THE KONGU POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE MALLURE SALEM-636203 ...
OUTLINE OF PROJECT1. Introduction2. Conceptualize3. Plan4. Prepare5. Implement Monitor and Evaluate1. INTRODUCTION.1.1 THE...
1. Introduction1.1 The need for project planningPlanning at some level is basic to all human activity, and is really appli...
problem or opportunity that the project will seek to address. The success of a project willdepend on how precisely and acc...
It will be very difficult to mobilise community interest and support in a project that thecommunity sees as meeting second...
strategic plan (1998-2002) for Community Based Disaster Preparedness by theBangladesh RedCrescent Society, provides an exa...
sophisticated than checklists we might prepare every day, such as a shopping list. In thesame way, a project planning chec...
diagram shows that one stage of the plan only leads to the next IF certain assumptionsare true.3.3.4 Indicators of progres...
Is this project directed to the most vulnerable? Has the impact of the plan on the environment been considered? Do people ...
partially on this information. It is critical in these cases that the information providedhelps these decision-makers clar...
POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENTS.NO CONTENTS1 CYCLONIC SPRAY SCRUBBER2 PARTICULATE COLLECTION3 GAS ...
Cyclonic spray scrubbersCyclonic spray scrubbers are an air pollution control technology. They use the features ofboth the...
Particulate collection Figure 2 - Cyclonic spray scrubberCyclonic spray scrubbers are more ...
High gas velocities through these devices reduce the gas-liquid contact time, thus reducing absorption efficiency. Cycl...
Adding baffles slightly increases the pressure drop of the system. This type of technology is a part of the group of a...
Ejector venturi scrubber Figure 1 - Ejector venturi scrubberThis type of technology is a par...
the process gas through the venturi as well as through the facilitys process system. In thecase of explosive or extremely ...
Maintenance problems Ejector venturis are subject to abrasion problems in the high-velocity areas - nozzle and thr...
INDUCED SPRAY SCRUBBERThere are fewer mechanically aided scrubber designs available than liquid- and gas-phasecontacting c...
Figure 2 shows an induced-spray scrubber that uses a vertical-spray rotor. Particle collection Mecha...
0.07-0.2 l/m3(centrifugal) 0.5-1.5 gal/1,000 ...
Figure 2 - Crosscurrent-flow spray towerIn addition to a countercurrent-flow configuration, the flow in spray towers can b...
This range of droplet sizes is between 500 to 1,000 µm for gravity-spray (counter current)towers.[1] The injection of wate...
The main advantage of spray towers over other scrubbers is their completely open design; they have no internal par...
This flow of inlet gas and liquid in the opposite direction is called countercurrentflow. Figure1 shows a typical counterc...
the droplets fall short distances, they tend to agglomerate or hit the walls of the tower.Consequently, the total liquid s...
way that SO3 can be formed is through catalysis by metals in the fuel. Such reaction isparticularly true for heavy fuel oi...
When wet scrubbing with an Mg (OH)2 (magnesium hydroxide) slurry, the reaction producesMgSO3 (magnesium sulfite) and can b...
loadings of fly ash must be considered. However, in cases where the particle concentration islow, such as from oil-fired u...
operate. It produces a solution of sodium sulfite/bisulphate (depending on the pH), or sodiumsulfate that must be disposed...
Flue gas desulphurization scrubbers have been applied to combustion units firing coal and oilthat range in size from 5 MW ...
Figure 2 - Packed bed towerFigure 2 has a tower design where the mist eliminator is built into the top of the structure.Va...
particles are large and readily captured) or by the use of a scrubbing reagent suchas lime or sodium hydroxide. ...
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Pollution control eqipment

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
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Transcripts - Pollution control eqipment

  • 1. THE KONGU POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE MALLURE SALEM-636203 MARK- ENGLISH COMMUNICATION PROJECT BONAFIDE CERTIFICATEName :Class :Register number :Roll number : Certified that this is bonafide Record of word done by aboveStudent in the English communication project during the year2009-2010Signature of staff in charge Signature of H.O.DSubmitted for the Practical examination field onExternal Examiner Internal Examiner 1
  • 2. OUTLINE OF PROJECT1. Introduction2. Conceptualize3. Plan4. Prepare5. Implement Monitor and Evaluate1. INTRODUCTION.1.1 THE NEED FOR PROJECT PLANNING1.2 BENEFICIARIES AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT1.3. PROJECT PLANNING2. CONCEPTUALISE THE PROJECT2.1 WRITE A PROBLEM STATEMENT2.2 BRAINSTORM POSSIBLE PROJECT SOLUTIONS2.3 DETERMINE PROJECT SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES3. PLAN THE PROJECT3.1 PROJECT PLANNING CHECKLISTS3.2 PROJECT WORK PLANS3.3 THE LOGICAL FRAMEWORK3.4 BUDGETS4. PREPARE PROJECT PROPOSALS4.1 WRITING-UP AND PRESENTING A PROJECT PROPOSAL4.2 REVIEW AND CRITIQUE OF DRAFT PROJECT PROPOSAL4.3. PROJECT DESCRIPTION5. MONITORING, EVALUATION AND REPORTING5.1 MONITORING5.2 EVALUATION5.3 REPORTING 2
  • 3. 1. Introduction1.1 The need for project planningPlanning at some level is basic to all human activity, and is really applied common sense.It involves working out what you want to do and how you are going to do it. This appliesweather you are preparing a straightforward and simple project or a long-term program.Planning involves identifying priority needs and opportunities, discussing and testing thevarious possible courses of action, choosing the most appropriate one (or ones), agreeingwhat you can expect to achieve, calculating the human and material resources needed toreach your objectives, anticipating possible problems and getting agreement among allconcerned about clear targets and timetables for the work in view.Planning techniques can address many organizational problems and opportunities,includinginstitutional development of your National Society and planning of disaster preparednessactivities. Whether the priority is capacity building, disaster preparedness, immediateemergency action or new initiatives such as advocacy for vulnerable groups, goodplanningcan increase your chance of success. It helps you analyse and assess present needs andfuture challenges. It gives you the means to test out various possibilities, think throughthe difficulties that might occur and prepare to overcome them. Good plans always allowfor flexibility to adapt to changing circumstances.1.2 Beneficiaries and project managementPlanning should never start and end in an office or committee meeting. Project planningshould never be done alone or in isolation from those who have to implement the plans. Itis important to find out what the beneficiaries really think about the problem and abouthow to address it.1.3. Project planningProject planning is done to increase the likelihood that a project will be implementedefficiently, effectively and successfully. Project planning covers the first three stages of.1. Conceptualise project scope and objectives: Explore the problem, identify priorityneeds, consider project solutions and evaluate organisational capacity.2. Plan the project: Establish the project scope; clarify goals and objectives; choose themost appropriate course of action; identify the inputs and resources required in termsof: people, materials, time and money; develop a budget and draft a project plan.3. Prepare project proposal: Present the project to important stakeholders, receive theirfeedback and secure the necessary material, human and financial resources.4. Implement the project: Implement the project by following a work-plan andcompleting pre-determined tasks and activities. Monitor progress and adjust asnecessary.5. Evaluate the project: Review what has happened, consider the value of what has beenachieved, and learn from that experience in order to improve future project planning.2. Conceptualise the project2.1 Write a problem statementAll project planning should begin with an analysis of the current situation and define the 3
