It is about National Festivals of Sri Lanka, Spain and Egypt by the students of Motilal Nehru Public School, India
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - National festivals
ISA Plan 2014-15
• Here are some important festivals of
Bullfights: the magic of Spain's
Listen. Can you hear the sound of
trumpets and drums? This can only
mean one thing: you are about to
witness one of Spain's most important
traditions: a bullfight. These
instruments are the traditional
precursors to a unique spectacle in
which a man takes his life in his hands
before wild animals weighing more
than 500 kilos. Come and experience
the excitement of our "national fiesta".
The fun and excitement of bullfights
Going to a bullfight is a very intense experience. If you come to Spain you will see
that bullfighters have no fear before these animals, armed only with a red cape
(called "capote" in Spanish) and a sword. If you come, you will have the chance to
witness this display of courage during the bullfighting season each year. This is
something not to be missed.
To discover Spain is to discover "bullfighting culture" - nearly all its cities have a
bullring. Some bullrings are classified in the top category, on account of their
tradition and the frequency of bullfights held, such as Las Ventas in Madrid, La
Maestranza in Seville and La Monumental in Barcelona. You will enjoy a real
festive atmosphere, and if the fight has been good, you will see the bullfighter give a
lap of the ring on the shoulders of his colleagues, exiting through "the main door" to
mark his triumph. Don't forget to take a white handkerchief - to be waved
enthusiastically if you enjoy the fight.
An unbeatable array of bullfights, music, tradition, gastronomy… Fun is guaranteed.
• At Barcelona's Bullfighting Museum there is an exhibition with famous
bulls' heads. A little more? In Valencia, the Bullfighting Museum has an
audio-visual room. You can also visit the ring itself, and see exhibitions
such as one focusing on artist Francisco de Goya's depiction of bulls.
There is also an exhibition of bullfighting posters at the Vista Alegre
Bullring in Bilbao.
• In Andalusia, where bullfighting is more than just a tradition, you will
love the bullrings and museums. Two examples are the Museum at
Seville's Royal Bullring, where you can discover the evolution of this
spectacle, and the amazing photographs on display at the Malagueta
Bullring in Malaga. El Puerto de Santa María also has a beautiful
bullring, as does Ronda, one of the oldest in Spain, with an extensive
La Tomatina is a festival that is
held in the Valencian town of
Buñol, a town located 30 km
from the Mediterranean, in
which participants throw
tomatoes and get involved in
this tomato fight purely for fun.
It is held on the last Wednesday
of August, during the week of
festivities of Buñol.
La Tomatina was started the last Wednesday of August in 1945 when some young
people spent the time in the town square to attend the Giants and Big-Heads figures
parade. The young boys decided to have a place among the retinue of a parade with
musician, Giants and Big-Heads figures.
The energy of these young people made that one participant fell off. The participant
flew into a fit of rage, started to hit everything in his path. There was a market stall
of vegetable that fell victim of the furious crowd: people started to pelt each other
with tomatoes until the local forces ended that vegetable battle.
Another important landmark in the history of this festival is the year 1975. From this
year onwards, "Los Clavarios de San Luis Bertrán" (San Luis Bertrán is the patron
of the town of Buñol) organised the whole festival and brought in tomatoes which had
previously been brought by the local people. Soon after this, in 1980, the town hall
took the responsibility of organizing the festival.
Since then, the number of participants increased year after year as well as the
excitement about La Tomatina Festival. In 2002, La Tomatina of Buñol was declared
Festivity of International Tourist Interest by the Secretary Department of Tourism
due to its success.
How is it celebrated?
At around 10 a.m., festivities begin with the first event of the Tomatina. It is
the "palo jabón", similar to the greasy pole. The goal is to climb a greased
pole with a piece of meat on top. As this happens, the crowd works into a
frenzy of singing and dancing and gets showered in water from hoses. Once
someone is able to drop the piece of meat off the pole, the start signal for the
tomato fight is given by firing the water shot in the air and trucks make their
entry. The signal for the onset is at about 11 when a loud shot rings out, and
the chaos begins.Several trucks throw tomatoes in abundance in the Plaza
del Pueblo. The tomatoes come from Extremadura, where they are less
expensive and are grown specifically for the holidays, being of inferior taste.
For the participants the use of goggles and gloves are recommended. The
tomatoes must be crushed before being thrown so as to reduce the risk of
injury. The estimated number of tomatoes used is around 150,000 or over 40
metric tons.After exactly one hour the fight ends with the firing of the second
shot, announcing the end. The whole town square is colored red and rivers of
tomato juice flow freely. Fire trucks hose down the streets and participants
use hoses that locals provide to remove the tomato paste from their bodies.
