THE UNIVERSITY OF STRATHCLYDE DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT [MIM PROJECT] Title: National Football Teams a...
Title: National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on theadoption of and engagement on Social Media across countri...
Statement of Academic HonestyI declare that this dissertation is entirely my own original work.I declare that, except wher...
Project Feedback Page | iv
Page | v
Page | vi
AcknowledgementsThe first person to be acknowledged is Dr Sear Ennis. Without hisprecious guidance, advice and knowledge, ...
Abstract:This project has been undertaken to analyse the Social Media’s Strategies and Management ofNational Football Team...
Table of ContentsProject Feedback ...........................................................................................
3.3.1 History: ......................................................................................................
5.2 General feedback on the questionnaire: ....................................................................38 5...
6.2 Recommendations: ...................................................................................................
8.8.7 Mobile App: NHL Ice Time ........................................................................... 104 8.8.8 ...
1 Introduction1.1 Introduction:This chapter will outline the research rationale, the research aims and finally the rese...
2 Literature Review2.1 Chapter Introduction:Sports which used to be a form of pass-time in the past have now become a r...
For the purpose of this project, an analysis of the engagement and adoption of S.M. into N.F.Twill be done. Therefore, it ...
package to consumer in the way Microsoft did with their operating system. While nowadays,everything is built on the basis ...
era of the Web 2.0, where everything is available to everyone, the coding system has beenlightened on purpose in order to ...
foundations of Web 2.0 and that allow the creation of users generated content.” (Kaplan &Haenlein, 2010) The key elements ...
2.2.2.2 Adoption of Social Media within Companies:As it is a relatively new trend, S.M. has not been integrated into the...
known country singer produced a series of video clips called “United Breaks Guitars” andposted them on YouTube. The videos...
uses traditional S.M. platforms because according to them, sports should reach fans where fansare located. However, it can...
2.3 Customer Relationship Management:2.3.1 Customer Relationship Management and Companies:2.3.1.1 Importance of cus...
Moreover the principle of customizing C.R.M. creates a long term competitive advantage for thecompany. (Nguyen & Mutum, 20...
Entertainment Carefree Busy Casuals ...
Another aspect that has to be considered is the notion of C.R.M. In fact, this one is consideredto be more tactical, manag...
3 Industry Profile3.1 Chapter Introduction:According to Manley (2010), Football is the most practiced sport in the worl...
3.2.4 Financial:Regarding the financial aspect, as we said before, football is one of the main sport financiallyspeaking...
3.4 U.E.F.A. Euro Cup:As the N.F.T. studied were involved in the Euro 2012, the researcher will have a look at thebackgrou...
final tournament. Therefore, sixteen N.F.T. were involved in the final tournament in Poland andUkraine. (U.E.F.A., 2012)3....
3.5.1.2 The federation in figure:The French football federation has over 2million licensees among over 20,000 clubs. Fo...
3.5.3.3 Financial:In 2010, the turnover of the federation was almost €40 million. This revenue is originated fromTV righ...
4 Methodology4.1 Chapter Introduction:While choosing for a topic, the researcher realised that a few studies have been ...
1 - Netnography 2- 3- ...
As a basis, he will use this model to compare the adoption and engagement of S.M. across thethree different N.F.T. studied...
4.4.2 Step 2: Determine whether to sample or censusDue to the large scale, cost, time and effort that require a census, ...
 Intimacy: Through the use of analytical tools, he analysed the affection people have towards their N.F.T.  ...
5 Analysis5.1 Chapter introduction:As it has been outlined in the methodology chapter, data collected, from the 3 differ...
5.3 General user behaviour on Social Media:Among the 39 respondents, the majority of them (97%) use Facebook as a main Web...
5.4 Analysis of the French Football Team:5.4.1 Involvement:5.4.1.1 Profile of Supporters of the French Football...
The timeline of posts vary upon the news of the French Football Team in and off-peak period,the federation posts on averag...
5.4.2 Interactions:Generally, it decided to adopt S.M. and more specifically those channels in order to broadcastexclusi...
Finally, according to the questionnaire, supporters expect more insight information than theyuse to have and more engageme...
5.4.5 Insight:Along with the number of time this one has been visited by supporters (65% of respondentsvisited the websi...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (...
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National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (France, Spain and Ireland).

UPLOAD UPDATED ON THE 28th OF OCTOBER 2012. - INCLUDED FEEDBACK FROM MY SUPERVISOR Project Analysis: Through this project, I was willing to analyse the different Social Media Strategies adopted across countries at National Football level and to make recommendations. To do so, I proceeded in 3 steps; 1 - Netnography: I analysed the different Social Media platforms adopted by National Football Team. 2 - Interviews with Social Media executives of each federation to understand their strategies adopted. 3 - Market Research in order to understand the use, need and expectation of supporters of National Football Teams. An analysis of these three steps combined to a benchmark of best social media practices and analysis of the future trends enable me to make recommendations to enhance their adoptions and engagements of Social Media.
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Sports      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption on and engagement of Social Media across 3 countries (France, Spain and Ireland).

  • 1. THE UNIVERSITY OF STRATHCLYDE DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT [MIM PROJECT] Title: National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on the adoption of and engagement on Social Media across countries.Name: Benoît Loïc VaysseYear of Completion: 2012
  • 2. Title: National Football Teams and their fans: An analysis on theadoption of and engagement on Social Media across countries.Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement of the degree ofMaster of Science in International Management of the University ofStrathclydeTHE UNIVERSITY OF STRATHCLYDEDEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENTName: Benoît Loïc VaysseYear of Completion: 2012Supervisor: Dr Sean Ennis
  • 3. Statement of Academic HonestyI declare that this dissertation is entirely my own original work.I declare that, except where fully referenced direct quotations have beenincluded, no aspect of this dissertation has been copied from any othersource.I declare that all other works cited in this dissertation have beenappropriately referenced.I understand that any act of Academic Dishonesty such as plagiarism orcollusion may result in the non-award of a Master’s degree.Signed …………………….……… Dated …….……………………
  • 4. Project Feedback Page | iv
  • 5. Page | v
  • 6. Page | vi
  • 7. AcknowledgementsThe first person to be acknowledged is Dr Sear Ennis. Without hisprecious guidance, advice and knowledge, this project would have neverbeen possible.For their help in correcting, translating the entire participation sheet,letter of consent and questionnaire, Alfonso Melero, Ana Miguel FonsecaPêgo, Camila da Fonseca, Chloé Millet, Francisca Monteiro and ItziarIranzo Marco have to be thanked. Page | vii
  • 8. Abstract:This project has been undertaken to analyse the Social Media’s Strategies and Management ofNational Football Teams. (France, Spain and Ireland) involved in the Euro2012. One of theobjectives was to draw recommendations for National Football Team to make better use ofSocial Media.The literature reviewed the core concept and evolution of the Web and its link to Social Media.As this project focused on Sports, the adoption of Social Media into Sports were analysed.Secondly, the concept of Customers Relationship Management and its link with Social Mediaand Football have also been studied. Furthermore, in order to have a better understanding of theFootball’s Industry, a brief description of majors’ football institutions and countries studied hadbeen done.To reach these objectives, the researcher collected quantitative and qualitative data. Firstly, theresearcher analysed the use and adoption of Social Media by National Football Team with theuse of netnography. Secondly, to understand the Social Media Strategy adopted by federations,the researcher run phone interview with their S.M. executive. Finally, via the send-out of anonline questionnaire to supporters of teams studied, the researcher analysed the Social Mediabehaviour and expectation of supporters.Findings show that, at a certain degree of difference, federations are lacking in behind in theiradoption of Social Media platforms. Moreover, according to the questionnaire and the feedbackfrom interviews, they use Social Media as a broadcasting tool rather than as an engaging one.According to analytical tools, supporters talks in a positive way of their teams online. As aresult, supporters tend to influence their fellow supporters to follow their teams on Social Mediaplatforms. Furthermore, according to the questionnaire feedback, supporters would like theirNational Football Team to make more use of Social Media. Consequently, to keep themselvesupdated on the latest news, federations tend to attend conference, follow group study on Web2.0platform and get advice from S.M. agencies.As a result, recommendations have been oriented over a short, medium and long term period.Short period are essentially based on the readjustment of current platform and on the adoptionof new ones. The medium term period concern the improvement of the core website in order tomake it more Web2.0 friendly. Finally, the long term period concern the adoption of platformsthat require a certain technological advancement such as Google Earth or 360° PhotosAudience.Keywords: Web2.0, Social Media, National Football Team, Euro2012, France, Spain, Ireland. Words Count: 17,362 Page | viii
