Imran Raza Malik
Polyester
INTRODUCTION
Polyester fjxbxer, specifically po| y(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), is the l...
Imran Raza Malik
Polyesters are the polymers, in the form of fibers, that were used back in the seventies to
make all t...
Properties of polyester iber
Property
Shape
Lustre
Specific gravity
Tenacity:
Drv
Wet
Moisture content
Resiliency
Elect...
Imran Raza Malik
Imran Raza Malik
COLOR EFFECT ACHIEVED BY BLENDING:
Especial colors effects are achieved by dyeing ...
Imran Raza Malik
Blend and its Imgrtance
INTRDUCTION:
The term blending is very widely used in the textile industry and...
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Polyester for students

textile lecture
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Polyester for students

  • 1. Imran Raza Malik Polyester INTRODUCTION Polyester fjxbxer, specifically po| y(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), is the largest volume synthetic fiber produced worldwide. The total volume produced in 2002 was 21 million metric tons or 58% of synthetic fi_l: >e_r production worldwide. The reasons for the dominating success of PET fiber are: . Low cost - Convenient er9ce§sabi. |,i. .ty. . . Excellent and tailorable performance Polyester is defined by the international standard organization (ISO) as a polyester comprising synthetic linear macromolecules having in the chain at least 85% (by mass) of an ester of a £l. i9!, and §e! eph. .te. h.! i..9 acid- In 1953 g; l_upont(produced Dacron (polyester) In 1973 pg _ publication may refer to pg, ly§t§r as te/ rylegnegan ICI trademark. Imran Raza Malik Manufacturing of polyester _f_i_l; e__r_V Polyester is formed by the reaction of t_e_r_ep_htha_l_i_c_ acid and ethylene glycol. Condensation polymerization takes place during the reaction in high temperature. Polymerised material is chopped into small chips. The chips are dried to remove any residual moisture and are then put into hopper ready for melting. The melted polymer is extrutegd from the spinneret by pressure and solidify by exposing the extrut_ed, materia| by cool air (melt spinning). C‘lH’-utnf. D: u EYH» L. YE . '« Fin? N; -LAY E Yzfgrntks} 1 . -_>_-? ‘ 11-; :»= Avv*4 vama CMIA-V Tn-LY ; ,‘_, ‘,_. CuY MAC); :: £ vniw
  • 2. Imran Raza Malik Polyesters are the polymers, in the form of fibers, that were used back in the seventies to make all that wonderful disco clothing. But since then, the nations of the world have striven to develop more tasteful uses for polyesters, like those nifty shatterproof plastic bottles that hold your favorite refreshing beverages. So you see, polyesters can be both plastics and fibers. Uses 0 I ester As a f_i_b_e_| ; polyester is used in a wide range of wearing apgearal, home furnishing either alone or in blends. The exceptional resilience of polyester makes it specially suitable for use in easy care fabrics. Blends of polyester with other fibers are made to take advantage of durability and easy maintainance. Wool and polyester blends have a wool like feel and appearance. A large volume of polyester and polyester blend fabrics is used in curtains, sheets and pillowcase for home furnishing market. Frequently, spun yarns blended with cotton or rayon are seen. Many of the woven fabrics are blends made into durable—press fabrics. These blended fabrics are attractive, durable, comfortable (except in very hot and humid conditions), retain their appearance well, and are easy care. Their excellent performance has resulted in their widespread used and continued popularity. Woven fabric are sheets, blankets, bedspreads, curtains, mattress , table cloth. Imran Raza Malik Another important use of polyester is in knitted fabrics. Polyester as well as polyester/ cotton blend yarn are used. Knit fabrics of polyester wear well, are comfortable, retain their appearance well. Nonwoven or fiberweb fabrics are next important use of polyester. They are used where the durability of rayon is inadequate and where absorbency is not needed. Nonwoven polyester is used in medical applications including nonabsorbent bandages. Others fiben/ veb products include base fabrics for coatings and laminates. Tire cord is an important use of polyester. Polyester tires do not "flat spot" as nylon tires do. A small percentage of carpets that are produced are polyester; they have a softer hand than most nylon carpets. Polyester is chosen for many other consumer and industrial uses: pile fabrics, tents, ropes, cording, fishing line, sails, seat belts, filters, fabrics used in road building, seed and fertilizer bags, sewing threads, and artificial arteries, veins, and hearts. Research continues to increase industrial applications.
