“Towards more sustainable heating system in the
City of Niš, Serbia"
Bojan Gajić
Marija Živković
The goal of "participatory
backcasting 'project in Nis
was to develop a long-term
strategy aimed to ensure
the thermal com...
Why the city needs long-term planning
of energy consumption?
• energy insecurity (import
dependency)
• negative impact on ...
Stakeholders
involved City Council of Nis
Division for Sustainability of the Department for
Commerce, Sustainable Developm...
Workshop #3
20. February 2015.
Workshop #2
27. June 2015.
Workshop #1
4. April 2014.
Final Report
May 2015.
Interviews
Mar...
Without fossil fuels in the
district heating system 2030
//Getenburg
Without using oil for heating
dervivata to 2030//Dans...
Criteria 4
Comfort
Criteria 1
Reliability and
availability
Reliabilityandavailability
Subcriteria Assessment Value in 2014 General target
Rel...
Criteria 2
Affordability
Affordability
Subcriteria Assessment Value in 2014
General
targetEnergy sources Wood Electricit
y...
Criteria 3
Environmentally
acceptable
Environmentallyacceptable
Subcriteria Assessment Value in 2014 General target
Relati...
Comfort
Subcriteria
Assesment Value in 2014 General
target
Thermal comfort
Survey 80% To improve
the level of
comfort
Safe...
Energyefficiency
Subcriteria Assesment
Value in
2014
General target
Efficiency of production
and distribution
Production e...
S1. “Advanced
nature-based”
S2. “Advanced
renewable-based”
S3. “DH expansion +
building efficiency”
S4. “DH expansion
base...
Urban energy system modelling in the
PB project in Nis
S1. “Advanced nature-
based”
• Improving the energy
efficiency of existing buildings
to C class
• Class B for new faciliti...
S2. “Napredni – zasnovan na
obnovljivim izvorima”
• Improving the energy efficiency of
existing buildings to C class
• Cla...
S3. “DH expansion + building
efficiency”
• Improving the energy efficiency of existing
buildings to C class
• Class B for ...
S4. “DH expansion based on
renewables”
• Minor improvement of energy
efficiency of existing buildings to
D class
• The exp...
S5. “Fokus na primeni zelene
arhitekrure i individualnim
rešenjima za grejanje”
• Improving the energy efficiency of
exist...
Izabrani scenario
Efficiency for green future
Selected
scenario
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
Wood
Heavy oil
Natural gas
Heat
Geothermal
Electricity
Subbitumenous
c...
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
C02 emissions, by source
Emission related to electricty generation used for heat pumps
Emission r...
Comparison of developed scenarios by fuels used in 2030
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
BAU scenario
Scenario 1...
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
BAU scenario Scenario 1
Scenario 2 Scenario 3
Scenario 4 Scenario 5
Selected scenario
Compar...
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)
BAU Solution 1
Solution 2 Solution 3
Solution 4 Solution 5
Izabrani scenar...
21%
6%
7%
16%
20%
37%
10%
BAU
Scenario 1
Scenario 2
Scenario 3
Scenario 4
Scenario 5
Izabrani
Import dependence of the
hea...
Reliabilityandavailability
Reliability for consumers
number of days (hours) in
the heating season without
heat
Reliability...
Affordability
For consumers
heating
% of the average revenue
from the region required
for heating, per month
Wood 10,7 7% ...
Environmentally
acceptable
kg CO2/kWht 0,3623 Reduction of 27%
compared to the BAU
0,201
Reduction 45%
kg CO2/m2 34,13 Red...
Comfort
Thermal
comfort
Survey 80% 80%
Safety Survey 65% 80%
Easy to operate Survey 74,2% 80%
Targets
Subcriteria Assessme...
Energyefficiency
Efficiency of
production and
distribution
Efficiency of DH
production % 85% Optimal value
Distribution lo...
BAU vs selected scenario in context of
European energy policy
Specific heat demand in the EU-EE scenario for the residenti...