  • 9. Table of ContentsProject Feedback ..................................................................................................................... ivAcknowledgements ................................................................................................................ viiAbstract: ............................................................................................................................... viii1 Introduction.....................................................................................................................14 1.1 Introduction: ............................................................................................................14 1.2 Research rationale: ...................................................................................................14 1.3 Research Aims: ........................................................................................................14 1.4 Research Objectives: ................................................................................................14 1.5 Nota Bene: ...............................................................................................................142 Literature Review ............................................................................................................15 2.1 Chapter Introduction: ...............................................................................................15 2.2 Web 2.0: ..................................................................................................................16 2.2.1 Core concept: ...................................................................................................16 2.2.2 Web 2.0 and Social Media: ...............................................................................18 2.2.3 Adoption of Social Media into Sports: ..............................................................21 2.3 Customer Relationship Management: .......................................................................23 2.3.1 Customer Relationship Management and Companies: .......................................23 2.3.2 Customer Relationship Management and Social Customer Relationship Management:...................................................................................................................23 2.3.3 Adoption of Customer Relationship Management into Football: .......................24 2.4 Chapter Conclusion: ................................................................................................253 Industry Profile ...............................................................................................................27 3.1 Chapter Introduction: ...............................................................................................27 3.2 Fédération Internationale de Football Association: ...................................................27 3.2.1 Objectives: .......................................................................................................27 3.2.2 Notion of Confederations: ................................................................................27 3.2.3 Notion of Associations: ....................................................................................27 3.2.4 Financial: .........................................................................................................28 3.3 Union of European Football Association: .................................................................28 Page | ix
  • 10. 3.3.1 History: ............................................................................................................28 3.3.2 Objective: ........................................................................................................28 3.3.3 Financial: .........................................................................................................28 3.4 U.E.F.A. Euro Cup: .................................................................................................29 3.4.1 History and General Rules: ...............................................................................29 3.4.2 Case of the U.E.F.A. Euro 2012: ......................................................................29 3.5 Members Association: .............................................................................................30 3.5.1 Fédération Française de Football: .....................................................................30 3.5.2 Real Federación Española de Futbol: ................................................................31 3.5.3 Football Association of Ireland: ........................................................................31 3.6 Chapter Conclusion: ................................................................................................324 Methodology ...................................................................................................................33 4.1 Chapter Introduction: ...............................................................................................33 4.2 Marketing Research: ................................................................................................33 4.3 Research Method and Justification: ..........................................................................33 4.3.1 Netnography: ...................................................................................................34 4.3.2 Interviews: .......................................................................................................35 4.3.3 Online Questionnaire: ......................................................................................35 4.4 Sampling: ................................................................................................................35 4.4.1 Step 1: Define the population of interest ...........................................................35 4.4.2 Step 2: Determine whether to sample or census ................................................36 4.4.3 Step 3: Select the sampling frame .....................................................................36 4.4.4 Step 4: Choose a sampling method ...................................................................36 4.4.5 Step 5: Determine sample size ..........................................................................36 4.4.6 Step 6 Implement the sampling procedure ........................................................36 4.5 Final Analysis: .........................................................................................................36 4.6 Recommendations: ..................................................................................................37 4.7 Chapter Conclusion: ................................................................................................375 Analysis ..........................................................................................................................38 5.1 Chapter introduction: ...............................................................................................38 Page | x
  • 11. 5.2 General feedback on the questionnaire: ....................................................................38 5.3 General user behaviour on Social Media: .................................................................39 5.4 Analysis of the French Football Team: .....................................................................40 5.4.1 Involvement: ....................................................................................................40 5.4.2 Interactions: .....................................................................................................42 5.4.3 Intimacy: ..........................................................................................................43 5.4.4 Influence: .........................................................................................................43 5.4.5 Insight:.............................................................................................................44 5.4.6 Impact:.............................................................................................................44 5.5 Analysis of the Spanish Football Team: ...................................................................45 5.5.1 Involvement: ....................................................................................................45 5.5.2 Interactions: .....................................................................................................46 5.5.3 Intimacy: ..........................................................................................................47 5.5.4 Influence: .........................................................................................................47 5.5.5 Insight:.............................................................................................................48 5.5.6 Impact:.............................................................................................................49 5.6 Analysis of Ireland: ..................................................................................................49 5.6.1 Involvement: ....................................................................................................49 5.6.2 Interactions: .....................................................................................................51 5.6.3 Intimacy: ..........................................................................................................53 5.6.4 Influence: .........................................................................................................53 5.6.5 Insight:.............................................................................................................53 5.6.6 Impact:.............................................................................................................54 5.7 Chapter Conclusion: ................................................................................................546 Conclusions, Recommendations, Limitations ...................................................................55 6.1 Conclusions: ............................................................................................................55 6.1.1 Chapter Introduction: .......................................................................................55 6.1.2 Objective 1: Social Media’s adoption by National Football Teams....................55 6.1.3 Objective 2: Strategy adopted by National Football Team:................................56 6.1.4 Objective 3: Expectation of supporters in their use of Social Media ..................56 Page | xi
