CASE STUDY : AUSTRALIA08/01/2011 1
6 States and 2Territories• Population22,684,306.million(July 2012)• Aboriginal & TorresStrait Islander: 2.5%• Half the are...
 Age structure0-14 years: 18.3%15-64 years: 67.7%65 years and over: 14% (2011 est.)Median agetotal: 37.7 yearsmale: 37 ...
 Infant mortality ratetotal: 4.61 deaths/1,000 live birthsmale: 4.93 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 4.27 deaths/1,000 l...
Australia’s population in a nutshell ! Population of Australia -22.6 million( 2012)  Australian Baby Boomers ( born 19...
Australia’s Population Issues  Distribution  Numbers of People  Age Structure – Ageing08/01/2011 ...
08/01/2011 7
Fertility Rates within Australia 1921 to 2051: Source: ABS Cat No 3301.008/01/2011 ...
Australia: Expectation of Life at Birth, 1870-2004 Source: Hugo 1986 and ABS Deaths Bulletins ...
From Pyramid to Coffin Changing Age Structure of the Australian Population, 1925-2045 Source: Productivity Commission ...
ABS Population Projections08/01/2011 11
Impacts ? By 2015 serious labour shortages could exist Some have already appeared in varied industries ( medicine, engi...
Planning Implications: The National Level08/01/2011 13
Population Policies  The objective of population policy should be to facilitate sustainability – environmental,...
Australia’s Population Policy Should Aim at Working Towards:  Achieving a stable population with a balance b...
Increased Government and Societal Focus on Ageing  2001 National Strategy for an Ageing Australia  2002 ...
08/01/2011 17
Pensions:Currently, Australians can access the Age Pension at age 65 (for men)and from 64.5 years (for women, although the...
Solution: Immigration ?08/01/2011 19
Immigration cont…08/01/2011 20
Number 0 75,000 150,000 ...
Populate or Perish…  24% of Aust. Population is overseas-born  Immigration waves:  1788 - convicts  1850...
Australian Paranoia Source: Powell 198408/01/2011 23
08/01/2011 24
National Policies/strategies  Immigration policy  Levels set every year based on economic and political cl...
08/01/2011 26
Maternity? Leave cont…  From 2011 (Paid Parental Leave) = parents eligible to receive $570 a week for 18 weeks in p...
How effective ?  Australia’s population is still ageing( median age 35.7 in 2000 increasing to 46 by 2051.)  Hal...
Total fertility rate, Australia, 2000-200608/01/2011 29
08/01/2011 30
Effectiveness of SkilledMigration ?  choose age ( working and child bearing population) - short and log term re...
State governments work with Fed. govt ( DIMIA) to determine level of migration to their state)08/01/2011 ...
The South Australian Demographic Situation Australia and South Australia: Rate of Population Growth per ...
 Slowest growing state (0.6 percent p.a. compared with 1.2 in Australia as a whole.  Oldest (15.22 per...
South Australia Compared to Australia as a Whole  Fertility is lower  Mortality is lower  There is a net ...
South Australia’s Share of the Migration Intake, 1947 to 2005 Source: DIMIA Australian Immigration: Consolidated Sta...
Australia and South Australia: Age and Sex Distribution of the Population, 200108/01/2011 ...
08/01/2011 38
The South Australian Population Policy •Work toward a stable age structure of 2 million in 2051. Thereafter...
Means to Achieving Targets • Halving net interstate migration loss • Increasing net international migration inta...
International Migration • Increase South Australia’s share of the intake • Active lobbying and negotia...
SA Interstate Migration Policy • Goal for zero net migration by 2008 • Inevitable loss of young adults due to ...
South Australia Share of Australia’s Migrant Intake by Visa Class 2001-02 and 2001-02 2004-...
South Australia: Overseas Student Enrolments, 1994 to 2005 Source: Australian Education International ...
and yet another scale... =Regional MigrationThe Goulburn Murray Skilled Migrationprogram runs as a joint initiative betwee...