  • 4. problem or opportunity that the project will seek to address. The success of a project willdepend on how precisely and accurately the problem is articulated and understood.Again, the perspective of the beneficiaries is critical at this stage. The most importantneeds of the affected population will not always match those identified as most importantby outsiders.One should not assume that communities are homogeneous in their needs or desires.Different people in a community will have different and often conflicting needs anddesires.A proposed project that seeks to benefit the most vulnerable, who are usually thepoorest in a community, May sometimes threaten established interests and powerstructures. Similarly, a program to empower women may threaten some of the men in acommunity.Once the situational analysis is complete, project planners will want to articulate aproblem statement that answers the following questions: What is the problem? When and how did the problem originate? What are the main needs generated by this problem? What is the significance of this problem? Why should anything be done about this problem?2.2 Brainstorm possible project solutionsOnce a problem has been defined, project planners need to consider the many possibleresponses. Brainstorming is one simple method for exploring needs and consideringpossible problem solutions. This method brings together a group of people and asks themto share their ideas on any one or a number of questions — ranging from problems tosolutions. Their ideas are all listed on a blackboard or on large sheets of paper, and thenlooked at one by one.Brainstorming involves two stages: the creative stage (i.e. generation of ideas or listing ofneeds) and the critical stage (i.e. evaluation and analysis of these ideas). During thecreative process, participants provide “raw” ideas as they think of them. These ideas canbe practical, idealistic, or wildly creative. These ideas should not be critiqued or analyzedduring this first stage—they should just be accepted and listed. After all ideas are listed,they can be further developed or combined.During the critical stage, the group should evaluate the ideas and attempt to identify therationale of every idea, even if the whole idea seems far-fetched. Individuals can be askedto explain or defend their idea by fielding questions from others in the group. During thisstage, organisational capacities also need to be evaluated.2. Conceptualise the project2.1 Write a problem statementAll project planning should begin with an analysis of the current situation and define theproblem or opportunity that the project will seek to address. The success of a project willdepend on how precisely and accurately the problem is articulated and understood.Again, the perspective of the beneficiaries is critical at this stage. The most importantneeds of the affected population will not always match those identified as most importantby outsiders. 4
  • 5. It will be very difficult to mobilise community interest and support in a project that thecommunity sees as meeting secondary needs—or no needs at all.One should not assume that communities are homogeneous in their needs or desires.Different people in a community will have different and often conflicting needs anddesires.A proposed project that seeks to benefit the most vulnerable, who is usually the poorest ina community, may sometimes threaten established interests and power structures.Similarly, a program to empower women may threaten some of the men in a community.Once the situational analysis is complete, project planners will want to articulate aproblem statement that answers the following questions: What is the problem? When and how did the problem originate? What are the main needs generated by this problem? What is the significance of this problem? Why should anything be done about this problem?2.2 Brainstorm possible project solutionsOnce a problem has been defined, project planners need to consider the many possibleresponses. Brainstorming is one simple method for exploring needs and consideringpossible problem solutions. This method brings together a group of people and asks themto share their ideas on any one or a number of questions — ranging from problems tosolutions. Their ideas are all listed on a blackboard or on large sheets of paper, and thenlooked at one by one.Brainstorming involves two stages: the creative stage (i.e. generation of ideas or listing ofneeds) and the critical stage (i.e. evaluation and analysis of these ideas). During thecreativeprocess, participants provide “raw” ideas as they think of them. These ideas can bepractical, idealistic or wildly creative. These ideas should not be critiqued or analyzedduring this first stage—they should just be accepted and listed. After all ideas are listed,they can be further developed or combined.During the critical stage, the group should evaluate the ideas and attempt to identify therationale of every idea, even if the whole idea seems far-fetched. Individuals can be askedto explain or defend their idea by fielding questions from others in the group. During thisstage, organisational capacities also need to be evaluated.ask it whether it can really do anything about the priority problem that has beenidentified. Questions to help the NS explore the match between proposed solutions andorganisational capacities include: Do we have, or can we get, the appropriate staff and volunteers? Are we already too heavily committed with other activities? Is the area too remote for proper supervision?2.3 Determine project scope and objectivesAfter selecting one solution to implement, project planners need to clearly establish thescope of the proposed project. A statement of the project scope should state broadly thegeneral purpose and goals of the project. This broad statement should be followed bymore specific objectives that will be met. The following excerpted from a 5-year project 5
  • 6. strategic plan (1998-2002) for Community Based Disaster Preparedness by theBangladesh RedCrescent Society, provides an example of a project scope statement, a project goalstatement and specific project objectives.After the project scope, goals, and objectives have been defined, the next step is todevelop a more detailed project description and strategy that answers the followingquestions: What aspects of the problem will this project address? What aspects wont it address? Who will benefit from this project? What needs will be met? What will the beneficiaries receive? What is expected of the beneficiaries? What is the general strategy that this project will pursue? What is the expected outcome resulting from the project? What is the methodology for implementation for the project and each projectcomponent?3. Plan the project3.1 Project planning checklistsThe simplest planning tool is the project planning checklist. It is only a bit moresophisticated than checklists we might prepare every day, such as a shopping list. In thesame way, a project planning checklist can be generated which identifies everything thatneeds to be done, when, and by whom. The idea is that, before you start on a newactivity,you think through and prepare for all the things that will have to be done. Thechecklistreminds us of things to do and allows us to monitor our progress. Projectplanning checklists follow a similar overall pattern, although the details will vary fromone project to another. A sample format for a project master check list is attached asAnnex 5.3.2 Project work plansWork plans define the specific steps, deadlines and responsibilities for task completion.In almost all planning, it is necessary to prepare the following: Some detailed sub-plans, describing separate kinds of activities. Implementation schedules or timeframes, which show the beginning and end of everystage, and how they correspond to the total duration of the project. See Annex 3 for anexample implementation schedule. Distribution of obligations, which shows who is responsible for what kind of activityand who is responsible for general management and coordination. See Annex 2 for anexample related to planning for a resettlement project. List of participants, showing how many people are involved in the project, theirqualification and period of work in a project..3. Plan the project3.1 Project planning checklistsThe simplest planning tool is the project planning checklist. It is only a bit more 6