  • 12. 6.2 Recommendations: ..................................................................................................57 6.2.1 Business Objectives: ........................................................................................57 6.2.2 Customer Segment: ..........................................................................................57 6.2.3 Periods: ............................................................................................................58 6.2.4 Resources:........................................................................................................63 6.2.5 Chapter Conclusion: .........................................................................................63 6.3 Limitations and Recommendations for future research: ............................................63 6.4 Reflective Essay: .....................................................................................................647 Bibliography ...................................................................................................................668 Appendices......................................................................................................................71 8.1 Acronym: ................................................................................................................71 8.2 Glossary: .................................................................................................................72 8.3 Questions for interviews: .........................................................................................74 8.4 Online Questionnaire: ..............................................................................................76 8.5 Participant Information Sheet: ..................................................................................87 8.5.1 Participant Information Sheet English ..............................................................87 8.5.2 Participant Information Sheet French................................................................90 8.5.3 Participant Information Sheet Spanish ..............................................................93 8.6 Consent Form: .........................................................................................................96 8.6.1 Consent Form English: .....................................................................................96 8.6.2 Consent Form French: ......................................................................................97 8.6.3 Consent Form Spanish: ....................................................................................97 8.7 Transcript of the Interview with the French National Football Team: .......................98 8.8 Good Practices: ...................................................................................................... 101 8.8.1 Facebook: F.C. Barcelona .............................................................................. 101 8.8.2 Twitter: Liverpool F.C. .................................................................................. 101 8.8.3 YouTube: Nike “My Time is Now” ................................................................ 102 8.8.4 Foursquare: Manchester City F.C. .................................................................. 103 8.8.5 Instagram: Manchester City F.C. .................................................................... 103 8.8.6 Pinterest: Liverpool F.C. ................................................................................ 104 Page | xii
  • 13. 8.8.7 Mobile App: NHL Ice Time ........................................................................... 104 8.8.8 Website: ......................................................................................................... 105 8.8.9 Facebook Platform: London 2012 ................................................................... 106 8.8.10 Google Earth: Wembley Stadium ................................................................... 106 8.8.11 Match Day Photo Experience: Arsenal F.C. .................................................... 1078.9 The case of the English and the Portuguese Football Team: .................................... 108 8.9.1 Participant Information Sheet Portuguese: ...................................................... 108 8.9.2 Consent Form Portuguese:.............................................................................. 112 8.9.3 Industry Profile of the Football Association and the Federação Portuguesa de Futebol: 113 8.9.4 Analysis of the Football Association and the Federação Portuguesa de Futebol: 114 Page | xiii
  • 14. 1 Introduction1.1 Introduction:This chapter will outline the research rationale, the research aims and finally the researchobjectives.1.2 Research rationale:Lots of studies have been done on the topic of Football and Social Media (S.M.). However, theresearcher has found that a gap resulted in the analysis of S.M. adoption within NationalFootball Team (N.F.T.). As a result, in a year of European Football Competition, the researcherhas decided to ride on the wave of this competition to analyse the S.M. strategies adopted bythree different countries: France, Spain, and Ireland.S.M. being a new trend, the aim of this topic became as a result relevant.1.3 Research Aims:The aim of the research project is to study the S.M. strategy adopted by N.F.T., benchmarksthem with its competitors and finally makes some recommendations.1.4 Research Objectives:  Objective 1: S.M. Adoption by N.F.T.  Objective 2: Strategy adopted by N.F.T.  Objective 3: Expectation of supporters in their use of S.M.1.5 Nota Bene:In this project, the researcher used several technical terms. Please refer to the Acronym (See8.1) and Glossary (See 8.2) sections in the appendices. Page | 14
  • 15. 2 Literature Review2.1 Chapter Introduction:Sports which used to be a form of pass-time in the past have now become a real industry thatgenerates billions of dollars of revenue. Athletes practicing sports at a high level are nowconsidered as being professional. Such an environment has been favourable to the apparition ofmarketing technique adapted to sports. Before a definition of Sport Marketing is given, thenotion of Marketing has to be defined. According to Hollensen (2011, p. 26), marketing is a“means whereby consumers/users are made aware of the product/service and are able topurchase it”. As a result, the adaptation of Marketing to Sports could be define as “an ongoingprocess through which contests with an uncertain outcome are staged, creating opportunities forthe simultaneous fulfilment of direct and indirect objectives among sports customers, sportsbusinesses and other related individuals and organisations” (Chadwick & Beech, 2007, pp. 4-5).The discipline of Sports Marketing has the particularity to be based on the Uncertainty of theOutcome because sport is a way in which people can publicly assert their affiliations. Anotherimportant characteristic of Sports Marketing is the relationship between fans and sportsorganisations because without interest of fans, media and sponsors will not engage with theSports Industry. As a result fans, take a major part in the development of Sports. By extensionOnline Sports Marketing has become a major tool for sports organisation in order to reachpotential market. Already in 2003, Brown (2003) identified that sports marketers could use theInternet as form of engagement with their fans. Nowadays, the Internet is being used by a majorpart of the population – 82.5% of Internet Penetration in the UK in 2010 (TNS, 2012). It,consequently, summarises well the importance the Internet has taken into the Internet sportsindustry. With the increasing adoption of S.M. within sports, fans, sports clubs have seen inS.M. an important tool to foster their relationship with their fans. (Walsh, 2010)The purpose of this project is to analyse the S.M. strategy adopted by N.F.T. involved in theEuro2012. As a result, an answer to this project will be done in five parts. The first part will bethe literature review in which all the concept and models used in this project will be explained.In order to have an understanding of football, the football industry will be developed in thesecond part. The third part will analyse the methodology adopted by the researcher to conducthis research, while the fourth section will analyse the data collected. Finally, as a form ofconclusions, the recommendations and limits will be developed in the fifth and final part. Page | 15
  • 16. For the purpose of this project, an analysis of the engagement and adoption of S.M. into N.F.Twill be done. Therefore, it is important to have an idea of several concepts such as Web 2.0 butalso Consumer Relationship Management (C.R.M.).2.2 Web 2.0:2.2.1 Core concept:2.2.1.1 Evolution of the Web:In order to understand the concept of Web 2.0, it is important to explain the evolution of theWeb and its different phase. According to Rosen & Phillips (2011), the Internet has beendeveloped during the 1970’s. Indeed, in 1971, the first email has been sent from one computerto another one following by the first chat sessions and first FTP file downloaded in 1973. TheWorld Wide Web, which became the first and accessible form of the Internet to public, hasappeared in 1994.2.2.1.2 Definition of Web 2.0:Across numerous reading, the researcher noticed that the definition O’Reilly made of Web 2.0has been commonly accepted by his peers. Therefore we will use his definition as a startingpoint of our research. He (2005) defined “Web 2.0 as tools that help people build onlinecommunity for creativity, collaboration and sharing.” (Bohley, 2010). According to O’Reilly,Web 2.0 is a mixture of seven principles. 1 - The Web as a Platform. 2 - Harnessing 7 - Rich User Collective Experience Intelligence 6 - Sofware above 3 - Data is the the level of a Next Intel Inside single device 5 - Lightweight 4 - End of Programming Software Release Models CycleFirst of all, the Web 2.0 is considered to be a platform. In Web 1.0 era, it used to have Netscape,Double Click and Akamai, nowadays it has Google, AdSense and Bitorrent who have replacedrespectively the mentioned applications. In the past, every tool was seen as a software sold and Page | 16
  • 17. package to consumer in the way Microsoft did with their operating system. While nowadays,everything is built on the basis of a web application accessible from everywhere, by everyoneand free of charge.Moreover, one of the core assets of Web 2.0 is the availability for Internet users to findinformation and their ability to engage between each other. This form of engagement can bedone via the transfer of knowledge or via the transfer of data as it is for Bitorrent. Additionally,the concept of service of Bitorrent is to be self-improved regarding the taste of the users. Forexample, on Bitorrent, more popular is a file, faster will be the download.The second principle is the concept of harnessing collective intelligence. By this, it means thateach user improves the experience of the use of the platform by adding value to it. The peer-to-peer concept is derived from this process where every user shares its files with his peers on aserver. Another concept derived from this, is the Open Source. Open Source is a platform builtwith neither pattern nor copyright where any internet user can not only adopt it but can alsocustomize it to his own need.The concept of “Data Management” is the next concept. This is the pure result of the OpenSource theory. With an increasing number of information needed, software has to updateconsistently. As it has now shifted into an information era, the notion of infoware has appeared.Amazon is the perfect example because, even though it was using the bibliography database ofBowker for their book, they have now introduced their own identification database and hasencouraged its customers to complete the missing information. By this way, Amazon hasbecome within 10 years, the number one in book referencing.The fourth principle is the “end of the software release cycle”. As we have mentionedpreviously, one of the main move from the Web 1.0 to the Web 2.0 is the end of the software.Nowadays, except in the situation of an absolute necessity (I.e.: if it is updated on a daily basis),software should stop being developed in favour of platform. Moreover, with the requiredengagement of Internet users, it is witnessing a perpetual “Bêta” version of platform.The fifth core aspect of Web 2.0 is the programming model of platform. In the era of Web 1.0,engineer used to develop software by using very complicated coding system. Nowadays, in the Page | 17