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Population in australia

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Education      
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Transcripts - Population in australia

  • 1. CASE STUDY : AUSTRALIA08/01/2011 1
  • 2. 6 States and 2Territories• Population22,684,306.million(July 2012)• Aboriginal & TorresStrait Islander: 2.5%• Half the area of thecontinent contains only0.3% of the population,and the most denselypopulated 1% of thecontinent contains 84%of the population
  • 3.  Age structure0-14 years: 18.3%15-64 years: 67.7%65 years and over: 14% (2011 est.)Median agetotal: 37.7 yearsmale: 37 yearsfemale: 38.4 years (2011 est.)Population growth rate1.148% (2011 est.)Birth rate12.33 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)Death rate6.88 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)Net migration rate6.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)Urbanizationurban population: 89% of total population (2010) 08/01/2011 3
  • 4.  Infant mortality ratetotal: 4.61 deaths/1,000 live birthsmale: 4.93 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 4.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 81.81 yearsmale: 79.4 yearsfemale: 84.35 years (2011 est.)Total fertility rate1.78 children born/woman (2011 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.1% (2009 est.)HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS20,000 (2009 est.) 08/01/2011 4
  • 5. Australia’s population in a nutshell ! Population of Australia -22.6 million( 2012)  Australian Baby Boomers ( born 1946 - 65) are retiring  Numbers of young people joining the workforce are declining  Australia’s fertility rate is below replacement levels  Unevenly distributed08/01/2011 5
  • 6. Australia’s Population Issues  Distribution  Numbers of People  Age Structure – Ageing08/01/2011 6
  • 7. 08/01/2011 7
  • 8. Fertility Rates within Australia 1921 to 2051: Source: ABS Cat No 3301.008/01/2011 8
  • 9. Australia: Expectation of Life at Birth, 1870-2004 Source: Hugo 1986 and ABS Deaths Bulletins Expectation of Life at Birth Males Females 1947 66.1 70.6 2004 78.1 83.008/01/2011 9
  • 10. From Pyramid to Coffin Changing Age Structure of the Australian Population, 1925-2045 Source: Productivity Commission 200508/01/2011 10
  • 11. ABS Population Projections08/01/2011 11
  • 12. Impacts ? By 2015 serious labour shortages could exist Some have already appeared in varied industries ( medicine, engineering) TAS, SA, NSW and VIC will be first to feel impact WA and QLD will be affected slightly laterThis will result in – Reduced labour supply Reduced skills availability Potential negative impact on ability to produce goods or services in Australia = reduced economy08/01/2011 12
  • 13. Planning Implications: The National Level08/01/2011 13
  • 14. Population Policies  The objective of population policy should be to facilitate sustainability – environmental, economic and social.  Population is too important an influence on economy, society and environment to not be included in government policy.08/01/2011 14
  • 15. Australia’s Population Policy Should Aim at Working Towards:  Achieving a stable population with a balance between working and non-working age groups.  Enhancing the productivity of the population.  Achieving a spatial distribution of the population which is compatible with long-term sustainability, economic efficiency and social wellbeing.08/01/2011 15
  • 16. Increased Government and Societal Focus on Ageing  2001 National Strategy for an Ageing Australia  2002 Intergenerational Report  2005 Productivity Commission Report08/01/2011 16
  • 17. 08/01/2011 17
  • 18. Pensions:Currently, Australians can access the Age Pension at age 65 (for men)and from 64.5 years (for women, although the Age Pension age ismoving to 65 for women from 2014).....but set to increase to 67 years ofage from 2023. Superannuation: Became compulsory in 1992 - your employer has to pay 9% super contributions for you ...minimum obligation required by employers is set to increase to 12% gradually stepping annually from 2013 to 2020 Private Health Insurance encouraged: - medicare levy surcharge ( 1.5 % of taxable income) + another 1 % of your income 08/01/2011 18
  • 19. Solution: Immigration ?08/01/2011 19
  • 20. Immigration cont…08/01/2011 20
  • 21. Number 0 75,000 150,000 225,000 300,000 194708/01/2011 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1947 to 2005 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 Net Migration 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 Year 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 Natural Increase 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Australia: Total Population Growth Showing the21 2004 2005 Natural Increase and Net Migration Components,
  • 22. Populate or Perish…  24% of Aust. Population is overseas-born  Immigration waves:  1788 - convicts  1850’s Gold Rush _____________________________________  1901 = Federation = White Australia Policy  WW2 = immigration from Europe to help development  1970’s= abolishment of White Australia Policy08/01/2011 22