Thank you!
Dr Marija A. Živković, assistant professor
University of Belgrade-Faculty of Mining and Geology
marija.zivkovic...
Prezentacija PB Nis
Prezentacija PB Nis
Prezentacija PB Nis
Prezentacija PB Nis
Prezentacija PB Nis
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Prezentacija PB Nis

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Prezentacija PB Nis

  • 1. “Towards more sustainable heating system in the City of Niš, Serbia" Bojan Gajić Marija Živković
  • 2. The goal of "participatory backcasting 'project in Nis was to develop a long-term strategy aimed to ensure the thermal comfort (heating and cooling) for the citizens of Nis up to 2030.
  • 3. Why the city needs long-term planning of energy consumption? • energy insecurity (import dependency) • negative impact on the environment; • low efficiency (direct usage of electricity for heating)2010 2030 +40% BAU (‘business-as-usual’) scenario Increased energy demand Increase of C02, CO, Nox emissions Increased electricity consumption for heating The reason for the project s realization was dissatisfaction with the possible development of heating systems, which would led to continuation of existing practices (presented BAU scenario), which is characterized by:
  • 4. Stakeholders involved City Council of Nis Division for Sustainability of the Department for Commerce, Sustainable Development and Environment Department of City Planning Division for Energy of the Department of Energy Department for Planning and Construction Energy Efficiency Council of the City of Nis City Municipality Palilula City Municipality Pantelej City Municipality Crveni Krst Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Niš University of Kragujevac University of Belgrade Organization of citizens consumers of district heating system Center for Consumer Protection Citizens representatives Yugo-impexNIS company Public District Heating Company Arhus centar Južne i Istočne Srbije ELDI Nis
  • 5. Workshop #3 20. February 2015. Workshop #2 27. June 2015. Workshop #1 4. April 2014. Final Report May 2015. Interviews March2014 Time frame
  • 6. Without fossil fuels in the district heating system 2030 //Getenburg Without using oil for heating dervivata to 2030//Danska Decreased heat demand 30-50% until 2030 //Heat Roadmap Europe Reduction of fosil fuel consumption in buildings: • 80% in 2020 • 90% in 2025 • CO2 neutral in 2030 //Architecture 2030 “Affordable, comfortable and environmentally friendly heating and cooling in the city of Nis by 2030”
  • 7. Criteria 4 Comfort
  • 8. Criteria 1 Reliability and availability Reliabilityandavailability Subcriteria Assessment Value in 2014 General target Reliability The number of days (hours) in the heating season without heating n/a Reducing the number of days (hours) without heating The number of failures during the year n/a Reducing the number of failures during the year Availability of cooling system % of households that has the ability of cooling n/a Increase of % Energy security Number and structure of fuel used 5 (coal, wood, oil, natural gas, electricity) Introduction of new energy sources for heating Energy security The percentage of fuel from domestic sources in the energy mix 63.6% Decrease of import dependency Energy security The percentage of locally available energy sources in 26.3% Increased use of locally available energy sources
  • 9. Criteria 2 Affordability Affordability Subcriteria Assessment Value in 2014 General targetEnergy sources Wood Electricit y District heating for consumers heating % of the average revenue from the region required for heating, per month 10,7% 7,5% 13,3% Costs reduction for consumers cooling % of the average revenue from the region required for cooling, per month 3,7% Costs reduction Producers and distributors Normalized percentage of profitable companies n/a Increase of % of profitable companies
  • 10. Criteria 3 Environmentally acceptable Environmentallyacceptable Subcriteria Assessment Value in 2014 General target Relative emissions CО2 kg CO2/kWht 0,3623 Reduction of 27% compared to the BAU kg CO2/m2 34,13 Reduction of 27% compared to the BAU Emissions CO kg CO/kWht 0,0055 Reduction of 20% compared to the BAU Emissions NOx kg NOx/kWht 0,355*10-3 Reduction of 20% compared to the BAU Emissions SOx kg SOx/ kWht 0,305*10-3 Reduction of 20% compared to the BAU