  • 18. era of the Web 2.0, where everything is available to everyone, the coding system has beenlightened on purpose in order to make it more accessible to people. Therefore, this new systemis designed for hackability and remixability. (OReilly, 2005) With Web 2.0, the key word hasbeen “Think syndication, not coordination”. It means, as O’Reilly said, the data need to beassociated outwards without controlling what happens.As we have drawn from the previous principles, the key aspect of Web 2.0 is the fact that theseplatforms, in which application can be built on, are independent from any device. The mainobjective of Web 2.0 is to be able to access them from anywhere at any time with anything.iTunes is the best example possible as this application can be used on any mobile device. Lap ordesk tops here are playing the role of storage and control station for these devices.Finally the last principle is the concept of “Rich User Experience”. The development of web-application is such, that nowadays these ones are as efficient as local PC-based applications.2.2.1.3 Adoption of Web 2.0 within companies:Following to these core principles and according to Rosen & Phillips (2011), an average of 75%of current companies use Web 2.0 (McAfee.com, 2010). Evidences that outline this fact showthat half of the websites present in the top ten of the most visited websites are actually Web 2.0websites (Alexa, 2012). Due to the different advantages a company can withdraw from Web 2.0,such as generating revenue, an increasing number of companies tend to adopt more and moreWeb 2.0.2.2.1.4 From Web2.0 to Web3.0:The Web3.0 is the natural evolution of the Web2.0. It is an evolutionary shift on how peopleinteract online. According to Green (2011), Web 3.0 is composed by three components: - The Semantic Web - The Mobile Web - The Immersive InternetIn definitive, Web3.0 technologies offers a more customised search which is more targeted toWeb users and who finally provide a higher quality of information in a minimum of time. OpenGraph tools are a Web3.0 application because it enables third party application to supportintegration and development across various site and devices.2.2.2 Web 2.0 and Social Media:2.2.2.1 Definition and link of Social Media with Web 2.0.:Following the description made of Web 2.0, the researcher will follow the reasoning of Kaplan& Haenlein (2010) stating that Web 2.0 is the core platform of S.M. According to them, “S.M.is a group of Internet based application that build on the ideological and technological Page | 18
  • 19. foundations of Web 2.0 and that allow the creation of users generated content.” (Kaplan &Haenlein, 2010) The key elements of S.M. are the level of media richness and the socialprocess. According to them, higher is the combination, closer will be the similarity with real lifeand therefore higher will be the interaction and engagement between participants. Media Research Low Medium High Social Networking Virtual Social High Blog Social Site Worlds Process Collaborative Content Virtual Game Low Project Community Worlds (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010)According to Berthon, et al. (2012), S.M. content can either be under the form of text, picture,video and networks. Rosen & Phillips (2011), regarding to the previous aspect of S.M., definedwebsites such as Facebook, Twitter, Blogs, Virtual Worlds and Virtual Goods as being Web 2.0applications. Therefore, S.M., which is highly accessible, can be used to reach a large audience.(Brogan, 2010; Zabella, 2010). A recent study in Rothschild’s (2011) article shows thatcountries such as Poland (43%) and Britain (43%) are countries in Europe using the most S.M.In opposition, France (36%), Spain (34%), Russia (33%) and Germany (33%) are ones of theleast countries in Europe. These differences in S.M. adoption within countries have beenexplained by Berthon, et al. Indeed, they (2012) have outlined five evidences based on countriesthat explain the reasons of adoption of S.M by companies. The first axiom is based on thecountry technological advancement, cultural adoption and finally governmental rules andregulation. It states that more open a country will be on new technology, easier will be the useof S.M. in the country. The second axiom is the local environment. When a company is beingpresent on S.M., its content will be available from everyone and from everywhere. Therefore, ithas to be careful on local impact because a misadventure can blow up into a major globalcatastrophe for the company and vice-versa. As the researcher has stated before, when acompany uses S.M., all its data are available by anyone. Therefore, in the situation of generalissues, as the word is being spread very fast, it is very difficult for a company to keep the issueinternally. This was the third axiom. The fourth axiom is working very closely with the firstaxiom as it relates to the actions and creations of creative consumers. Indeed, according toBerthon, et al. (2012), countries will follow the trend of creative consumer by adopting up-to-date technology. Finally the fifth axiom transmits the lesson that technology is dependent of thehistory of a country. Actually, the technological evolution of a country is very dependant of itshistory and its adoption. Page | 19
  • 20. 2.2.2.2 Adoption of Social Media within Companies:As it is a relatively new trend, S.M. has not been integrated into the marketing mix fully (GlynnMangold & Faulds, 2009). Meanwhile, companies such as G.E. and P&G have integrated S.M.into their Marketing Communication in order to facilitate the interaction between customers /customers / companies. S.M. has a huge power in bringing awareness to companies(Edosomwan, et al., 2011); however it is very often feared by them because of the “inability ofmanagers to control the content, the timing and the frequency of information about a product orservice”. (Glynn Mangold & Faulds, 2009). Nevertheless, since the Internet has been ranked asthe favourite source of media for consumers on their place of work and at home, companieshave to learn how to deal with this new platform. Nowadays, consumers change their habit inproduct and service consumption and they are less likely to listen traditional channel ofcommunication. Therefore, they tend to pay more attention to advice from their peers. Besides,they are more willing to be the master of their own decision and tend to move toward acustomization of product (On-Demand product). As a result, S.M. is considered by customers asbeing a trustworthy source of information. (Glynn Mangold & Faulds, 2009) Following to whathave been said before the control of the content by manager, even though they cannot control it,they can still influence and shape people’s post in order to match the guideline of the company.2.2.2.3 Social Media Strategies for companies:Wilson, et al. (2011) outlined four different S.M. Strategies that companies adopts regarding totheir profile and their expectations.For example a company driven by a low budget and willing to avoid uncertainty by monitoringwith established tools will generally adopt a strategy focused on Customer Service. A secondexample could be the one of a company seeking to embrace uncertainty. In such circumstances,it would rather try to listen and engage with their customers and employees on platform such asTwitter and Facebook. Both strategies provide usually good results and they usually play as aspringboard for larger involvement. If a company with large resource is willing to getforeseeable result, it will tend to use in this situation third parties such as external application orexternal collaborators/customers. Such a strategy has generally a snow ball effect byencouraging initiative in and out of the company. Finally when a company wants to empowerengagement at a large scale, it will tend to create and use internal platform to expand itsbusiness. Such a strategy requires huge investment. However, it has a major impact on the R&Dand on the operations channels of the company and its partners, customers. (Wilson, et al.,2011)However, as S.M. can be positive for a company, badly managed, it can have terribleconsequences on companies and brand. Indeed, United Airlines staff broke the tailored guitar ofone of his customers. After trying to deal with the customers service of the company, this little Page | 20
  • 21. known country singer produced a series of video clips called “United Breaks Guitars” andposted them on YouTube. The videos promptly generated over 10 million of views. Inexchange, the company gain a terrible reputation online for breaking the belonging of itscustomers. (Fournier & Avery, 2011)As we have seen the impact of S.M. onto Web 2.0, we will now look at how S.M. is used intoSports.2.2.3 Adoption of Social Media into Sports:2.2.3.1 Notion of Fandom:Before to have a look at the adoption of S.M. into Sports, it would be interesting to analyse thebehaviour of fans over sports and therefore defines the notion of Fandom. According to Cova &Cova (2002), consumer tribe consists of a gathering of people that share the same passions adcommitment to a product, service, organisation, concept or idea. Their particularities are thattheir boundaries are not only based on geographical, ethnic or familial, modern tribes have theirfoundations on concept. In the case of Football, this can be seen in the behaviour of footballfans not willing to support the opponent team while maintaining a good relationship with theopponent fans. However, as Rein, et al. (2006) have outlined in their book, there is a paradox ofcommercialisation. Indeed, according to them there is a conflict between sport as a business andsport as a game. Consequently of this assumption, sports should be considered as a product andfans as a product. Therefore, this can lead to debate as sport is generally associated to theinnocence of youth, the spirit of competition and finally the integrity of the game.As a result according to Dionisio et al in Ennis, et al.’s (2011) article, fans with the highestdedication to their clubs will be those who actively commit to the team and proactively engagein sustain behaviour.With the proliferation of media channels and mobile technology, new technology has thepotential to narrow people’s interests to their preferences and shut out the rest of the world.According to Josh Robinson (campaignlive.co.uk, 2012) in an interview given to“campaignlive”, 59% of fans claim to support more their teams by engaging with them on S.M.As we have seen previously, the most important for a S.M. campaign is to generate and supportengagement even though the relation sport/fan is commonly stronger than the one ofcompany/customer. As said by Josh Robinson and Lucien Boyer, S.M. has a huge commercialimpact for the reason that S.M. fans can interact with their teams 24 hours per day and it enablessport clubs and nations to provide a unique content and enables fans to set their own culture(Ham, 2011; campaignlive.co.uk, 2012). Therefore it is very important for sport franchises notto neglect this new channel of communication. However, S.M. will have a powerful impact if it Page | 21