Some participants go to the pool of “los peñones” to wash. After the
cleaning, the village cobblestone streets are pristine due to the acidity of the
tomato disinfecting and thoroughly cleaning the surfaces
The city council follows a short list of instructions for the
safety of the participants and the festival:
1. The tomatoes have to be squashed before throwing to
2. No other projectiles except tomatoes are allowed.
3. Participants have to give way to the truck and lorries.
4. After the second shot indicative of ending the tomato
hurl, no tomatoes should be thrown.
RULES OF THE FESTIVAL
Here are some important festivals of Spain.
Eid al-Adha: "Feast of the Sacrifice"
Eid al-Adha also called the Feast of the Sacrifice,
the "Major Festival",the "Greater Eid", Baqr'Eid
,or Tabaski (West Africa), is the second of two
religious holidays celebrated by Muslims
worldwide each year.In the lunar-based Islamic
calendar, Eid al-Adha falls on the 10th day of Dhu
al-Hijjah and lasts for three days.In the
international (Gregorian) calendar, the dates vary
from year to year, drifting approximately 11 days
earlier each year.
Eid al-Adha is the latter of the two Eid holidays,
the former being Eid al-Fitr. The basis for the
observance comes from the 196th ayah (verse) of
Al-Baqara, the second sura of the Quran.The
word "Eid" appears once in Al-Ma'ida, the fifth
sura of the Quran, with the meaning "solemn
When Ishmael was about 13 (Abraham being 99), God decided to test their faith in public. Abraham
had a recurring dream, in which God was commanding him to offer up for sacrifice – an
unimaginable act – his son, whom God had granted him after many years of deep prayer. Abraham
knew that the dreams of the prophets were divinely inspired, and one of the ways in which God
communicated with his prophets. When the intent of the dreams became clear to him, Abraham
decided to fulfill God's command and offer Ishmael for sacrifice.
Although Abraham was ready to sacrifice his dearest for God's sake, he could not just bring his son
to the place of sacrifice without his consent. Ishmael had to be consulted as to whether he was
willing to give up his life in fulfillment of God's command. This consultation would be a major test of
Ishmael's maturity in faith; love and commitment for God; willingness to obey his father; and
readiness to sacrifice his own life for the sake of God.
Abraham presented the matter to his son and asked for his opinion about the dreams of slaughtering
him. Ishmael did not show any hesitation or reservation even for a moment. He said, "Father, do
what you have been commanded. You will find me, Insha'Allah (God willing), to be very patient." His
mature response, his deep insight into the nature of his father’s dreams, his commitment to God, and
ultimately his willingness to sacrifice his own life for the sake of God were all unprecedented.
When Abraham attempted to cut Ishmael's throat, he was astonished to see that Ishmael was
unharmed and instead, he found a dead ram which was slaughtered. Abraham had passed the test by
his willingness to carry out God's command.
What is the story behind it?
Eid al-Adha begins with a Sunnah prayer of two rakats followed
by a sermon (khutbah). Eid al-Adha celebrations start after the
descent of the Hujjaj, the pilgrims performing the Hajj, from
Mount Arafat, a hill east of Mecca. Eid sacrifice may take place
until sunset on the 13th day of Dhu al-Hijjah.The days of Eid
have been singled out in the Hadith as "days of remembrance".
The takbir (days) of Tashriq are from the Fajr prayer of the 9th
of Dhu al-Hijjah up to the Asr prayer of the 13th of Dhu al-
Hijjah (5 days and 4 nights). This equals 23 prayers: 5 on the
9th–12th, which equals 20, and 3 on the 13th.
Eid al-Fitr, also called
Feast of Breaking the Fast,
the Sugar Feast, Bayram
(Bajram), the Sweet
Festival and the Lesser Eid,
is an important religious
holiday celebrated by
Muslims worldwide that
marks the end of Ramadan,
the Islamic holy month of
EID AL-FITR :
FEAST OF BREAKING THE FAST
Before the advent of Islam in Arabia, there is mention of festivals as well as some others among the Arabs.
The Israelites had festivals as well, but as is evident from the Old Testament and other scriptures, these
festivals related more to commemorating certain days of their history.
Eid al-Fitr was originated by the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It is observed on the first of the month of
Shawwal at the end of the month of Ramadan, during which Muslims undergo a period of fasting.According
to certain traditions, these festivals were initiated in Madinah after the migration of Muhammad from
Mecca. Anas reports:
When the Prophet arrived in Madinah, he found people celebrating two specific days in which they used to
entertain themselves with recreation and merriment. He asked them about the nature of these festivities at
which they replied that these days were occasions of fun and recreation. At this, the Prophet remarked that
the Almighty has fixed two days [of festivity] instead of these for you which are better than these: Eid al-Fitr
and Eid al-Adha For Muslims, both the festivals of Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha are occasions for showing
gratitude to God and remembering Him, and are an occasion of entertainment. ‘Aishah narrates that when
on an Eid day her father Abu Bakr stopped young girls from singing, Muhammad said: Abu Bakr! [Let them
sing]; every nation has an ‘id and [this day] is our Eid.
