain fall.
• Brihatsamhita contains a chapter on
Earthquakes.( 5...
•Nighantu" mentions one hundred
meaningful names of water.
•Sage Vashishtha and Sage Bhrugu were
the first to describe pro...
Conclusions
1. The term Environment was first well defined in
ancient Indian texts.
2. The residential sites were selected...
51
Ancient References
52
Visit
Late G.G.Joshi Shilpa Sanshodhan Trust
Library, 53 Ramkrishna Nagar, Nagpur.
This presentation is based on texts ...
Nagpur 1st feb 2015
of 53

Nagpur 1st feb 2015

The presentation gives a brief description of Environmental Engineering in ancient India during Vedic period (2000-5000 BC). Most of topics of modern sciences were known in ancient India. India gave the definition of Environment to modern world.
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Environment      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Nagpur 1st feb 2015

  • 1. Environnement Engineering in Ancient India Presentation By Dr.A.S.Nene Professor of Civil Engineering, (Retd.) VNIT Nagpur Email: nene_ashok@yahoo.com
  • 2. The word "Paryavaranam" is combination of four words , "Pari+ang+vru+lyut" A Sanskrit word "Paryavaranam" was prevalent in ancient India Thousand years prior to advent of modern Environmental sciences 2 Paryavaranam
  • 3. 3 Western Definition: The environment is defined as the physical, non-living and living surrounding of a society, with which it has a reciprocal relationship. Ancient Indian Definition: The environment means neighborhood of six factors i.e. Site, People, Animals, Birds, Trees and Water.
  • 4. Environment means neighborhood of
  • 5. 5
  • 6. 1) Earth – Prithwi 2) Water – Aap 3) Air – Vayu 4) Sky – Aakash 5) Light- Tej Aitariya Upanishad gave the concept of Panchmahabhotas 6
  • 7. 1- Prithwi-Earth ‘Earth is my mother, I am her son.' Earth is not for the different races of men alone but for other creatures two or four legged also. 7
  • 8. O Prithivi! thy centre, thy navel, all forces that have issued from thy body, Set us amid those forces; breathe upon us.’ 38 Names of mother Earth
  • 9. Prayer of Motherland Ideal Environment : Land, which contains oceans, rivers and canals; Whose farmers produce food grains and live together; Where each living persons works with vigor; Such our motherland may nurture us with her juices. Atharvaveda chapter 12 9
  • 10. 2- Aapah- Water Water occurs in five forms: Rain water, Natural spring, Wells and canals, Lakes and Rivers Waters are nectars The only three precious things on the earth are water, food and pleasing words. 10
  • 11. Water is nectar. It is source of all plants and gives of good health. From ocean waters reach to sky and from sky come back to earth. –Water cycle
  • 12. Jala Shastra = Water Resources Engineering • Sanchetan = Water Supply • Samharan = Drainage • Stambhan = Storage of water Three Vidyas (Techniques) Related to Water 12
  • 13. 3-Vayu - Air Yadya is best sacrifice Air is nectar, it gives us long life. The pure air which we inhale enriches good health. Rigved 10-1-86 13
  • 14. O Air! You are our father, the protector. Rigveda 10-186-2 Air has medicinal values.Rigved 1-37-2 Prana, Vrana, Apana, Udana and Samano ,Air resides in the body as life.
  • 15. Two types of ether i.e.- one inside the body and the other outside the body. Do not destroy anything of the sky and do not pollute the sky Do not destroy anything of Space.
  • 16. Worship trees which gives us medicines 16 Plants came to existence on earth first. Rigveda 10-97-1
  • 17. Forbidden Trees • Milky Trees: (with poisonous juices): milk bush . • Thorny Trees: Babul or Prickly pear. • Trees having hard through out: Tamarind or Bunyan tree. • Bushes: Which give shelter to small animals and consequently serpents frequent them. • Fruit bearing Trees: Mango, Guava etc. People are tempted to throw stones. • Other Trees (Trees without hard core). 17
  • 18. Tree Recommended near Habitat High trees or fruit bearing trees may be allowed, provided they cast no shadow at noon or overtop the building. The distance of tree from house should be twice the height of tree. 18
  • 19. Trees permitted to grow near Habitat 19
  • 20. Confinement of trees (Vratabandha) Some holy trees may be allowed to grow near buildings, but they should be confined to a certain area within a circular wall. Trees transgressing this boundary by breaking through it, should be pruned to avoid damage to the building. 20
  • 21. Forests should not be destroyed. Rigveda 8-1-13 Chlorophyll is the cause of greenness in trees Plants are live.
  • 22. 22 Trees save those, who saves trees One tree is equal to ten sons.
  • 23.  Kills the germs of T.B., measles, smallpox and cow-pox.  Lessens the effect of atomic radiation to a great extent.  Controls the air-supply and temperature variation due to sacrificed substances of firewood • Creates a pure, hygienic, nutritional and healing atmosphere It has been proved that Yadnya Ghee and different types of wood and grasses were offered to gods through Yadnya. 23 Yadyna
  • 24. Yadya is considered as the noblest action. Yajna cleans atmosphere through its medicinal smoke, and provides longevity, breath, vision etc.
  • 25. Peace should remain everywhere. peace of sky, peace of mid-region, peace of earth, peace of waters, peace of plants, peace of trees, peace of all-gods, peace of Brahman, peace of universe, peace of peace; May that peace come to me!
  • 26. 26