  • 22. uses traditional S.M. platforms because according to them, sports should reach fans where fansare located. However, it can use several platforms in order to diversify the content and multiplythe engagement. (campaignlive.co.uk, 2012)2.2.3.2 Adoption of Social Media into football:Since football club intend to talk at their fans rather than with them, several studies have shownthat there is generally no engagement between football club and fans. (Ugaz, 2011; Hamill,2011; Hamill, 2011). This has been seen by the Klout result and by the extensive use of Twitteras a broadcasting channel rather than an open channel for fan to engage with their club; a fewexceptions being Liverpool, CF America, Chivas with an higher percentage of response.With such a development of S.M. some avant-gardist clubs such as Manchester United whocreated its own network or Manchester City with its early partnership with YouTube havealready start using intensively S.M. Some others clubs, such as Marseille, to engage with theirfans, gave them the task to design the brand new shirt of the season. (Fox, 2011)2.2.3.3 Future Trends to be adopted in Football in Europe:However, as this wave is just hitting Europe, in the USA, there are actually trends that could beadapted into European football. In Europe, clubs tends to emphasize a lot on goods that can besold. Instead in the USA, they try to market the experience of the match day by communicatingand highlighting the atmosphere. Another trend is to give the command of S.M. tools during agame to an influential fan. By doing this, as the S.M. fan knows what to expect from hisposition as fan, he usually delivers pertinent content and engages more with the others fans.Afterwards, this one usually focuses on its experience which generates free communication forthe club. The concept of Fans Night is very popular across of the Atlantic. This is usually doneto reward fans of their support all over the year and enable them to meet their fellow follower onTwitter. The concept of the fan generated content has been developed over the past few years. Itconsists of encouraging the supporter to create content such as biographies, match reports oreven YouTube video for the club. Finally the last trends came out from the appearance of one ofthe latest S.M. sharing site called Pinterest. This one is used as a collaborative sharing sites inwhich competition are organised.Finally, according to Josh Robinson and Lucien Boyer, an impact during the Euro2012 on S.M.will be noticed if and only if teams perform well on the pitch. In any circumstance, theEuro2012 will be a good trial in general for this year of sports with the Olympics gameshappening in July and August and for the following one like the next Football World Cuporganised in Brazil in 2014. (campaignlive.co.uk, 2012)As we described the concept of S.M., we are now moving onto a very important aspect ofbusinesses: C.R.M. Page | 22
  • 23. 2.3 Customer Relationship Management:2.3.1 Customer Relationship Management and Companies:2.3.1.1 Importance of customers for businesses:First of all, it is very important to locate C.R.M. into its context. According to Treacy &Wiersence (1995) in Nguyen & Mutum (2012) article, a business should have customersotherwise it is considered as a pastime. Gronroos (1996) stated that getting new customers is atleast ten times more expensive as maintaining their own customers. He also outlined thedifficulty to get new ones due to their low level of loyalty; therefore it is very important for acompany to create a sustainable customers relationship.2.3.1.2 From Relationship Marketing to Customer Relationship Management:Following to the evolution of relationship between companies and their customers, Nguyen &Mutum (2012) mentioned that Relationship Marketing (R.M.) is the ancestor of C.R.M. Morgan& Hunt (1994) defines R.M. as a process of establishing, developing, and maintainingsuccessful relational exchanges between parties. Therefore, for the purpose of the project, theresearcher will take Boulding et al (2005)’s definition of C.R.M. which has been commonlyaccepted by their peers. They define it as a system in which they have integrated allrelationships, have collected and analysed data across the firm in order to develop capabilities tocreate customers’ value while creating shareholders’ value for the firm. As a result, theapproach of C.R.M. in comparison to R.M. is more tactical, managerial and more focus onrelationship building with their key customers.2.3.1.3 Outcome for firms to use Customer Relationship Management:The outcome for a company to have efficient C.R.M. practices would be to increase thecompany’s performance and its profitability but also to get insights on their customers’ lifestyle.(Plakoyiannaki & Tzokas, 2002; Nguyen & Mutum, 2012) The keys success factor in creating astrong relationship between a firm and its customers is divided in four steps. First of all, the firmshould trust and commit itself to this relation in order to get a better quality and to increase thelength of the relationship. Then it should satisfy its customer by rewarding them in order toincrease their loyalty. The third key success factor is the concept of dependence and symmetryby behaving on the same level of the customers. Finally the fourth aspect is the concept offairness which would generate trustworthiness by increasing the quality of the relationship.(Nguyen & Mutum, 2012)2.3.2 Customer Relationship Management and Social Customer Relationship Management:Resulting from its benefit for companies and the evolvement of communication channel,C.R.M. can be applied to potential buyers by the use of S.M. because it offers customization. Page | 23
  • 24. Moreover the principle of customizing C.R.M. creates a long term competitive advantage for thecompany. (Nguyen & Mutum, 2012) Therefore, it is in the interest of companies to combineboth tools (C.R.M. & S.M.) in order to strengthen their customers’ relationship. This concept ofadopting C.R.M. into S.M. is frequently named Social Customers Relationship Management(S.C.R.M.) or C.R.M. 2.0. (Greenberg, 2010; Heller Baird & Parasmis, 2011) Nowadays eventhough customers are connected with brands on S.M., they barely interact with them. (HellerBaird & Parasmis, 2011). Indeed, when in need for information or advice, these socialcustomers tend to rely more on peers rather than on commercial. (Greenberg, 2010) This lack ofinteraction is mainly due to a lack of understanding from companies. Indeed, according to astudy from Heller Baird & Parasmis (2011), customers mainly connect with companies tobenefit of discount or coupons while companies think customers connect with them to interact.As a result, as Business Bet highlighted the fact that a higher interaction would involve a highercustomer’s loyalty, it is in the interest of companies to adopt an S.C.R.M. to personalize theinteraction and experience with their customers. (Greenberg, 2010)As the importance of the adoption of S.C.R.M. within companies has been outlined, the nextpart will be an analysis on the impact and use of C.R.M. into football.2.3.3 Adoption of Customer Relationship Management into Football:According to Adamson, et al. (2006), the adoption of C.R.M. technique into the footballindustry is being delayed. However, in the football industry, the loyalty level of fan is usuallygreater than the relation company/customers because there is a stronger natural feeling ofadoption and recognition that exist between football fans and their club that does not existbetween companies and their customers. However, football clubs are facing the same issues ascompanies in the way they need to strengthen their relationship. Indeed, according to them,there are several types of fans depending on their commitment to the club and their willingnessto be entertained. In function of their behaviour, fans are being segmented by their value inorder to customize the service of clubs to their needs. Page | 24
  • 25. Entertainment Carefree Busy Casuals Supporters Casuals Regular Fanatics Glory Hunters Professionnal Commited Wanderers Casuals Winning Increasing Commitment to Football Increasing Evaluation of Alternatives (Adamson, et al., 2006)However, there are some C.R.M. techniques that cannot be applied to fans such as thecustomization to an individual but rather to a group because they see themselves as acommunity. (Adamson, et al., 2006) Therefore, Adamson, et al. (2006) segmented fans into twosubgroup: the casual fan and the committed fans. The casual fans are generally ones who attendfootball game for the entertainment; they expect a high-end service and will emphasized a lot onfinancial aspect. In opposition, the committed fans feel attached to the club emotionally. Theyattend football game to support and see their team winning, no matter how the team played.This segment of fans are very likely to move from one segment to another if the performance ofthe team are in behind of their own expectations. As a result, football fans expect football clubto communicate with them on a supporter’s way but with the treatment of a customers.2.4 Chapter Conclusion:This chapter has sketched the evolution of the Web from the 1.0 to nowadays the appearance ofthe 3.0. However, a major emphasis has to be done on the Web2.0 because S.M. has been builton the core foundation of Web2.0 application. Due to its increasing adoption, S.M. has beenprogressively adopted by companies by implementing strategies that match their profile andexpectations. Football clubs have faced the same evolution with the increasing adoption by fansof Web2.0 applications. Page | 25
  • 26. Another aspect that has to be considered is the notion of C.R.M. In fact, this one is consideredto be more tactical, managerial and more focus on relationship building with key customers thanthe ancestor of C.R.M. used to. With the appearance of S.M., C.R.M. has adapted itself to thisnew platform and therefore enables companies to personalize their interaction and experiencewith their customers. Finally adopting C.R.M. technic to football would involve consideringsupporters as a community rather than individual as it is done by companies. As a result, twogroups of fans have been identified (the casual fans and the committed fans) whose enableOnline Sports Marketer to target.All those learning have been relevant for the study of this project. Indeed, as the main theme ofthis project is on S.M., this project could not be treated without an understanding of the topic.Extending this topic to the industry of football has enabled the researcher to understand thedifferent implication of S.M. into football. By extension, learning the core concept of C.R.M.has been important to understand the fans behaviour and the different types of S.M. strategiesthat could be adopted. Page | 26