  • 23. Australian Paranoia Source: Powell 198408/01/2011 23
  • 24. 08/01/2011 24
  • 25. National Policies/strategies  Immigration policy  Levels set every year based on economic and political climate( 2011-12 = 185,000) ____________________________________  Baby Bonus( introduced in 2004)  Initially $3000 one off payment , now $ 5100 in installments  Maternity leave  in 2004, only 41 per cent of women and 31 per cent of men had access to paid maternity or paternity leave in their job08/01/2011 25
  • 26. 08/01/2011 26
  • 27. Maternity? Leave cont…  From 2011 (Paid Parental Leave) = parents eligible to receive $570 a week for 18 weeks in parental leave after the birth or adoption of a child.  Expectant mums must earn no more than $150,000 a year to qualify and work at least 330 hours in 10 of the 13 months before their due date.  Families will have the option of signing the benefit over to stay-at-home dads if mothers want to return to work.  The parental leave will not affect workplace maternity leave, but families who recieve the governments paid leave will not be eligible for the Baby Bonus payment.08/01/2011 27
  • 28. How effective ?  Australia’s population is still ageing( median age 35.7 in 2000 increasing to 46 by 2051.)  Half our growth comes from immigration  Fertlitiy levels still decreasing ?  more births on July 1, 2004, than on any other day in the past 30 years but...08/01/2011 28
  • 29. Total fertility rate, Australia, 2000-200608/01/2011 29
  • 30. 08/01/2011 30
  • 31. Effectiveness of SkilledMigration ?  choose age ( working and child bearing population) - short and log term response !  choose skill  choose number  choose where - distribution away from Metropolitan areas 08/01/2011 31
  • 32. State governments work with Fed. govt ( DIMIA) to determine level of migration to their state)08/01/2011 32
  • 33. The South Australian Demographic Situation Australia and South Australia: Rate of Population Growth per Annum, 1947 to 2004 Source: ABS 1983 and ABS Australian Demographic Statistics, various issues 4.00 3.00 ---- Australia ___ SAPercent 2.00 1.00 0 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 200408/01/2011 are for Calendar Years Note: Data 33 Year
  • 34.  Slowest growing state (0.6 percent p.a. compared with 1.2 in Australia as a whole.  Oldest (15.22 percent aged 65+ compared with 13.12)08/01/2011 34
  • 35. South Australia Compared to Australia as a Whole  Fertility is lower  Mortality is lower  There is a net interstate migration loss  The state receives 5.9 percent of the national net immigration intake08/01/2011 35
  • 36. South Australia’s Share of the Migration Intake, 1947 to 2005 Source: DIMIA Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics and Immigration Update, various issues 20.0000 15.0000 Percentage 10.0000 5.0000 0 1964 1966 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 200408/01/2011 Year 36
  • 37. Australia and South Australia: Age and Sex Distribution of the Population, 200108/01/2011 37
  • 38. 08/01/2011 38
  • 39. The South Australian Population Policy •Work toward a stable age structure of 2 million in 2051. Thereafter remains stable with a reasonable balance between working and non- working population.08/01/2011 39
  • 40. Means to Achieving Targets • Halving net interstate migration loss • Increasing net international migration intake to representative share of national intake • Stabilising fertility08/01/2011 40
  • 41. International Migration • Increase South Australia’s share of the intake • Active lobbying and negotiation with DIMA • Shift in immigration issues toward sub- national jurisdictions • Immigration SA established08/01/2011 41
  • 42. SA Interstate Migration Policy • Goal for zero net migration by 2008 • Inevitable loss of young adults due to peripheral position of SA in global and national economy • Key is in bringing in replacements • - Students • - Family formation groups • Encouragement of return08/01/2011 42
  • 43. South Australia Share of Australia’s Migrant Intake by Visa Class 2001-02 and 2001-02 2004-05 Visa Class No. % No. % Family 994 4.3 1,339 4.0 Skilled 1,139 3.8 2,871 5.9 Business 118 1.8 449 9.3 Humanitarian 558 8.3 1,196 9.0 Total 2,809 4.2 5,855 5.908/01/2011 43
  • 44. South Australia: Overseas Student Enrolments, 1994 to 2005 Source: Australian Education International 20,000 15,000 Number 10,000 5,000 0 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Year08/01/2011 44
  • 45. and yet another scale... =Regional MigrationThe Goulburn Murray Skilled Migrationprogram runs as a joint initiative between theGreater Shepparton, Moira and Campaspecouncils under the State Government’sRegional Skilled Migration Program.The program aims to fulfill skill shortages inthe region that cannot be satisfied by theexisting workforce, which will in turn allowlocal business to expand and develop.08/01/2011 45