Politics of Armenia
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Politics of Armenia
Benedict (Viktor) Gombocz
Location: Eastern Europe, betweenTurkey (tothe west) andAzerbaijan Area Total: 29,743 sq km Country comparison to the world: 143 Land: 28,203 sq km Water: 1,540 sq km Area – comparative: Slightly smaller thanMaryland Land boundaries: Total: 1,254 km Border countries:Azerbaijan (mainland) 566 km,Azerbaijan (Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia164 km, Iran 35 km,Turkey 268 km Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Christianity, existent in Armenia for morethan 1,700 years, is followed by up to 97%ofArmenians. Armenia has its own church, the ArmenianApostolic Church, followed by the majorityofArmenian people.
Armenian Apostolic 94.7% Other Christian 4% Yezidi (monotheist with characteristicsof nature worship) 1.3%
The political system of Armenia functions in a structure of a presidentialrepresentative democratic republic, with the President as the head ofgovernment, and of a platform multi-party structure. The government exercises executive power. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament.
Capital (and largest city):Yerevan Official language(s):Armenian Demonym:Armenian Government: Presidential republic President: Serzh Sargsyan Prime Minister:Tigran Sargsyan Speaker: Hovik Abrahamyan Legislature: National Assembly
Armenia achieved independence from theTranscaucasian Democratic Federative Republicon 28 May 1918 as the Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA). After the DRA dissolved on 2 December 1920, it was annexed into the Soviet Union andbecame part of theTranscaucasian SFSR, which collapsed in 1936; Armenia became aconstituent republic of the Soviet Union known as the Armenian SSR. Since it declared independence from the Soviet Union on 23 September 1991, the country’sofficial name has been the Republic of Armenia (Armenian: ՀայաստանիՀանրապետություն; Hayastani Hanrapetutyun). Armenia’s data code is AM. Yerevan is the capital and biggest city of Armenia. Apart from theYerevan administrative region, Armenia is divided into ten administrativedivisions, called marzer (singular: marz); these are Ararat, Aragatsotn, Armavir,Gegharkunik, Kotayk, Lori, Shirak, Syunik,Tavush, and Vayots Dzor. Armenia’s flag is composed of three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue (middle), andorange (bottom).
Presidents: LevonTer-Petrossian Robert Kocharyan Serzh Sargsyan Prime Ministers: Andranik Margaryan Aram Sargsyan Vazgen Sargsyan Armen Darbinyan Robert Kocharyan Armen Sargsyan Hrant Bagratyan Khosrov Harutyunyan Gagik Harutyunyan Vazgen Manukyan
The legislative branch of Armenia’sgovernment is the National Assembly ofArmenia (Azgayin Zhoghov). The National Assembly of Armenia is a 131-member unicameral body; those membersare elected to five-year terms: 90 memberssit in single-seat constituencies and 41through proportional representation; theproportional-representation seats in theNational Assembly are assigned on a party-list basis among those parties that acquireno less than5% of the total of the numberof votes.
Political corruption in Armenian society is a problem. In 2008,Transparency International reduced its Corruption Perceptions Index forArmenia from 3.0 in 2007 to 2.9 out of 10 (a lower score indicates more allegedcorruption). Armenia fell from 99th place in 2007 to 109th out of 180 total countries surveyed (tyingwithArgentina, Belize, Moldova, the Solomon Islands, andVanuatu). In spite of legislative amendments in terms of elections and party investment,corruption either continues or has come back in new sorts. The United Nations Development Programme in Armenia sees corruption in theCaucasian country as “a serious challenge to its development.”
Republican Party of Armenia (ՀայաստանիՀանրապետական Կուսակցություն, ՀՀԿ;Hayastani Hanrapetakan Kusaktsutyun, HHK) Prosperous Armenia (ԲարգավաճՀայաստանի Կուսակցություն, ԲՀԿ ;Bargavach Hayastani Kusaktsutyun, BHK) Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ՀայՀեղափոխական Դաշնակցություն, ՀՅԴ;Hay Heghapokhakan Dashnaktsutyun, ARF) Rule of Law (Օրինաց ԵրկիրԿուսակցություն, ՕԵԿ; OrinatsYerkir, OEK) Heritage (ԺառանգությունԿուսակցություն; Zharangutyun) Non-partisans (Անկուսակցական եւխմբակցություններում չընդգրկված)
Born in Stepanakert on 30 June 1954. 3rd and current President of Armenia; assumed officeon 9 April 2008. Won the February 2008 presidential election with thesupport of the governing Republican Party of Armenia,of which he is currently the chairman. Was re-elected as President on 18 February 2013. Both elections were the subject of controversy by theopposition, who alleged that Sargsyan rigged theelections. Entered Yerevan State University in 1971, served in theSoviet Armed Forces from 1971-1972, and graduatedfrom the Philological Department of Yerevan StateUniversity in 1979. Married his wife, Rita, in 1983; they have twodaughters, Anush and Satenik, and onegranddaughter, Mariam. Also serves as the chairman of the Armenian ChessFederation. His native Armenian aside, he speaks fluent Russian. Is not related to Armenia’s current PM, TigranSargsyan.
Born in Kirovakan (now Vanadzor) on 29 January 1960. Current PM of Armenia; assumed office on 9 April 2008. Attended Leningrad’s Voznesenski Financial and EconomicInstitute from 1980-1983; his post-graduate education from 1983-1987 ended in earning his PhD degree. Worked as the Chief of Department for Foreign EconomicRelations of Scientific Researches Institute of Economic Planning inArmenia from 1987-1990. Worked at the post of Chairman of Republican Council of YoungSpecialists and Scientists from 1988-1993. Served as a member of the Supreme Council of the Republic ofArmenia and the Chair of Standing Commission for Financial,Credit and, Budget Affairs from 1990-1995. Also served as the Director of Scientific Researches Institute ofSocial Reforms and as the Chairman of Armenian BanksAssociation from 1995-1998. Occupied the position of Chairman of the Central Bank of Armenia(CBA) from 3 March 1998; was re-elected by the Armenian NationalAssembly as CBA Chairman for a second seven-year term on 2March 2005. As many as 92 MPs took part in the vote; 86 voted for hiscandidacy. Was the chairman of CBA until 9 April 2008, when he was namedPM Armenia by President Serzh Sargsyan (to whom he has norelation) upon the latter’s swearing in. Is married; has three children (one daughter, Nelly Sargsyan, andtwo sons, Armen and Abgar Sargsyan).
National conservative political party inArmenia. Founded on 2 April 1990 and registered on14 May 1991; was independent Armenia’sfirst political party. Is the right-wing’s biggest party inArmenia; claims membership of 140,000. Manages most government bodies inArmenia. Has been characterized by The Economistmagazine as a “typical post-Soviet ‘party ofpower’ mainly comprising seniorgovernment officials, civil servants, andwealthy business people dependent ongovernment connections.”
Shortened to ԲՀԿ or BHK; liberalconservative political party in Armenia. Was founded by the wealthy Armenianbusinessman GagikTsarukian on 30 April2004, when the party’s constituentcongress occurred. Debuted in the 2007 Armenianparliamentary elections; took 18 seatsand 14.68% of the votes, making itparliament’s second biggest politicalparty.