  • 27. 3 Industry Profile3.1 Chapter Introduction:According to Manley (2010), Football is the most practiced sport in the world but also the onewith the biggest media coverage and level of income.In order to have an overall understanding of this project, it is necessary to have an overview ofthe football industry. As a result, in this chapter, the researcher describes the main instance offootball such as the F.I.F.A. and the U.E.F.A., the U.E.F.A. Euro Cup each nation studied in thisproject.3.2 Fédération Internationale de Football Association:The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (F.I.F.A.) has been created in 1904. It isthe governing body of International Football. It provides the basis of the rules for everythingthat relates to football such as competitions, transfer doping issues. Its headquarters is located inZurich in Switzerland. The president is Joseph Sepp Blatter. (F.I.F.A., 2012)3.2.1 Objectives:The F.I.F.A. has several objectives in terms of football such as improving and promoting thegame of football. It also organises international competition for seniors, women, youth andfutsal categories such as the F.I.F.A. World Cup every four years. Beside these objectives, theF.I.F.A. is in charge of drawing regulations and provision and ensures these rules are beingenforced. Finally, the last and main objective of the F.I.F.A. is to prevent any practices thatcould endanger the truthfulness of the game of football. (F.I.F.A., 2012)3.2.2 Notion of Confederations:The F.I.F.A. is divided into six confederations. Each of them corresponds to a differentcontinent and act as representative of the F.I.F.A. in its level. Every confederation has right andobligation regarding to the F.I.F.A. such as to obey and enforce with statutes set up by theF.I.F.A., to work closely with the main instance in the organisation of international competitionbut also in joint objectives. Additionally, they have to organise joint competition. (F.I.F.A.,2012)3.2.3 Notion of Associations:A particular nation eligible to organise competition and supervise football in its own country iscalled an association by the F.I.F.A. Thus, according to the F.I.F.A., a country is an independentstate. (F.I.F.A., 2012) Page | 27
  • 28. 3.2.4 Financial:Regarding the financial aspect, as we said before, football is one of the main sport financiallyspeaking. According to the F.I.F.A., in the period 2007/10, its revenue raised to USD 4,189million from USD 2,634 million from the previous four years period. This revenue has beenessentially driven by the F.I.F.A. World Cup organised in South-Africa in 2010 via the sale oftelevision and marketing right. (F.I.F.A., 2012)As the role of the F.I.F.A. is to enhance and develop the game, a major part (70%) of theincome generated is being reinvested into football and football development via CorporateSocial Responsibilities and development programme. (F.I.F.A., 2012)3.3 Union of European Football Association:In this project, the researcher will analyse three countries (France, Spain, and Ireland) involvedin the European Cup 2012. As the European Cup is organised by the U.E.F.A., he will have adeeper look at how this institution works. (U.E.F.A., 2012)3.3.1 History:Union of European Football Association (U.E.F.A.) has been created in 1954 and is theEuropean representative of the F.I.F.A. Therefore it has to maintain good relationship with theF.I.F.A. and others confederations. As a result it has to develop solidarity across EuropeanMember Association by maintaining their interests. Its headquarters is located in Switzerlandand its current President is Michel Platini. (U.E.F.A., 2012)3.3.2 Objective:The mission of the U.E.F.A. is to deal with all the matter regarding to European Football suchas organising continental competition between Member Association (U.E.F.A. European Cup)but also between clubs (U.E.F.A. Champions League, U.E.F.A. Europa League). The U.E.F.A.have to promote the value of football and develop its practice in Europe through thedevelopment of F.A.I. replay practice and prevent unethical practice (doping, discrimination,)that could put at risk the rules and regulation of football. Another aspect that the U.E.F.A. has tomake sure is that the values of football overcome commercial interests. (U.E.F.A., 2012)3.3.3 Financial:With the revenue generated, the U.E.F.A. has to use them equitably and support the practices offootball between nations and the different categories of Football. During the period of 2009/10,the estimated revenue of the U.E.F.A. was at €1,397.4 million. It was due to the receipt of theChampions League (72.6%) and Europa League (12.9%) and on the coming up U.E.F.A. Euro2012 competitions organised jointly in Poland and Ukraine (5.6%). (U.E.F.A., 2012) Page | 28
  • 29. 3.4 U.E.F.A. Euro Cup:As the N.F.T. studied were involved in the Euro 2012, the researcher will have a look at thebackground of this competition.3.4.1 History and General Rules:The U.E.F.A. Euro is a competition organised by the U.E.F.A. every four years, over twoseasons. Every single U.E.F.A. Member Association is invited to take part in the competitionvia qualification competition selection then through the final tournament organised in a single orin a cooperation of countries.3.4.2 Case of the U.E.F.A. Euro 2012:The U.E.F.A. Euro 2012 had been organised in Poland and Ukraine across 8 cities. (U.E.F.A.,2012)3.4.2.1 Qualification stage:As host countries, Poland and Ukraine were automatically qualified so was Spain because of itsvictory during the Euro 2008. In total, sixty-one Members Associations took part in thequalification stage. Teams were divided into six groups of six teams and three groups of fiveteams. The nine group winners and the four best runner-ups were automatically qualified for the Page | 29
  • 30. final tournament. Therefore, sixteen N.F.T. were involved in the final tournament in Poland andUkraine. (U.E.F.A., 2012)3.4.2.2 Final Stage:After two years of competitions, the U.E.F.A. Euro 2012 saw the Spanish National Teamwinning the tournament for the second times in a row. (U.E.F.A., 2012)3.4.2.3 Financial:Financial Report has not been published yet for this event. However, according to the U.E.F.A.(2012), the organisation of a continental competition is a major driver of economic developmentfor the host countries but also for the football institutions. (U.E.F.A., 2012)3.5 Members Association:To understand the nations studied over the project, the researcher will have a look at howFootball Federation in each Members Association studied works.All the federation under the governance of the U.E.F.A. will have the same mission and dutytowards the U.E.F.A. and F.I.F.A. They will just have to control them in their respectivecountries. As the U.E.F.A., Members Associations are responsible of developing and regulatingthe game of football on and off field at a national level. (U.E.F.A., 2012)3.5.1 Fédération Française de Football:3.5.1.1 History:Fédération Française de Football (French Football Federation – F.F.F.) has been created in 1919but the country is affiliated to the F.I.F.A. since 1904. The Headquarter is based in Paris. NoëlLe Graët, as president of the federation, has the duty of representing the federation at theU.E.F.A. and seat during federal and executive committee. (F.F.F., 2012) Page | 30
  • 31. 3.5.1.2 The federation in figure:The French football federation has over 2million licensees among over 20,000 clubs. Fortyclubs are involved in professional competition and leagues. Annually, 1 million games are beingorganised by the professional and amateur’s league making them one of the most competedleague in Europe. All those clubs are organised within 31 regional leagues in 102 districts.(F.F.F., 2012)3.5.1.3 Financial:Broadcast and Partnership are the main source of income (200 million of Euros) of the F.F.F.(A.F.P., 2011). For the period 2010/14, the turnover of the F.F.F. from partnership wasestimated to 120.5 million which represent an increase of 37% from the exercise 2006/10. (AFP,2010) Meanwhile, the F.F.F. invests mainly its money on developing football via its foundationsor through the amateur’s league.3.5.2 Real Federación Española de Futbol:3.5.2.1 History:The Real Federación Española de Fútbol (R.F.E.F.) is the Spanish Football governing body. It isaffiliated to the F.I.F.A. since 1904. However, the R.F.E.F. has been created in 1913. Accordingto the Spanish Law, it is a Private Association. Its president is Ángel Mª Villar Llona. Theheadquarters of the federation is located in Madrid. (R.F.E.F., 2012)3.5.2.2 The federation in figure:According to the U.E.F.A. (2012), 653,190 registered players are playing for one of the 18,000clubs shared within one of the 20 counties.3.5.3 Football Association of Ireland:3.5.3.1 History:The original name of the Football Association of Ireland (F.A.I.) should be Cumann Peile na h-Eireann. It is the governing body of football in the Republic of Ireland. The F.A.I. has beenfounded in 1921 but joint the F.I.F.A. two years later in 1923. The headquarters of the F.A.I. islocated in the Republic of Ireland. Its president is Paddy McPaul. (F.A.I., 2012)3.5.3.2 The federation in figure:In total, there are almost 170,000 players registered playing in one of the 5,828 clubs sharedamong the 4 districts (Munster, Leinster, Connaught and Ulster). Each district supervises thedevelopment of football in the area. (F.A.I., 2012) Page | 31
  • 32. 3.5.3.3 Financial:In 2010, the turnover of the federation was almost €40 million. This revenue is originated fromTV right and from partners. (F.A.I., 2012)This revenue has been used to finance the underage squad and to the development of the eliteteams. (F.A.I., 2012)3.6 Chapter Conclusion:As the researcher just presented, the main football instance is the F.I.F.A. and then the U.E.F.A.at the European level.Even though each Members Associations has its particularity, they all have to promote the gameof football and the values that are associated with. Financially talking, despite the disparity ofincome of Members Association across Europe, those ones are still considered as being theleader in the world. Page | 32