  • 11. Comfort Subcriteria Assesment Value in 2014 General target Thermal comfort Survey 80% To improve the level of comfort Safety Survey 78% To improve the level of comfort Easy to operate Survey 68% To improve the level of comfort Criteria 4 Comfort
  • 12. Energyefficiency Subcriteria Assesment Value in 2014 General target Efficiency of production and distribution Production efficiency in the district heating system% Losses in the distribution network,% 85% 14% To achieve optimal value Efficiency of transformation kWh of primary energy / KWh of thermal energy 1,515 Reduction of 20% Specific annual energy consumption in buildings kWht/м2 per annum 94,19 Reduction of 20% Criteria 5 Energy efficiency
  • 13. S1. “Advanced nature-based” S2. “Advanced renewable-based” S3. “DH expansion + building efficiency” S4. “DH expansion based on renewables” S5. “Nature focused individuals” Selected scenario Developed scenarios Developed scenarios are based on the outcomes of the 1st and 2nd workshops with stakeholders (solutions testing against criteria and robustness test) and results of the modelling in LEAP software, performed by the researchers.
  • 14. Urban energy system modelling in the PB project in Nis
  • 15. S1. “Advanced nature- based” • Improving the energy efficiency of existing buildings to C class • Class B for new facilities to the year 2030. • The application of SMART technology. • Insisting on individual solutions. • Limited expansion of district heating network • The application of green architecture, wherever possible
  • 16. S2. “Napredni – zasnovan na obnovljivim izvorima” • Improving the energy efficiency of existing buildings to C class • Class B for new facilities to the year 2030. • The application of SMART technology. • Insisting on individual solutions. • Limited expansion of district heating network Scenario 2= Scenario 1- Green architecture
  • 17. S3. “DH expansion + building efficiency” • Improving the energy efficiency of existing buildings to C class • Class B for new facilities to the year 2030. • The expansion of district heating network • Connecting new consumers. • Substitution of electric energy • Without the application of SMART technology
  • 18. S4. “DH expansion based on renewables” • Minor improvement of energy efficiency of existing buildings to D class • The expansion of district heating network • Connection of new consumers • Substitution of electricity for direct heating Scenario 4= Scenario 3- Significant energy efficiency improvement
  • 19. S5. “Fokus na primeni zelene arhitekrure i individualnim rešenjima za grejanje” • Improving the energy efficiency of existing buildings to C class • Class B for new facilities to the year 2030. • The application of SMART technology. • Insisting on individual solutions. • Without the district heating system in 2030 • The application of green architecture Scenario 5= Scenario 1- Centralized heat supply system
  • 20. Izabrani scenario Efficiency for green future
  • 21. Selected scenario 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Wood Heavy oil Natural gas Heat Geothermal Electricity Subbitumenous coal Biomass Izabrani scenario GWh/annumi Final energy for heating • Combination of scenarios 3 + 5 • Improving the energy efficiency of existing buildings to Class C • The new facilities Class B • Expansion of heating network and connection of new consumers (multistorey buildings) • Natural gas for peak loads
  • 22. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 C02 emissions, by source Emission related to electricty generation used for heat pumps Emission related to electricty generation used for direc heating Final energy consumption Combustion in DH system 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 District heating, by fuel Residual fuel oil Natural gas Biomass Electricity (for heat pumps) Geothermal Municipal solid waste Gigawatt- hours/year In the base year, 29.7% of the energy required for heating is provided by district heating systems. In 2030 it is envisaged that 53% of the energy needed for heating provided by district heating systems. The base year in the district heating system is not used for the production of renewable heat. In 2030 it could 63% of energy could be produced by using RES. Gigawatt- hours/year Selected scenario .