  • 7. sophisticated than checklists we might prepare every day, such as a shopping list. In thesame way, a project planning checklist can be generated which identifies everything thatneeds to be done, when, and by whom. The idea is that, before you start on a newactivity, you think through and prepare for all the things that will have to be done. Thechecklist reminds us of things to do and allows us to monitor our progress. Projectplanning checklists follow a similar overall pattern, although the details will vary fromone project to another.3.2 Project work plansWork plans define the specific steps, deadlines and responsibilities for task completion.In almost all planning, it is necessary to prepare the following: Some detailed sub-plans, describing separate kinds of activities. Implementation schedules or timeframes, which show the beginning and end of everystage, and how they correspond to the total duration of the project. See Annex 3 for anexample implementation schedule. Distribution of obligations, which shows who is responsible for what kind of activityand who is responsible for general management and coordination. See Annex 2 for anexample related to planning for a resettlement project. List of participants, showing how many people are involved in the project, theirqualification and period of work in a project.Work plans should distil the project into distinct tasks and should highlight therelationship and dependencies among the tasks. They should also determine existing andadditional resources required to complete each task. The sum of resources, time, andcosts is used to estimate a project schedule and a budget.3.3 The logical framework3.3.1 Overview of the logical framework approachA useful tool for planning more complicated projects is the logical framework approach.The idea of this tool is that you identify all the main elements of a new proposal, andexamine how they fit together. The logical framework requires that you: write down the planned activities in a certain order that helps you to check whether onestep will lead to the next. note any assumptions that you are making, and examine whether or not they are true. identify indicators of progress.3.3.2 List the activitiesThe first step is to think of a project as a series of activities where one step leads on to thenext. The way this is normally shown is to place inputs at the bottom of the page and thento work up towards the goal written at the top. This concept is illustrated in the followingdiagram where one starts with "Inputs" at the bottom and works upward.3.3.3 Examine assumptions (conditions of achievement)Whether actions lead to the desired results, depends on whether our planning assumptionsare correct. In the above example, the input "Volunteers" will only contribute to theaction"Planning the disaster awareness campaign," if our assumption about the skills andcommitment of volunteers holds true. Otherwise the action may not occur. The following 7
  • 8. diagram shows that one stage of the plan only leads to the next IF certain assumptionsare true.3.3.4 Indicators of progressThe full version of the logical framework as a planning tool also includes the indicatorsof progress that you will look for once you start to implement your plan. Some examplesof indicators are given in Annex 4: "Red Cross/Red Crescent Community Based First AidTraining Program."3.4 BudgetsThe next step in resource allocation is the development of a budget for each importantelement of the program. Simple, accurate systems that improve budgeting and costcontrol are crucial. Whatever approach is used, a budget must be flexible and anticipateinflation of costs.Many projects experience difficulty with monetary control and have trouble accountingfor funds. Usually this is because the project has not specified the accounting system tobe used from the outset or the system chosen is not adaptable to the project situation. Forexample, during disaster times, good field accounting requires a simple system that iseasy to use, easy to carry, and places the emphasis of trust on the user. It also requirestraining in how to use the system before disaster strikes. Field representatives, especiallyin the emergency, must have an accounting system that recognizes the need for flexibilityand simplicity. Several agencies have recently begun to use simplified field-accountbooks that have built-in impression pads, so that duplicate or triplicate records can beprepared and maintained..4. Prepare project proposals4.1 Writing-up and presenting a project proposalAll of the work project planners have put into conceptualizing and planning the projectshould be reflected in a project plan or proposal that states the scope, timetable, resourcesand costs of the project. If you have to write about a project (a letter to a GovernmentMinistry, a paper for one of the National Societys committees) you may have to developdifferent communication skills.Sometimes a local authority or a funding organisation asks for a special application formto be completed (especially for a donor organisation). Even if you have to complete aform, send it with a covering letter that states: What your National Society is already doing in this direction. What new needs you have identified. What you want to do about them. How you plan to reach the goals. What resources will be needed? How progress will be measured, and sustained in the long-term. Why you think this project is important..4.2 Review and critique of draft project proposalSomeone not connected with the project should review and critique the proposal before itis submitted or implemented. This reviewer should consider the following questions: Does this project correspond to local economic, social, and political realities? 8
  • 9. Is this project directed to the most vulnerable? Has the impact of the plan on the environment been considered? Do people really want and need the project? Is the project realistic? If the project is successful, how will it be sustained on a continuous basis?4.3. Project descriptionThere is no single recipe for a project proposal outline. Every donor or customer has theright to ask that their specific project description requirements be used. Before writing aproject proposal, you should verify the information that the potential donor requires andaddress it in your proposal. In general, however, most project proposals will require thatyou include the following information:.5. Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting5.1 MonitoringYour project plan should also establish milestones that can be monitored for completionor deviation. Even with a good plan and a good budget, you cannot expect the actualwork to go ahead without problems from time to time. As the project is implemented, it isimportant to monitor and control progress based on the objectives that were established inthe project plan. In addition to ensuring adherence to project objectives, it also may benecessary to make adjustments to address unforeseen challenges, obstacles, andopportunities as they arise. This monitoring should be done in parallel with the donor’sreporting requirements.During all periods of project implementation, actual costs should be constantly comparedwith the planned budget. Such financial monitoring is the easiest means to checkdeviation from the plan.5.2 EvaluationEvaluations should determine the effectiveness and impact of the project. They shouldalso study the process used to complete the project. Evaluation determines the value of aprogram. Project evaluation answers the following questions: "What has the projectachieved?" "Have the original goals been achieved?" "What unexpected results do wehave—positive as well as negative?" "Should this project be spread on other regions?"Usually evaluation is done as an ultimate stage of the whole program activity todetermine the final result and compare actual and planned achievements.5.3 Reporting5.3.1. The need for reportingMost, if not all, projects require some level of reporting. The project plan should identifywho needs to receive information and updates about the project, what types ofinformation they need to receive, and how this information will be reported.Field personnel are often responsible for collecting data and reporting this information tothe organisational directors and leadership—who then base their actions and decisions 9