  • 33. 4 Methodology4.1 Chapter Introduction:While choosing for a topic, the researcher realised that a few studies have been done in S.M.and sports focusing on football. Most of the studies linking S.M. to football were focusing onfootball clubs such as Celtic Glasgow or Chelsea. However, he noticed a major gap in theanalysis of the use of S.M. with N.F.T. Another challenge he has faced during the process of theliterature review was the availability of reliable information. He realised that most of the paperstalking about S.M. and sports were non-academicals and/or out-of-date. Therefore, some deepresearches have had to be done in order to find accurate research on this topic.Therefore, following to what have been found in the literature review, the methodology here hadseveral objectives such as understanding the use of S.M. by N.F.T. but also understanding theexpectation of N.F.T. supporters toward the use of S.M. platforms. By analysing every aspect,the researcher will draw recommendations to implement in function of the expectation ofsupporters.4.2 Marketing Research:According to Kozinets (2002), doing marketing research is an important process because ithelps to identify and understand the consumer behaviour of particular consumers and consumergroups. In this situation, the researcher collected qualitative and quantitative data from primaryand secondary source.4.3 Research Method and Justification:In order to support this project, the researcher has decided to collect both qualitative andquantitative data. Using both methods enable him to reduce the weaknesses of using a singleapproach and enhance the finding of each method.As said by Amaratunga, et al. (2002), when using quantitative research method, the researchermakes the assumption that he can explain consumer behaviour by some social fact. Amaratunga,et al. (2002) defined this as “the deductive logic of the natural sciences” (Horna, 1994).The collection of data would be through a survey designed for supporters of their N.F.T.According to Kozinets (2002), the collection of qualitative data is useful because it helps togather insight data that underlines the needs, desire, meaning and choices. This method wouldbe through Netnography and through a phone interviews.The process of the analysis of the project would be as follow: Page | 33
  • 34. 1 - Netnography 2- 3- Quantitative Qualitative Data Data4.3.1 Netnography:According to Kozinets (2002, p. 62), the netnography is method that study the culture andcommunities online. Therefore, the researcher will analyse the Web 2.0 tools and informationprovided on their websites related to and on Web 2.0 platforms. The advantages of usingnetnography are that it provides insight on how the N.F.T. use them and how it is perceived bytheir supporters on S.M. platforms.By Web 2.0 platform, we consider: Internal: External: - Text - Facebook - Images - MySpace Users Generated Content: - Video - Twitter Social Networking Sites: - Wiki - Linkedin - Blogs - Google+ - Forums - Foursquare Feedback, Opinion, Discussion: - Ratings - Youtube Mumltimedia Sharing Sites: - Favourites - FlickR - Online Chat Podcast Sites: - iTunes - Web Application / Widgets - Trip Advisor Travel Blog & review Sites: Rich Internet Application: - Mapping / Mash-ups - Igougo - Podcast / Vodcast Virtual reality Sites: - Second Life - Social tagging Mapping Sites: - Google Earth Folksonomies: - Social Bookmarking - Mobile Applications: - Tag Cloud - Tablets - In Feeds: - Out Community: - Site Community External Links: - To others 2.0 sites.Hamill (2012) in his Sports Marketing’s article has used this model to compare the adoption andengagement of the Top 20 Football club in Europe. As a result, this model has been tasted andhas proven its effectiveness; the researcher decided to use it as well. Page | 34
  • 35. As a basis, he will use this model to compare the adoption and engagement of S.M. across thethree different N.F.T. studied in this project. At the end of the analysis, he will be able to draw alist of Web 2.0 application being used in football and in what context and what kind of content.4.3.2 Interviews:The next stage of the methodology is the collection of qualitative data. By the process of aphone interviews with an executive in charge of the S.M. accounts of the N.F.T. According toThompson (1997) in Kozinets’ (2002) articles, in comparison with netnography, those ones areusually less time consuming and easier and provide more insight on data. Meanwhile, the use ofthis technique is having some limits due to the lack of contextualization and obtrusiveness incontrast with ethnography.The researcher decided to use this technique because according to him, it is one of the only onethat could provide insight information on the S.M. strategy used by the N.F.T. At the end of thisanalysis, he is willing to compare the different S.M. strategies adopted by N.F.T and find outwhether or not they use different ways and channels to engage with their fans and the outcomeof their finding. The length of the interview was planned to be no longer than 45minutes.4.3.3 Online Questionnaire:Finally, in order to have a full understanding of “supporters’ behaviour” on S.M. sites, heintended to send out an online questionnaire designed for supporters of the N.F.T. studied.Indeed, since the burst of online communities, hundreds thousands of people discuss onlineabout their issues and interests (Wright, 2005). Therefore, these online virtual communities arefavourable of this new process of filling out questionnaire. Moreover proceeding through anonline questionnaire offers the possibility to reach people from different country easily and is ontop of that time and cost effective through their automated data collection. (Wright, 2005)As within the three countries studied, three different languages (French, English and Spanish,)are being spoken, in order to increase the number of response, the participant sheet, letter ofconsent and the questionnaire has been translated into these three languages.Before, the questionnaire had been sent out to collect final data; the researcher shared thequestionnaire to his relative to make sure there is no bug and to check the intelligibility of thequestions.4.4 Sampling:To determine the sampling, the researcher used the 6 Steps model set up by Wilson (2006).4.4.1 Step 1: Define the population of interestThe population of interest in this case is every supporter of N.F.T. studied following their teamson S.M. Page | 35
  • 36. 4.4.2 Step 2: Determine whether to sample or censusDue to the large scale, cost, time and effort that require a census, the researcher has decided tofocus on a sample.4.4.3 Step 3: Select the sampling frameThe researcher will frame his research on supporters found on forum, blog, Fan page on S.M.platforms. The questionnaire will also be distributed to relatives of the researchers. He will alsotry to get access to fan’s database of N.F.T.4.4.4 Step 4: Choose a sampling methodWilson (2006) differentiates two sampling methods: the probability and non-probabilitysampling. For the purpose of the project, the researcher has used the non-probability one byfocusing on the convenience sampling. It means that the researchers will approach the mostaccessible members of the population of interest because the researcher will look for any kindsof participants as long as they follow one of the N.F.T. studied.4.4.5 Step 5: Determine sample sizeRegarding the sample size, after discussion with the researchers, it has been decided that themore participants fill out the questionnaire, the merrier. However, it has been stated that 50feedbacks from each nation would be a representative number of fans behaviours.4.4.6 Step 6 Implement the sampling procedureOnce all the previous steps had been done, the survey had been implemented.Error within the answers was taken into consideration. Therefore, every survey that had beenfilled out but that did not match the requirement was automatically deleted.Regarding the interview, to avoid any error or misunderstanding during the analysis,conversations had been audio recorded via the use of a mobile application.4.5 Final Analysis:According to Hamill (2012), a business assesses its success on S.M. on the quality of thenetwork, on the strength of the relationship and finally on the ability to leverage. As a result,Hamill (2012) created a model to measure the S.M. performance of the firm called “the 6Isapproach”. The following point composed the model:  Involvement: By involvement he understood the interaction between network/ communities and the quality of the interaction, how many time and how often do they spend and finally their origin.  Interaction: By interaction here, he looked at the nature of the post. Did they read only, post videos, comments, reviews and recommends? Page | 36
  • 37.  Intimacy: Through the use of analytical tools, he analysed the affection people have towards their N.F.T.  Influence: In this situation, he studied whether or not supporters of N.F.T. tend to influence other fans to support their N.F.T.  Insight: He looked at the actionable insight by analysing the information and knowledge of supporters towards their N.F.T.  Impact: By looking at the impact, he looked at whether or not S.M. has a business impact.4.6 Recommendations:For the recommendations chapter, the researcher will use the “4C’s model” created by Hamill(2012). The 4C’s are described as follow:  Content: By content, he meant the type of content that will be posted on N.F.T. (Photos, Videos,)  Consumers: The notion of consumers signifies the target market and by which means it will be reached.  Conversations: By conversations, Hamill meant the different tools the researcher will advise the N.F.T. to use to engage with their fans.  Conversions: Conversion is the process of measuring the impact of S.M. The researcher will advise N.F.T. to focus on some analytical tools.4.7 Chapter Conclusion:To conclude, to collect the necessary data, the researcher used qualitative and quantitative datafrom primary and secondary source. First of all, he collected data from the website and the S.M.platforms used by N.F.T. by using the model set up by Hamill. Then he collected qualitativedata by interviewing executive in charge of the S.M. account in order to understand the strategyof the federation and finally, he collected quantitative data to understand the expectation ofsupporters. All those data were analysed to make recommendations. Page | 37
  • 38. 5 Analysis5.1 Chapter introduction:As it has been outlined in the methodology chapter, data collected, from the 3 different sources,of the 3 countries studied (France, Spain, Ireland), will be analysed and summarized with the6I’s model approach of Hamill. The first source was the netnography. Thanks to this, theresearcher wishes to find out which S.M. channel, N.F.T. are involved in and for which use.Across the interviews run with S.M. managers of N.F.T., the researcher analysed and comparedthe different S.M. strategies adopted by them and how do they engage with their fellowsupporters. Finally, the final source was to analyse the feedback of the questionnaire distributedto supporters of the respective N.F.T. studied. By doing so, the researcher wanted to study theS.M. behaviour of supporters and their expectations.5.2 General feedback on the questionnaire:Respondent of this survey were generally young as 95% of them were between 18 to 30 yearsold. This sample was composed mostly by man (77%).The origin of respondent were broad as people from America, Europe, Asia and Africa filled inthe survey. In total, 12 countries were concerned mostly from the countries studied (France,46%; Ireland: 21%).Finally, the percentage of National Team supported by participant is shared more or lessequitably between Ireland and Spain (25% and 23% respectively) with France leading with 51%of respondents. This gap between these countries is due to the highest number of respondent ofFrance among the other nations.Finally, almost every fan (97%) supports its N.F.T. by watching game on TV or Online. Then,they buy merchandising goods (41%) and attend games occasionally (44%). Lastly, in minorproportion they either attend game during continental or worldwide competition (10%) or everyhome game. Page | 38