How it came into
How is itcelebrated?
• Eid al-Fitr has a particular Salat (Islamic prayer) consisting of two Rakats
(units) and generally offered in an open field or large hall.It may be
performed only in congregation (Jama’at) and, has an additional extra six
Takbirs (raising of the hands to the ears while saying "Allāhu Akbar",
literally "God is greatest"), three of them in the beginning of the first raka'ah
and three of them just before Ruku' in the second raka'ah in the Hanafi school
of Sunni Islam.Other Sunni schools usually have twelve Takbirs, seven in the
first, and five at the beginning of the second raka'ah. This Eid al-Fitr salat is,
depending on which juristic opinion is followed, Fard (obligatory),
Mustahabb (strongly recommended, just short of obligatory) or mandoob
• The following list contains some general rituals:
• To show happiness
• To give as much charity as is possible
• To pray Fajr in the local Masjid
• To go early for Eid salaat
• To read the takbirat in an open field.
• Go to the Eid prayer on foot
• Do not speak one word other than words that remember Allah or anything Islamic terms before and after Eid
Salaat. You can speak once you've left the Masjid, or Mosque or any other place you were praying
• Say Eid Mubarak to other Muslims
• Muslims recite the following incantation in a low voice while going to the Eid prayer: Allāhu Akbar, Allāhu
Akbar, Allāhu Akbar. Lā ilāha illà l-Lāh wal-Lāhu akbar, Allahu akbar walil-Lāhi l-ḥamd. Recitation
ceases when they get to the place of Eid or once the Imam commences activities. Muslims are recommended to
use separate routes to and from the prayer grounds.Women are encouraged to join Salat of Eid
• Eid al-Fitr mass prayer in Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta, Indonesia
• No fasting on Eid al-Fitr
• There is no Adhan and/or Iqamah for Eid prayer
Islamic New Year
The Hijri New Year, also known
as Islamic New Year is the day
that marks the beginning of a new
Islamic calendar year, and is the
day on which the year count is
incremented. The first day of the
year is observed on the first day
of Muharram, the first month in
the Islamic calendar. The first
Islamic year beginning in 622 AD
during which the emigration of
Muhammad from Mecca to
Medina, known as the Hijra.
When it is celebrated?
• While some Islamic organizations prefer determining the
new month (and hence the new year) by local sightings of
the moon, most Islamic institutions and countries,
including Saudi Arabia,follow astronomical calculations
to determine future dates of the Islamic calendar.
• There are various schema for calculating the tabular
Islamic calendar (i.e. not based on observation), which
results in differences of typically one or even two days
between countries using such schema and those that use
lunar sightings. For example, The Umm al-Qura
Calendar used in Saudi Arabia was reformed several
times in recent years. The current scheme has been
introduced in AH 1423 (15 March 2002).
Sri Lanka festivals
Here are some important festivals of Spain.
Esala Perahera (the procession of Esala) is
the grand festival with elegant costumes held
in July and August in Kandy, Sri Lanka. This
historical procession (perahera) is held
annually to pay homage to the Sacred Tooth
Relic of Lord Buddha, which is housed at the
Sri Dalada Maligawa in Kandy. A unique
symbol of Sri Lanka, the procession consists of
many traditional local dances such as fire-
dances, whip-dances, Kandyan dances and
various other cultural dances, in addition to
the elephants who are usually adorned with
lavish garments. The festival ends with the
traditional diya-kepeema ritual, a water
cutting ceremony which is held at the
Mahaweli River at Getambe, Kandy.
• The Kandy Esala Perahera begins with
the Kap Situveema or Kappa, in which a
sanctified young Jackfruit tree is cut and
planted in the premises of each of the
four Devales dedicated to the four
guardian gods Natha, Vishnu,
Katharagama and the goddess Pattini.
Traditionally it was meant to shower
blessing on the King and the people.
ORGANIZATION OF THE PERAHERA
• The rituals connected with the Tooth Relic are conducted by Monks of the Malwatte
Chapter|Malwatte and Asgiriya Chapters of the Buddhist clergy in Sri Lanka. It is the
duty of the Diyawadana Nilame to organize the Perahera and thus he summons the
large number of officials of the Temple of the Tooth and entrusts them with various
ceremonial duties connected with the conducting of the Perahera. He first gets the
auspicious time from the Nekath Mohottala, the advisor on astrological matters. The
task of organising the different types of drummers is handed over to the four officials
known as the Panikka Mura Baarakaruwo.
• The Maligawa officials also meet the owners of the elephants due to take part in the
Perahera (most elephants are privately owned). The dance troupes are given time to
prepare. The Basnayake Nilames (the lay custodians of the Devales) are then told to
organise their processions.