  • 10. partially on this information. It is critical in these cases that the information providedhelps these decision-makers clarify particular problems and make informed choices.Reports andinformation can add value to a decision maker’s actions and choices by: Selecting and presenting only information relevant to the decision maker’scontext Logically organising the information (i.e., formatting, grouping, and classifying) Providing an initial analysis and recommendations (i.e., evaluation, validation,comparison, synthesis and interpretation) Formatting the document for easy reading, with attention drawn to major pointsTimely, regular and accurate reporting is the most important tool to ensure goodmanagement support and sufficient funding for an emergency operation or longer-termdisaster preparedness programs. Reports are management tools that provide keyinformation to facilitate effective decision making, fundraising efforts, and donorrelations.Conscientious reporting also is important for ensuring accountability and transparency inthe use of funds and in program implementation. The collection and reporting ofinformation should always have a clear purpose and a specific audience in mind.Many staff, in setting priorities, often accord low status to the reporting function.Emergency response organisations should, as a preparedness measure, establish andcommunicate to all staff their expectations concerning reporting requirements. Staffshould understand that reporting is a critical part of their jobs, not a burden, but rather anessential tool in decision-making.5.3.2 Reporting contentsPurpose of project activity reportsThese reports are compiled monthly or quarterly, (and annually) and are submitted toone’s supervisors, to the organisations headquarters, and if required, to donor agencies.These reports: Help facilitate national level appeals and fundraising efforts Keep the leadership and donors abreast and informed about progress, accomplishments,and challenges Are useful for future program planning and strategy Serve as institutional memory and recorded history Highlight potential opportunities, problems and constraints Ensure accountability and transparency in the use of funds and in programimplementationContent of program and activity reportsProject reports; usually include, as a minimum, the following information: Description and status report of activities completed or initiated (dates, participants,beneficiaries and results) Description of special challenges, constraints or problems encountered in implementingactivities Priorities, work plan, and goals for the next month, quarter and/or year 10
  • 11. POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENTS.NO CONTENTS1 CYCLONIC SPRAY SCRUBBER2 PARTICULATE COLLECTION3 GAS COLLECTION4 EJECTOR VENTURI SCRUBBER5 INDUSED SPRAY SCRUBBER6 CROSS CURRUNT –FLOW SPRAY TOWER7 COUNTER8 SULPHURIC ACID MIST FORMATION9 FGD CHEMISTRY10 FACTS AND STATISTICS11 ALTERNATIVE METHODES OF REDUCING SULFUR DIOXIDE EMISSION 11
  • 12. Cyclonic spray scrubbersCyclonic spray scrubbers are an air pollution control technology. They use the features ofboth the dry cyclone and the spray chamber to remove pollutants from gas streams.Cyclonic scrubbers are generally low- to medium-energy devices, with pressure of 4 to 25 cm(1.5 to 10 in) of water. Commercially available designs include the irrigated cyclonescrubber and the cyclonic spray scrubberGenerally, the inlet gas enters the chamber tangentially, swirls through the chamber in acorkscrew motion, and exits. At the same time, liquid is sprayed inside the chamber. As thegas swirls around the chamber, pollutants are removed when they impact on liquid droplets,are thrown to the walls, and washed back down and out..In the irrigated cyclone the inlet gas enters near the top of the scrubber into the watersprays. The gas is forced to swirl downward, then change directions, and return upward in atighter spiral. The liquid droplets produced capture the pollutants, are eventually thrown to theside walls, and carried out of the collector. The "cleaned" gas leaves through the top of thechamber.The cyclonic spray scrubber forces the inlet gas up through the chamber from a bottomtangential entry. Liquid sprayed from nozzles on a center post (manifold) is directed towardthe chamber walls and through the swirling gas. As in the irrigated cyclone, liquid captures thepollutant, is forced to the walls, and washes out. The "cleaned" gas continues upward, exitingthrough the straightening vanes at the top of the chamber. 12
  • 13. Particulate collection Figure 2 - Cyclonic spray scrubberCyclonic spray scrubbers are more efficient than spray towers, but not as efficient as venturescrubbers, in removing particulate from the inlet gas stream. Particulates larger than 5 µm aregenerally collected by impaction with 90% efficiency. In a simple spray tower, the velocity ofthe particulates in the gas stream is low: 0.6 to 1.5 m/s (2 to 5 ft/s).By introducing the inlet gas tangentially into the spray chamber, the cyclonic scrubberincreases gas velocities (thus, particulate velocities) to approximately 60 to 180 m/s (200 to600 ft/s).The velocity of the liquid spray is approximately the same in both devices. This higherparticulate-to-liquid relative velocity increases particulate collection efficiency for this deviceover that of the spray chamber. Gas velocities of 60 to 180 m/s are equivalent to thoseencountered in a venture scrubber.However, cyclonic spray scrubbers are not as efficient as venture scrubbers because theyare not capable of producing the same degree of useful turbulence. These devices areused much the same as spray towers - to preclean or remove particles larger than 10 μ min diameter. Gas collection 13
  • 14. High gas velocities through these devices reduce the gas-liquid contact time, thus reducing absorption efficiency. Cyclonic spray scrubbers are capable of effectively removing some gases; however, they are rarely chosen when gaseous pollutant removal is the only concern. Maintenance problems The main maintenance problems with cyclonic scrubbers are nozzle plugging and corrosion or erosion of the side walls of the cyclone body. Nozzles have a tendency to plug from particulates that are in the recycled liquid and/or particulates that are in the gas stream. The best solution is to install the nozzles so that they are easily accessible for cleaning or removal. Due to high gas velocities, erosion of the side walls of the cyclone can also be a problem. Abrasion-resistant materials may be used to protect the cyclone body, especially at the inlet. The pressure drops across cyclonic scrubbers are usually 4 to 25 cm (1.5 to 10 in) of water; therefore, they are low- to medium-energy devices and are most often used to control large- sized particulates. Relatively simple devices, they resist plugging because of their open construction. They also have the additional advantage of acting as entrainment separators because of their shape. The liquid droplets are forced to the sides of the cyclone and removed prior to exiting the vessel. Their biggest disadvantages are that they are not capable of removing sub micrometer particulates and they do not efficiently absorb most pollutant gases. Table 1. Operating characteristics of spray towers Pressure drop Liquid-to-gas ratio (L/ Liquid-inlet pressure Pollutant Removal efficiency Applications (Δp) G) (pL) Gases Only effective for very Mining soluble gases operations 4-25 cm of water 0.3-1.3 l/m3 (2-10 280-2,800 kPa Drying (1.5-10 in of gal/1,000 ft3) (40-400 psig) operations water)Particulates Food processing 2-3 µm diameter Foundries A simple baffle scrubber system is shown in Figure 1. Liquid sprays capture pollutants and also remove collected particles from the baffles. 14