  • 23. Comparison of developed scenarios by fuels used in 2030 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 BAU scenario Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 Scenario 4 Scenario 5 Selected scenario Gigawatt-Hours Biomass Coal Sub bituminous Electricity Geothermal Heat Natural Gas Residual Fuel Oil Wood Selected scenario BAU scenario
  • 24. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 BAU scenario Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 Scenario 4 Scenario 5 Selected scenario Comparison of developed scenarios by fuels used in 2030Selected scenario Gigawatt- hours/year
  • 25. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) BAU Solution 1 Solution 2 Solution 3 Solution 4 Solution 5 Izabrani scenario 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Carbon Monoxide (CO) BAU Solution 1 Solution 2 Solution 3 Solution 4 Solution 5 Izabrani scenario Tonnes Tonnes
  • 26. 21% 6% 7% 16% 20% 37% 10% BAU Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 Scenario 4 Scenario 5 Izabrani Import dependence of the heating system in the city of Nis in 2030
  • 27. Reliabilityandavailability Reliability for consumers number of days (hours) in the heating season without heat Reliability Number of failures per year Availability of cooling % of households that have cooling Energy security Number and structure of fuel used 5 (coal, wood, oil, natural gas, electricity) Introduction of new energy sources for heating + geothermal, waste heat and municipal solid waste The percentage of fuel from domestic production in the energy mix 63.6% Decrease of import dependency 83,7% The percentage of locally available energy sources in the energy mix 26.3 Increased use of locally available energy sources 71,4% Targets Subcriteria Assessment Value 2014 General target Selected scenario No data
  • 28. Affordability For consumers heating % of the average revenue from the region required for heating, per month Wood 10,7 7% Europe Electricity 7,46 7% Europe DH 13,3 7% Europe For consumers cooling % of the average revenue from the region required for cooling, per month 3,7% For producers and distributers Normalized percentage of profitable companies Targets No data Subcriteria Assessment Value 2014 General target Selected scenario
  • 29. Environmentally acceptable kg CO2/kWht 0,3623 Reduction of 27% compared to the BAU 0,201 Reduction 45% kg CO2/m2 34,13 Reduction of 27% compared to the BAU 11,58 Reduction 66% kg of CO/kWht 0,0055 Reduction of 20% compared to the BAU 0,0047 kg of NOx/kWht 0,355*10-3 Reduction of 20% compared to the BAU 0,106*10-3 kg of SOx/ kWht 0,181*10-3 Reduction of 20% compared to the BAU 0,039*10-3 Targets Subcriteria Assessment Value 2014 General target Selected scenario
  • 30. Comfort Thermal comfort Survey 80% 80% Safety Survey 65% 80% Easy to operate Survey 74,2% 80% Targets Subcriteria Assessment Value 2014 General target Selected scenario
  • 31. Energyefficiency Efficiency of production and distribution Efficiency of DH production % 85% Optimal value Distribution losses, % 14% Optimal value Efficiency of transformation kWh primary/ kWh thermal 1,585 Reduction 20% 0,632 Efficiency of Buildings kWh t/m2 annualy 94,19 Reduction 20% 62,75 Targets Subcriteria Assessment Value 2014 General target Selected scenario
  • 32. BAU vs selected scenario in context of European energy policy Specific heat demand in the EU-EE scenario for the residential and service sectors, as well as for the space heating, hot water and total heat demand. selected scenario (62.75 kWh/m2) BAU scenario (94.2 kWh/m2) //Figure is adopted from ‘Heat Roadmap Europe. Second pre-study for the EU27’ report (2013) selected scenario PEF: 0,632 C02: 201 g/kWh BAU scenario PEF: 1,585 C02: 393 g/kWh //Figure is adopted from ‘District Heating in Buildings’ report, Euroheat & Power (2011) Correlation of Primary energy factors (PEF) and CO2 emissions for different heating solutions and cities in whole PEF kWh/m2
  • 33. Thank you! Dr Marija A. Živković, assistant professor University of Belgrade-Faculty of Mining and Geology marija.zivkovic@rgf.bg.ac.rs

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