  • 39. 5.3 General user behaviour on Social Media:Among the 39 respondents, the majority of them (97%) use Facebook as a main Web 2.0 accessthen comes YouTube for a different use (87%) and in a certain extent Google+ (44%), Twitter(49%) and LinkedIn (46%). Something that has to be noted is the mention of the new photosharing sites such as Pinterest and Instagram into this list of S.M. Platform. Regarding theadoption of S.M. application, it can be noticed that 90% of S.M. users adopted it at least 3 yearsago. Moreover, according to the finding, supporters of N.F.T. can be characterised as intenseactive users because 95% of them access S.M. sites at least once a day from their laptop/desktop(100%) and / or their smartphones / Tablet (69%).Furthermore, the main reason for using S.M. is to communicate with friends and family (95%)and for 82% of them to keep being updated on their friends’ life and product or service and asan entertaining way. Page | 39
  • 40. 5.4 Analysis of the French Football Team:5.4.1 Involvement:5.4.1.1 Profile of Supporters of the French Football Team on Social Media:70% of fans on official S.M. platforms are under 24 and are originally French and moreprecisely from Paris. Their main motivation for browsing on their channel is to look forexclusive content. However, those who interact with the team are commonly older that themajority of fans. FFF Internal External Text Facebook Y Images Myspace UGC Video Social Networking Twitter Wiki Sites Linkedin Blogs Google+ Y Forums Foursquare FOD Ratings Youtube Y Multimedia Sharing Favourites FlickR Sites Online Chat Others Y: Dailymotion Web Podcast Sites iTunes Application/Widgets RIA Mapping/Mash-ups Video & Photo Travel Blog & Review Trip Advisor Podcast/Vodcast Sites Igougo Social Tagging Yes Virtual Reality Sites Second Life Delicious/Digg/Tumblr/Blogu Folksonomies Social Bookmarking er Mapping Sites Google Earth Tag Cloud Mobile Y: from partners C10 Applications Content Feeds Tablet Feeds RSS Feeds RSS Feeds Result: 5 Community Social Network Overall Result 10 Yes: Facebook fan button on External Links To other Web 2.0 every article Result: 55.4.1.2 Use of Social Media:On Hamill’s model, the F.F.F. is scoring only 10. It locates the F.F.F. as a “ContinuousAdopter”5.4.1.2.1 External Adoption:The F.F.F. has an external presence on S.M. across Facebook, YouTube, Dailymotion, Google+and a Mobile App.The purpose of being active on S.M. was to create a page in which football supporters couldcome and share their feeling. The willing of the F.F.F. was to involve fan in the generation ofcontents.However their strategy has evolved over the time. The loyalty program which used to be runhad been stop and now it has adopted a broadcasting strategy in which they use S.M. more asfeed of information for supporters. Additionally, it has created an application to get informationon fans to create a C.R.M. database for commercial purpose. Page | 40
  • 41. The timeline of posts vary upon the news of the French Football Team in and off-peak period,the federation posts on average of 3 – 4 times a week. On a news period, it posts on average 3 –4 a day while on match days; it can go up to 10 times a day.During the Euro2012, it has decided to increase their presence on S.M. platform and the amountof content. As a result, the number of view on YouTube has doubled over that period and theFacebook page had its fans number growing by 55% (April: 450,000 fans; August: 700,000).The Google+ page, which has been created for this occasion, generated 10,000 friends. Thesingle policy the federation has is regarding the type of content fans could post. Indeed, in orderto follow a certain code, it deletes every non-ethical post. Regarding the YouTube page, it has600 subscribers and 400 on Dailymotion. This difference in number of views is due to theamount of campaign done for this channel.5.4.1.2.2 Internal Adoption:With a score of 5 on Hamill’s model, it cannot be said that the F.F.F. is adopting intensivelyS.M. internally. This is probably due to the willingness of N.F.T. to broadcast information andtherefore talk at supporters rather than with their supporters. (Hamill, 2011)It has adopted Rich Internet Application (R.I.A.), folksonomies, feeds and external Web2.0links are posted on its website.Regarding the R.I.A., the F.F.F. has adopted some mash-ups by embedding in its website somephotos and videos. It enables the Web users to watch the latest information and in a certainextent engages with the F.F.F.The folksonomies is a very rare used tool. It can be found on its websites through the use ofsocial bookmarking and social tagging. By this way, the federation in charge of the website ofthe N.F.T. enables its fans to flag its articles into its own blogs.The F.F.F. has embedded R.S.S. feeds as a Web2.0 application on its website. As a result fanscan read articles posted on the core website of the F.F.F. on another platform. This is generallyuses by N.F.T. willing to broadcast their articles to their fans. By this way, supporters can feelinvolved with their teams because not only they will always be updated thanks to this tool butthey will also access exclusive content sourced by the federation.Finally, to promote official external S.M. channel, the F.F.F. is present on, it has posted linksdirectly on its website. Moreover, this method enables supporters to get access to official andexclusive contents. Page | 41
  • 42. 5.4.2 Interactions:Generally, it decided to adopt S.M. and more specifically those channels in order to broadcastexclusive information to supporters without passing by journalists. As those channels were thetrended ones at the time of the adoption, the federation decided to set up an account and createan interface on them. The second reason for being present was to create a loyalty program forfans of the French Football Team. The objective was to recruit them by talking to and engagingwith them. Due to the tendency for general fans to support the French Team and not thefederation, it decided to create the page on the name of the team and not on the federation.On this channel, it usually posts photos, videos, exclusive content or create contest in order togenerate engagement between fans.According to the questionnaire, French Supporters clearly do not want to engage with the F.F.F.as 65% claims do not engaging with them. However for those who do, they can be considered asactive supporters as 67% of them engage at least every couple of days on almost every platform(Facebook, Twitter, G+, YouTube, Pinterest,). The opinion of supporters regarding theirengagement is quite divided because depending on the S.M. platform they use to interact with.For example Facebook users are satisfied of the content and the time the F.F.F. posts content onthis channel. Alternatively, YouTube users are very dissatisfied regarding the content and thetime.Their main reasons to engage are to discuss their feeling about the performance of the team andto understand what others fans feel about the team. However, it appears that French Supportersdo not attach much importance to game and competition the F.F.F. could organise as it comes asone of the least reasons of engagement. Generally, supporters of the F.F.F. use S.M. to feelmore connected to their fellow fans and their National Teams. By opposition, they think that itis in one way communication mode as according to them, the F.F.F. does not use S.M. to build astrong relationship with them. Finally regarding their privacy data, supporters are not willing toshare them with third parties and to get unsolicited request from N.F.T. Page | 42
  • 43. Finally, according to the questionnaire, supporters expect more insight information than theyuse to have and more engagement with their supporters. Supporters also suggested the F.F.F.could create a blog and forum in which supporter could take part. Finally, one outcome of usingS.M. suggested from supporters would be to use it as a weapon against general fight and racismin football.5.4.3 Intimacy:According to SocialMention, the general sentiment of the French Football Team is very positiveas 6 mentions out of 1 are positives. Another ratio that deserves to becommented is the 21% reach. It measures the range of the audience.Therefore, it means that 21% of posts have been reached by uniqueauthors. Therefore, the highest the ratio is, the merrier. However, it can beconsidered that 21% is a decent score.5.4.4 Influence:Following to the previous chart on SocialMention, the F.F.F. score 34% onpassion. It means that 1 person out of 3 who talk about the N.F.T. do itrepeatedly. As a result, this is a very decent score that could involve other supporters to followthe French Football Team on S.M. Following to the Facebook Insight data, it can be noticed that the French Football Team has been mentioned many time during the Euro2012. However, since the end of the competition, the amount of mention has been reduced. Page | 43
  • 44. 5.4.5 Insight:Along with the number of time this one has been visited by supporters (65% of respondentsvisited the website less than a month to never); the website of the French Football Team is not asource of information for supporters. However for the others 35%, result showed that theEuro2012 had an impact on the traffic on the website.About the presence of N.F.T. on S.M., the researcher concludes supporters are not wellinformed on the presence of official S.M. platforms because 60% of them mentioned that thefootball team has either no presence or they do not know. Nevertheless, for those following theF.F.F., the main channel appears as to be Facebook (42%) and Google+ (11%). The sameassessment can be done as 75% of supporters have no idea whether the Team is present on S.M.Channel. According to the sample of respondent, 44% of supporters are following the F.F.F. formore than a year, which result in the fact that the Euro2012 was not a reason for following theirpage.Following to the use of S.M. by the F.F.F., 45% of supporters consider that the current S.M. useof the F.F.F. is sufficient while 45% of supporters consider that the F.F.F. should make moreuse of S.M. By more use, supporters suggested that the team should adopt others platforms suchas Twitter, Instagram, Pinterest and Blogs.5.4.6 Impact:The F.F.F. measures its S.M. strategy through a various range of tools such as Google Analyticsfor YouTube, Agorapulse for Facebook. Moreover, it works in collaboration with two external Page | 44

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