  • 15. Adding baffles slightly increases the pressure drop of the system. This type of technology is a part of the group of air pollution controls collectively referred to as wet scrubbers. A number of wet-scrubber designs use energy from both the gas stream and liquid stream to collect pollutants. Many of these combination devices are available commercially. A seemingly unending number of scrubber designs have been developed by changing system geometry and incorporating vanes, nozzles, and baffles. Gas collection Even though these devices are not specifically used for gas collection, they are capable of a small amount of gas absorption because of their large wetted surface. Table 1 summarizes the operating characteristics of baffle spray scrubbers. [1] Table 1. Operating characteristics of baffle spray scrubbers Pressure drop Liquid-to-gas ratio Liquid-inlet pressure RemovalPollutant Applications (Δp) (L/G) (pL) efficiency Gases 2.5-7.5 cm of water very low Mining operations Incineration 0.13 l/m3 (1 gal/1,000 ft3) < 100 kPa (< 15 psig) Chemical processParticles 1-3 in of water 10 µm diameter industry They are very similar to spray towers in design and operation. However, in addition to using the energy provided by the spray nozzles, baffles are added to allow the gas stream to atomize some liquid as it passes over them. A simple baffle scrubber system is shown in Figure 1. Liquid sprays capture pollutants and also remove collected particles from the baffles. Adding baffles slightly increases the pressure drop of the system. This type of technology is a part of the group of air pollution controls collectively referred to as wet scrubbers. A number of wet-scrubber designs use energy from both the gas stream and liquid stream to collect pollutants. Many of these combination devices are available commercially. A seemingly unending number of scrubber designs have been developed by changing system geometry and incorporating vanes, nozzles, and baffles. 15
  • 16. Ejector venturi scrubber Figure 1 - Ejector venturi scrubberThis type of technology is a part of the group of air pollution controls collectively referred toas wet scrubbers.An ejector or venturi scrubber is an industrial pollution controldevice, usually installed onthe exhaust flue gas stacks of large furnaces, but may also be used on any number of otherair exhaust systems. To this end, an ejector venturi scrubber (as well as the spray) uses apreformed spray, the difference is that only a single nozzle is used instead of many nozzles.This nozzle operates at higher pressures and higher injection rates than those in most spray.The high-pressure spray nozzle (up to 689 kPa or 100 psig) is aimed at the throat section ofa venturi constriction.The ejector venturi is unique among available scrubbing systems since it can move theprocess gas without the aid of a blower or fan. The liquid spray coming from the nozzlecreates a partial vacuum in the side duct of the scrubber. This has the same effect as thewater aspirator used in high school chemistry labs to pull a small vacuum for filteringprecipitated materials (due to the Bernoulli effect). This partial vacuum can be used to move 16
  • 17. the process gas through the venturi as well as through the facilitys process system. In thecase of explosive or extremely corrosive atmospheres, the elimination of a fan in the systemcan avoid many potential problems.The energy for the formation of scrubbing droplets comes from the injected liquid. The highpressure sprays passing through the venturi throat form numerous fine liquid droplets thatprovide turbulent mixing between the gas and liquid phases. Very high liquid-injection ratesare used to provide the gas-moving capability and higher collection efficiencies. As with othertypes of venturis, a means of separating entrained liquid from the gas stream must beinstalled. Entrainment separators are commonly used to remove remaining small droplets.Particle collectionEjector venturis are effective in removing particles larger than 1.0 µm in diameter. Thesescrubbers are not used on sub micrometer-sized particles unless the particles are condensable[Gilbert, 1977]. Particle collection occurs primarily by impaction as the exhaust gas (from theprocess) passes through the spray.The turbulence that occurs in the throat area also causes the particles to contact the wetdroplets and be collected. Particle collection efficiency increases with an increase in nozzlepressure and/or an increase in the liquid-to-gas ratio.Increases in either of these two operating parameters will also result in an increasein pressure drop for a given system. Therefore, an increase in pressure drop also increasesparticle collection efficiency. Ejector venturis operate at higher L/G ratios than most otherparticulate scrubbers (i.e., 7 to 13 l/m³ compared to 0.4-2.7 l/m³ for most other designs).Gas collectionEjector venturis have a short gas-liquid contact time because the exhaust gas velocitiesthrough the vessel are very high. This short contact time limits the absorption efficiency of thesystem.Although ejector venturis are not used primarily for gas removal, they can be effective if thegas is very soluble or if a very reactive scrubbing reagent is used. In these instances, removalefficiencies of as high as 95% can be achieved 17
  • 18. Maintenance problems Ejector venturis are subject to abrasion problems in the high-velocity areas - nozzle and throat. Both must be constructed of wear-resistant materials because of the high liquid injection rates and nozzle pressures. Maintaining the pump that recirculates liquid is also very important. In addition, the high gas velocities necessitate the use of entrainment separators to prevent excessive liquid carryover. The separators should be easily accessible or removable so that they can be cleaned if plugging occurs. Table 1. Operating characteristics of ejector venturis Pressure drop Liquid-to-gas ratio (L/ Liquid-inlet pressurePollutant Removal efficiency Applications (Δp) G) (pL) 1.3–13 cm of 95% for very soluble Pulp and paper industry Gases 7-13 l/m3 100-830 kPa water gases Chemical process industry Food industry Metals processingParticles 0.5-5 in of water 50-100 gal/1,000 ft3 15-120 psig 1 µm diameter industry . In addition to using liquid sprays or the exhaust stream, scrubbing systems can use motors to supply energy. The motor drives a rotor or paddles which, in turn, generate water droplets for gas and particle collection. Systems designed in this manner have the advantage of requiring less space than other scrubbers, but their overall power requirements tend to be higher than other scrubbers of equivalent efficiency. Significant power losses occur in driving the rotor. Therefore, not all the power used is expended for gas-liquid contact. 18
  • 19. INDUCED SPRAY SCRUBBERThere are fewer mechanically aided scrubber designs available than liquid- and gas-phasecontacting collector designs. Two are more common: fan scrubbers and mechanically inducedspray scrubbers. Figure 2 - Induced spray scrubberA centrifugal-fan scrubber can serve as both an air mover and a collection device. Figure1 shows such a system, where water is sprayed onto the fan blades concurrently with themoving exhaust gas. Some gaseous pollutants and particles are initially removed as they passover the liquid sprays.The liquid droplets then impact on the blades to create smaller droplets for additionalcollection targets. Collection can also take place on the liquid film that forms on the fanblades. The rotating blades force the liquid and collected particles off the blades. The liquiddroplets separate from the gas stream because of their centrifugal.Centrifugal-fan collectors are the most compact of the wet scrubbers since the fan andcollector comprise a combined unit. No internal pressure loss occurs across the scrubber, but apower loss equivalent to a pressure drop of 10.2 to 15.2 cm (4 to 6 in) of water occursbecause the blower efficiency is low.Another mechanically aided scrubber, the induced-spray, consists of awhirling rotor submerged in a pool of liquid. The whirling rotor produces a fine droplet spray.By moving the process gas through the spray, particles and gaseous pollutants cansubsequently be collected. 19