  • 27. The Arthshashtra contains provisions meant to regulate a number of aspects related to the environment. Kautilya (350 B.C - 283 B.C) 27
  • 28. 28 The fifth pillar edict of Emperor Ashoka contains such regulations for environment protection. (269 BC to 231 BC) King Piyadarsi (Ashoka), speaks thus: Animals are declared to be protected ……..
  • 29. Germination property, temperature & humidity , oxygen present, Smell and and taste of soil. A site is selected on the basis of These tests indicate the level of ground pollution. 29
  • 30. 30 Germination Test In this test certain types of seeds are sown at the proposed site. Depending upon the time taken for germination (three, five or seven days) the site is considered as good, average or bad respectively.
  • 31. 31 Flower Test In this test flowers of four colors namely white, red, yellow and blue are placed in leaf cones at the four corners of a pit in the evening and the condition of the flowers is observed at the next day morning. The freshness of flowers indicates the suitability of site.
  • 32. 32 Lamp Test In this test four oil lamps are lit in the four directions (east, north, west and south) in the foundation pit. Out of this the lamp which lasts for longest period indicates the suitability of site.
  • 33. Nitisutras of Chanakya predicts; God Vishnu and River Ganges would abandon this earth after ten and five thousand years (respectively), but only after twenty-five hundred years the earth would be a barren land. (Prediction of Global warming?) 33
  • 34.  Ants coming out from their caves usually excavating or storing food.  Frogs croak near swampy areas  Lesser coucal makes mournful sounds  Dogs defecate in the middle of the road or at higher elevation. Ancient text “Kadambini" describes forecasting of rains based on traditional methods.
  • 35.  Dragonflies fly low.  Ring around the moon or sun (Lunar / Solar corona).  Feathery clouds.  Fruits of trees ripen early or shed early.
  • 36.  Rock outcrop,  Types of trees and their foliage,  Presence of anthill,  Presence of hibernating animals. Brihat Samhita of Varahmihir The prediction of depth, quality and quantity of water on the basis of surface features. Chapter 54 - Water divining 36
  • 37. One who destroys wells, tanks or temples is a wicked person. The person who pollutes waters of ponds, wells or lakes goes to hell. 37
  • 38. One who renovates wells, tanks, temples gets eight times results than that of constructing new structures. 38
  • 39. If ground is waterlogged, then the water should be drained out by digging drains parallel to north east and refilling the trenches by brickbats and stones so that excess water drains out. Waste Disposal -Bhrugusamhita 39
  • 40. Water drains should be below ground, The bottom surface should be smooth and sloping, If such drain is not provided then the owner should be fined (54 coins). Bhrugusamhita 40
  • 41. Waste disposal sites should be on north east side and far away from residential areas. Rivers, roads, agricultural fields, green lands, sunshades and public places should not be polluted (by urination or excreta). 41
  • 42. One should not excrete or urinate in water, one should not spit or take bath without any cloths on the body . Taittiriyaranyaka 42
  • 43. 43 Waste Disposal Kautilya fixed Fines for social offences
  • 44. 44
  • 45. Noise pollution- Aapstamb Gruhyasutra Students should observe silence from evening till the stars appear in the sky. The vow of silence (Mauna) is prescribed in various rites and rituals. Speech is restrained after the performance of principal rites. The consequences of sound pollution were foreseen by Vedic Seers . 45
  • 46. Pollution of Space Effect of wireless communication on birds. 46 Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from mobile communication towers is largely responsible for the bird's declining numbers. 50 eggs of house sparrows were exposed to EMR for 5-10 minutes. It was found that all the 50 embryos were damaged.
  • 47. 47 Effect of mobiles on human health. A Danish group's study report of 2006 indicates a close connection between mobile phone use and cancer. The INTERPHONE study group from Japan published the results of a study of brain tumour risk and mobile phone use.
  • 48. • Sage Parashar developed astronomical methods to predict rain fall. • Brihatsamhita contains a chapter on Earthquakes.( 5th- 6th Century) • Ballal Sen in his book AdbhutSagar describes four main and six sub types of earthquakes and their zones in India. ( 10th- 11th Century). 48
  • 49. •Nighantu" mentions one hundred meaningful names of water. •Sage Vashishtha and Sage Bhrugu were the first to describe properties of flowing and steady water. (Much before Archimedes). •Kautilya gave guidelines for construction of dams, canal, wells, pollution prevention etc. 49
  • 50. Conclusions 1. The term Environment was first well defined in ancient Indian texts. 2. The residential sites were selected on the basis of environmental factors such as land, trees and water etc. 3. Methods for pollution prevention were described in these texts. 4. The ancient knowledge is consistent with modern environmental engineering. 50
  • 51. 51 Ancient References
  • 52. 52 Visit Late G.G.Joshi Shilpa Sanshodhan Trust Library, 53 Ramkrishna Nagar, Nagpur. This presentation is based on texts available in Ancient Indian Shilpashastra library established by Late Shri G.G.Joshi of Nagpur.

Related Documents