  • 3. Properties of polyester iber Property Shape Lustre Specific gravity Tenacity: Drv Wet Moisture content Resiliency Electric Recovery Dimensional Stability Resistance against: fungus Insects Acid Alkali Heat Imran Raza Malik polyester controllable controllable 1.38 g/ cm3 4.0-7.0 g/ d 4.0-7.0 g/ d 0.3 - 0.4 % Excellent Medium Excellent excellent excellent good harmed by strong alkali Will melt at temperature from 260°C Imran Raza Malik I l". nn <1 hm hm mnl: -~»I Ylml’ bl‘ (- liar‘ ’ V. , . I _ I‘. ._ _'. ( , __x _, -. . ‘> i .451 . " -‘. _. ‘. 0 l . ' m. _1l. <rI. a ‘ ‘ . Ll . m' 1 V [. ,,, ,u in l'irrrilil‘~r
  • 4. Imran Raza Malik Imran Raza Malik COLOR EFFECT ACHIEVED BY BLENDING: Especial colors effects are achieved by dyeing a blend of two different fibers, which are defined below: SOLID SHADE: Both fibers are dyed to the same depth, hue and brightness. This effect is most frequent for reasons of durability and economy. RESERVE: Only one of the component fibers is dyed and the other kept as white as possible. The main difficulty in getting good reserve is crossed staining that is prevalent in blends of natural fibers especially wool in synthetic fibers. CONTRAST (CROSSED DYE OR TWO COLORS EFFECT): The individual fibers are dyed in different or contrasting shade. Usually depth and brightness on both the components fibers is kept the same. However these cannot be satisfactorily dyed if the blend components resemble one and other too closely in dyeing properties.
  • 5. Imran Raza Malik Blend and its Imgrtance INTRDUCTION: The term blending is very widely used in the textile industry and this word may have different significance in different disciplines, like spinning, weaving and dyeing of the industry. For a spinner, blending may mean converting of two or more kinds of staple fibers into a uniform yarn. The blend fibers may be of natural origin like wool and cotton or natural and man-made like polyester and cotton or the both may be man-made like polyester and viscose/ acrylic. For the spinner the blend fibers must have compatible properties for staple lengths to have good yarn spinning characteristics. PURPOSE OF BLENING DIFFERENT FIBERS: Several inter related factors are responsible for the rapid acceptance of the blends and for their replacement of homogenous textile material. Major reasons for the popularity of blends and union may be summarized as under: / ECONOMY: Expensive fibers like silk and wool are partially substituted with cheaper fibers like cotton and viscose. / DURABILITY: Blending mechanically weak fibers like wool, cotton and viscose with polyester and nylon fibers the have high tenacity and good abrasion resistance, prolongs useful life of the composite material. Imran Raza Malik / IMPROVEMENT OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES: Blending of fibers of different characteristics contributes to a relatively more desirable performance than that of either of the individual fibers. Blending of natural fibers with synthetic fibers offers valuable possibilities for combining desirable physical properties of the two dis similar components. For example; on blending polyester with cotton or wool, the synthetic components provide crease recovery, dimensional stability, tensile strength and abrasion resistance, whilst the natural fibers contributes moistures absorption, antistatic property and pleasant handle. The above mentioned advantages have made the blend and union fabrics very attractive commercially and their share in the word textile production is growing rapidly at the expense of the mono fibers materials. This is especially noticeable in blends of synthetic fibers with natural fibers.