  • 20. Figure 2 shows an induced-spray scrubber that uses a vertical-spray rotor. Particle collection Mechanically aided scrubbers are capable of high collection efficiencies for particles with diameters of 1 μ m or greater. However, achieving these high efficiencies usually requires a greater energy input than those of other scrubbers operating at similar efficiencies. In mechanically aided scrubbers, the majority of particle collection occurs in the liquid droplets formed by the rotating blades or rotor. Gas collection Mechanically aided scrubbers are generally not used for gas absorption. The contact time between the gas and liquid phases is very short, limiting absorption. For gas removal, several other scrubbing systems provide much better removal per unit of energy consumed. Maintenance problems As with almost any device, the addition of moving parts leads to an increase in potential maintenance problems. Mechanically aided scrubbers have higher maintenance costs than other wet collector systems. The moving parts are particularly susceptible to corrosion and fouling. In addition, rotating parts are subject to vibration-induced fatigue or wear, causing them to become unbalanced. Corrosion-resistant materials for these scrubbers are very expensive; therefore, these devices are not used in applications where corrosion or sticky materials could cause problems. Table 1. Operating characteristics of mechanically aided scrubbers Liquid-inlet pressure ParticlePollutant Pressure drop (Δp) Liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) Applications (pL) diameter 20
  • 21. 0.07-0.2 l/m3(centrifugal) 0.5-1.5 gal/1,000 Mining operations ft3(centrifugal) Food product 10-20 cm of water (4.0-8.0 in 20-60 psig industriesParticles 1μm of water) (centrifugal) Chemical industry 0.5-0.7 l/m3 (spray rotor) Foundries and steel 4-5 gal/1,000 ft3(spray mills rotor) CROSSCURRENT – FLOW SPRAY TOWER They consist of empty cylindrical vessels made of steel or plastic and nozzles that spray liquid into the vessels. The inlet gas stream usually enters the bottom of the tower and moves upward, while liquid is sprayed downward from one or more levels. This flow of inlet gas and liquid in the opposite direction is called countercurrent flow. Figure 1 shows a typical countercurrent-flow spray tower. This type of technology is a part of the group of air pollution controls collectively referred to as wet scrubbers. Countercurrent flow exposes the outlet gas with the lowest pollutant concentration to the freshest scrubbing liquid. Many nozzles are placed across the tower at different heights to spray all of the gas as it moves up through the tower. The reasons for using many nozzles are to maximize the number of fine droplets impacting the pollutant particles and to provide a large surface area for absorbing gas. Theoretically, the smaller the droplets formed, the higher the collection efficiency achieved for both gaseous and particulate pollutants. However, the liquid droplets must be large enough to not be carried out of the scrubber by the scrubbed outlet gas stream. Therefore, spray towers use nozzles to produce droplets that are usually 500 to 1,000 µm in diameter. Although small in size, these droplets are large compared to those created in the venturi scrubbers that are 10 to 50 µm in size. The gas velocity is kept low, from 0.3 to 1.2 m/s (1 to 4 ft/s) to prevent excess droplets from being carried out of the tower. In order to maintain low gas velocities, spray towers must be larger than other scrubbers that handle similar gas stream flow rates. Another problem occurring in spray towers is that after the droplets fall short distances, they tend to agglomerate or hit the walls of the tower. Consequently, the total liquid surface area for contact is reduced, reducing the collection efficiency of the scrubber. 21
  • 22. Figure 2 - Crosscurrent-flow spray towerIn addition to a countercurrent-flow configuration, the flow in spray towers can be either aconcurrent or crosscurrent in configuration.In concurrent-flow spray towers, the inlet gas and liquid flow in the same direction. Becausethe gas stream does not "push" against the liquid sprays, the gas velocities through thevessels are higher than in countercurrent flow spray towers. Consequently, concurrent-flowspray towers are smaller than countercurrent-flow spray towers treating the same amount ofexhaust flow. In crosscurrent-flow spray towers, also called horizontal-spray scrubbers, thegas and liquid flow in directions perpendicular to each other (Figure 2).In this vessel, the gas flows horizontally through a number of spray sections. The amount andquality of liquid sprayed in each section can be varied, usually with the cleanest liquid (ifrecycled liquid is used) sprayed in the last set of sprays.Particle collectionSpray towers are low energy scrubbers. Contacting power is much lower than in venturiscrubbers, and thepressure drops across such systems are generally less than 2.5 cm (1 in) ofwater. The collection efficiency for small particles is correspondingly lower than in moreenergy-intensive devices. They are adequate for the collection of coarse particles larger than10 to 25 µm in diameter, although with increased liquid inlet nozzle pressures, particles withdiameters of 2.0 µm can be collected.Smaller droplets can be formed by higher liquid pressures at the nozzle. The highest collectionefficiencies are achieved when small droplets are produced and the difference between thevelocity of the droplet and the velocity of the upward-moving particles is high. Small droplets,however, have small settling velocities, so there is an optimum range of droplet sizes forscrubbers that work by this mechanism. 22
  • 23. This range of droplet sizes is between 500 to 1,000 µm for gravity-spray (counter current)towers.[1] The injection of water at very high pressures – 2,070 to 3,100 kPa (300 to 450 psi) -creates a fog of very fine droplets.Higher particle-collection efficiencies can be achieved in such cases since collectionmechanisms other than inertial impaction occur.[2] However, these spray nozzles may usemore power to form droplets than would a venturi operating at the same collection efficiency.Gas collectionSpray towers can be used for gas absorption, but they are not as effectiveas packed or plate towers.Spray towers can be very effective in removing pollutants if the pollutants are highly solubleor if a chemical reagent is added to the liquid.For example, spray towers are used to remove HCl gas from the tail-gas exhaust inmanufacturing hydrochloric acid.In the production of superphosphate used in manufacturing fertilizer, SiF4 and HF gases arevented from various points in the processes. Spray towers have been used to remove thesehighly soluble compounds.Spray towers are also used for odor removal in bone meal and tallow manufacturing industriesby scrubbing the exhaust gases with a solution of KMnO4.Because of their ability to handle large gas volumes in corrosive atmospheres, spray towersare also used in a number of flue gas desulfurization systems as the first or second stage inthe pollutant removal process.In a spray tower, absorption can be increased by decreasing the size of the liquid dropletsand/or increasing theliquid-to-gas ratio (L/G). However, to accomplish either of these, anincrease in both power consumed and operating cost is required.In addition, the physical size of the spray tower will limit the amount of liquid and the size ofdroplets that can be used.Maintenance problems 23
  • 24. The main advantage of spray towers over other scrubbers is their completely open design; they have no internal parts except for the spray nozzles. This feature eliminates many of the scale buildup and plugging problems associated with other scrubbers. The primary maintenance problems are spray-nozzle plugging or eroding, especially when using recycled scrubber liquid. To reduce these problems, a settling or filtration system is used to remove abrasive particles from the recycled scrubbing liquid before pumping it back into the nozzles. Table 1. Operating characteristics of spray towers Pressure Liquid-inletPollutant Liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) Removal efficiency Applications drop (Δp) pressure (pL) 1.3-7.6 cm of 0.07-2.70 l/m³ (0.5-20 50-90+% (high efficiency only Mining industries Gases 70-2,800 kPa water gal/1,000 ft³ when the gas is very soluble) Chemical process industry Boilers and incinerators 0.5-3.0 in of 5 gal/1,000 ft³ is normal; >10 Iron and steelParticles 10-400 psig 2-8 µm diameter water when using pressure sprays industry COUNTER – FLOW SPRAY TOWER Spray towers or spray chambers are a form of pollution controltechnology. They consist of empty cylindrical vessels made of steel orplastic and nozzles that spray liquid into the vessels. The inlet gas stream usually enters the bottom of the tower and moves upward, while liquid is sprayed downward from one or more levels. 24
  • 25. This flow of inlet gas and liquid in the opposite direction is called countercurrentflow. Figure1 shows a typical countercurrent-flow spray tower. This type of technology is a part of thegroup of air pollution controls collectively referred to as wet scrubbers.Countercurrent flow exposes the outlet gas with the lowest pollutantconcentration to thefreshest scrubbing liquid. Many nozzles are placed across the tower at different heights tospray all of the gas as it moves up through the tower. The reasons for using many nozzles areto maximize the number of fine droplets impacting the pollutant particles and to provide alarge surface area for absorbing gas.Theoretically, the smaller the droplets formed, the higher the collection efficiency achieved forboth gaseous and particulate pollutants. However, the liquid droplets must be large enough tonot be carried out of the scrubber by the scrubbed outlet gas stream. Therefore, spray towersuse nozzles to produce droplets that are usually 500 to 1,000 µm in diameter. Although smallin size, these droplets are large compared to those created in the venturi scrubbers that are10 to 50 µm in size. The gas velocity is kept low, from 0.3 to 1.2 m/s (1 to 4 ft/s) to preventexcess droplets from being carried out of the tower.In order to maintain low gas velocities, spray towers must be larger than other scrubbers thathandle similar gas stream flow rates. Another problem occurring in spray towers is that after 25
  • 26. the droplets fall short distances, they tend to agglomerate or hit the walls of the tower.Consequently, the total liquid surface area for contact is reduced, reducing the collectionefficiency of the scrubber. Figure 2 - Crosscurrent-flow spray towerIn addition to a countercurrent-flow configuration, the flow in spray towers can be either aconcurrent or crosscurrent in configuration.In concurrent-flow spray towers, the inlet gas and liquid flow in the same direction. Becausethe gas stream does not "push" against the liquid sprays, the gas velocities through thevessels are higher than in countercurrentflow spray tower sulfur dioxide (SO2) from theexhaust flue gases of fossil fuel power plants. Fossil fuel power plants burn coal or oil toproduce steam for steam, which in turn drive electricity generators.Sulfur dioxide is one of the elements forming acid rain. Tall flue gas stacks disperse emissionsby diluting the pollutants in ambient air and transporting them to other regions.As stringent environmental regulations regarding SO2 emissions have been enacted in manycountries, SO2 is now being removed from flue gases by a variety of methods. The below isamong the common methods used:Sulfuric acid mist formationFossil fuels such as coal and oil contain a significant amount of sulfur. When fossil fuels areburned, about 95 percent or more of the sulfur is generally converted to sulfur dioxide (SO2).Such conversion happens under normal conditions of temperature and of oxygen present inthe flue gas. However, there are circumstances under which such reaction may not occur.For example, when the flue gas has too much oxygen and the SO2 is further oxidized to sulfurtrioxide (SO3). Actually, too much oxygen is only one of the ways that SO3 is formed. Gastemperature is also an important factor. At about 800 °C, formation of SO3 is favored. Another 26
  • 27. way that SO3 can be formed is through catalysis by metals in the fuel. Such reaction isparticularly true for heavy fuel oil, where a significant amount of vanadium is present. Inwhatever way SO3 is formed, it does not behave like SO2 in that it forms aliquid aerosol known as sulfuric acid (H2SO4) mist that is very difficult to remove. Generally,about 1% of the sulfur dioxide will be converted to SO3. Sulfuric acid mist is often the cause ofthe blue haze that often appears as the flue gas plume dissipates. Increasingly, this problem isbeing addressed by the use of wet electrostatic precipitators.FGD chemistryBasic principlesMost FGD systems employ two stages: one for fly ash removal and the other for SO2 removal.Attempts have been made to remove both the fly ash and SO2 in one scrubbing vessel.However, these systems experienced severe maintenance problems and low removalefficiency. In wet scrubbing systems, the flue gas normally passes first through a fly ashremoval device, either an electrostatic precipitator or a wet scrubber, and then into theSO2absorber. However, in dry injection or spray drying operations, the SO2 is first reacted withthe sorbent and then the flue gas passes through a particulate control device.Another important design consideration associated with wet FGD systems is that the flue gasexiting the absorber is saturated with water and still contains some SO2. These gases arehighly corrosive to any downstream equipment such as fans, ducts, and stacks. Two methodsthat can minimize corrosion are: (1) reheating the gases to above their dew point, or (2)choosing construction materials and design conditions that allow equipment to withstand thecorrosive conditions. Both alternatives are expensive, and engineers designing the systemdetermine which method to use on a site-by-site basis.Scrubbing with a basic solid or solutionSO2 is an acid gas and thus the typical sorbent slurries or other materials used to remove theSO2 from the flue gases are alkaline. The reaction taking place in wet scrubbing using aCaCO3 (limestone) slurry produces CaSO3(calcium sulfite) and can be expressed as: CaCO3 (solid) + SO2 (gas) → CaSO3 (solid) + CO2 (gas)When wet scrubbing with a Ca (OH)2 (lime) slurry, the reaction also produces CaSO3 (calciumsulfite) and can be expressed as: Ca (OH)2 (solid) + SO2 (gas) → CaSO3 (solid) + H2O (liquid) 27
  • 28. When wet scrubbing with an Mg (OH)2 (magnesium hydroxide) slurry, the reaction producesMgSO3 (magnesium sulfite) and can be expressed as: Mg (OH)2 (solid) + SO2 (gas) → MgSO3 (solid) + H2O (liquid)To partially offset the cost of the FGD installation, in some designs, the CaSO3 (calcium sulfite)is further oxidized to produce marketable CaSO4 · 2H2O (gypsum). This technique is alsoknown as forced oxidation: CaSO3 (solid) + H2O (liquid) + ½O2 (gas) → CaSO4 (solid) + H2OA natural alkaline usable to absorb SO2 is seawater. The SO2 is absorbed in the water, andwhen oxygen is added reacts to form sulfate ions SO4- and free H+. The surplus of H+ is offsetby the carbonates in seawater pushing the carbonate equilibrium to release CO2 gas: SO2 (gas) + H2O + ½O2 (gas)→ SO42- (solid) + 2H+ HCO3- + H+ → H2O + CO2 (gas)Types of wet scrubbers used in FGDTo promote maximum gas-liquid surface area and residence time, a number of wet scrubberdesigns have been used, including spray towers, venturis, plate towers, and mobile packedbeds. Because of scale buildup, plugging, or erosion, which affect FGD dependability andabsorber efficiency, the trend is to use simple scrubbers such as spray towers instead of morecomplicated ones. The configuration of the tower may be vertical or horizontal, and flue gascan flow concurrently, counter currently, or cross currently with respect to the liquid. The chiefdrawback of spray towers is that they require a higher liquid-to-gas ratio requirement forequivalent SO2 removal than other absorber designs.Venturi-rod scrubbersA venturi scrubber is a converging/diverging section of duct. The converging sectionaccelerates the gas stream to high velocity. When the liquid stream is injected at the throat,which is the point of maximum velocity, the turbulence caused by the high gas velocityatomizes the liquid into small droplets, which creates the surface area necessary for masstransfer to take place. The higher the pressure drop in the venturi, the smaller the dropletsand the higher the surface area. The penalty is in power consumption.For simultaneous removal of SO2 and fly ash, venturi scrubbers can be used. In fact, many ofthe industrial sodium-based throwaway systems are venturi scrubbers originally designed toremove particulate matter. These units were slightly modified to inject a sodium-basedscrubbing liquor. Although removal of both particles and SO2 in one vessel can be economic,the problems of high pressure drops and finding a scrubbing medium to remove heavy 28
  • 29. loadings of fly ash must be considered. However, in cases where the particle concentration islow, such as from oil-fired units, it can be more effective to remove particulate andSO2 simultaneously.Plate towersPacked bed scrubbersA packed scrubber consists of a tower with packing material inside. This packing material canbe in the shape of saddles, rings, or some highly specialized shapes designed to maximizecontact area between the dirty gas and liquid. Packed towers typically operate at much lowerpressure drops than venturi scrubbers and are therefore cheaper to operate. They alsotypically offer higher SO2 removal efficiency. The drawback is that they have a greatertendency to plug up if particles are present in excess in the exhaust air stream.Spray towersMain article: spray towerA spray tower is the simplest type of scrubber. It consists of a tower with spray nozzles, whichgenerate the droplets for surface contact. Spray towers are typically used when circulating aslurry (see below). The high speed of a venturi would cause erosion problems, while a packedtower would plug up if it tried to circulate slurry.Counter-current packed towers are infrequently used because they have a tendency tobecome plugged by collected particles or to scale when lime or limestone scrubbing slurriesare used.Scrubbing reagentAs explained above, alkaline sorbents are used for scrubbing flue gases to remove SO2.Depending on the application, the two most important are lime and sodium hydroxide (alsoknown as caustic soda). Lime is typically used on large coal or oil fired boilers as found inpower plants, as it is very much less expensive than caustic soda. The problem is that itresults in slurry being circulated through the scrubber instead of a solution. This makes itharder on the equipment. A spray tower is typically used for this application. The use of limeresults in a slurry of calcium sulfite (CaSO3) that must be disposed of. Fortunately, calciumsulfite can be oxidized to produce by-product gypsum (CaSO4 · 2H2O) which is marketable foruse in the building products industry.Caustic soda is limited to smaller combustion units because it is more expensive than lime, butit has the advantage that it forms a solution rather than slurry. This makes it easier to 29
  • 30. operate. It produces a solution of sodium sulfite/bisulphate (depending on the pH), or sodiumsulfate that must be disposed of. This is not a problem in a kraft pulp mill for example, wherethis can be a source of makeup chemicals to the recovery cycle.Scrubbing with sodium sulfite solutionIt is possible to scrub sulfur dioxide by using a cold solution of sodium sulfite, this forms asodium hydrogen sulfite solution. By heating this solution it is possible to reverse the reactionto form sulfur dioxide and the sodium sulfite solution.In some ways this can be thought of as being similar to the reversible liquid-liquidextraction of an inert gas such as xenon or radon (or some other solute which does notundergo a chemical change during the extraction) from water to another phase. While achemical change does occur during the extraction of the sulfur dioxide from the gas mixture, itis the case that the extraction equilibrium is shifted by changing the temperature rather thanby the use of a chemical reagent.Gas phase oxidation followed by reaction with ammoniaA new, emerging flue gas desulfurization technology has been described by the IAEA.[6] It isa radiation technology where an intense beam of electrons is fired into the flue gas at thesame time as ammonia is added to the gas. The Chendu power plant in China started up sucha flue gas desulfurization unit on a 100 MW scale in 1998. The Pomorzany power plant inPoland also started up a similar sized unit in 2003 and that plant removes both sulfur andnitrogen oxides. Both plants are reported to be operating successfully. However, theaccelerator design principles and manufacturing quality need further improvement forcontinuous operation in industrial conditions.No radioactivity is required or created in the process. The electron beam is generated by adevice similar to the electron in a TV set. This device is called an accelerator. This is anexample of a radiation chemistry process where the physical effects of radiation are used toprocess a substance.The action of the electron beam is to promote the oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfur(VI)compounds. The ammonia reacts with the sulfur compounds thus formed toproduce ammonium sulfate which can be used as a fertilizer according to the IAEA. Inaddition, it can be used to lower the nitrogen oxide content of the flue gas. This method hasattained industrial plant scale.Facts and statistics 30
  • 31. Flue gas desulphurization scrubbers have been applied to combustion units firing coal and oilthat range in size from 5 MW to 1500 MW. Scottish Power are spending £400 million installingFGD at Lon gannet power station which has a capacity of over 2 GW. Dry scrubbers and sprayscrubbers have generally been applied to units smaller than 300 MW.Approximately 85% of the flue gas desulfurization units installed in the US are wet scrubbers,12% are spray dry systems and 3% are dry injection systems.The highest SO2 removal efficiencies (greater than 90%) are achieved by wet scrubbers andthe lowest (less than 80%) by dry scrubbers. However, the newer designs for dry scrubbersare capable of achieving efficiencies in the order of 90%.In spray drying and dry injection systems, the flue gas must first be cooled to about 10-20 °Cabove adiabatic saturation to avoid wet solids deposition on downstream equipment andplugging of bag houses.The capital, operating and maintenance costs per short ton of SO2 removed (in 2001 USdollars) are:Alternative methods of reducing sulfur dioxideemissionsAn alternative to removing sulfur from the flue gases after burning is to remove the sulfurfrom the fuel before or during combustion. Hydrodesulphurization of fuel has been used fortreating fuel oils before use. Fluidized bed combustion adds lime to the fuel duringcombustion. The lime reacts with the SO2 to form sulfates which become part of the ash.called horizontal-spray scrubbers, the gas and liquid flow in directions perpendicular to eachother (Figure 2).In this vessel, the gas flows horizontally through a number of spray sections. The amount andquality of liquid sprayed in each section can be varied, usually with the cleanest liquid (ifrecycled liquid is used) sprayed in the last set of sprays. 31
  • 32. Figure 2 - Packed bed towerFigure 2 has a tower design where the mist eliminator is built into the top of the structure.Various tower designs exist.A wet scrubbers ability to collect small particles is often directly proportional to the powerinput into the scrubber. Low energy devices such as spray towers are used to collect particleslarger than 5 micrometers. To obtain high efficiency removal of 1 micrometer (or less)particles generally requires high energy devices such as venturi scrubbers or augmenteddevices such as condensation scrubbers. Additionally, a properly designed and operatedentrainment separator or mist eliminator is important to achieve high removal efficiencies. Thegreater the number of liquid droplets that are not captured by the mist eliminator the higherthe potential emission levels.Wet scrubbers that remove gaseous pollutants are referred to as absorbers. Good gas-to-liquid contact is essential to obtain high removal efficiencies in absorbers. A number of wetscrubber designs are used to remove gaseous pollutants, with the packed tower andthe plate tower being the most common.If the gas stream contains both particle matter and gases, wet scrubbers are generally theonly single air pollution control device that can remove both pollutants. Wet scrubbers canachieve high removal efficiencies for either particles or gases and, in some instances, canachieve a high removal efficiency for both pollutants in the same system. However, in manycases, the best operating conditions for particles collection are the poorest for gas removal.In general, obtaining high simultaneous gas and particulate removal efficiencies requires thatone of them be easily collected (i.e., that the gases are very soluble in the liquid or that the 32
  • 33. particles are large and readily captured) or by the use of a scrubbing reagent suchas lime or sodium hydroxide. 33

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