Government, Politics, and the Economy • Capitalism – Individuals and corporations own the prin...
LO 17.1 Government, Politics, and the Economy• Economic Policy at Work: Wal-Mart – Wal-Mart is 3rd largest company ...
LO 17.1Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman To Learning Objectives
LO 17.1Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman ...
LO 17.1 Government, Politics, and the Economy• “It’s the Economy, Stupid” – Economic conditions are the best single predi...
LO 17.1 Government, Politics, and the Economy• Unemployment and Inflation – Unemployment rate – Proportion of the labor ...
LO 17.1Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman To Learning Objectives
LO 17.1 Government, Politics, and the Economy• Unemployment and Inflation (cont.) – Underemployment rate – Statistic th...
Policies for Controlling the Economy • Laissez-Faire – Principle that government should not meddle in th...
LO 17.2 Policies for Controlling the Economy• Keynesian Versus Supply-Side Economics – Keynesian economic theory – That...
LO 17.2Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman To Learning Objectives
LO 17.2 Supply-side KeynesianCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, In...
Politics, Policy, and the International EconomyCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman ...
LO 17.4 Arenas of Economic Policymaking• Business and Public Policy – Antitrust policy – Designed to ensure competit...
LO 17.4 Arenas of Economic Policymaking• Labor and Government – Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 • Exempted union...
LO 17.4 Arenas of Economic Policymaking• Labor and Government (cont.) – Labor Unions have had 3 notable successes: ...
LO 17.5Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman ...
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
Types of Social Welfare Policies • Social Welfare Policies – Policies that provide benefits, cash or i...
LO 18.1 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Edu...
LO 18.2 Income, Poverty, and Public Policy• Who’s Getting What? – Income distribution – The way the national income...
LO 18.2 Income, Poverty, and Public Policy• Who’s Getting What? (cont.) To Learning O...
LO 18.2 Income, Poverty, and Public Policy• Who’s Poor in America? – Poverty line –based on what a family must spend ...
LO 18.2 Income, Poverty, and Public Policy• How Public Policy Affects Income – Progressive tax – A tax by which the g...
LO 18.2 Income, Poverty, and Public Policy• How Public Policy Affects Income (cont.) – Transfer payments – Benefi...
LO 18.3Helping the Poor? Social Policy and the Needy• “Welfare” As We Knew It – Social Security Act of 1935 created the S...
LO 18.3 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Edu...
LO 18.3 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Edu...
LO 18.4 Social Security: Living on Borrowed Time• The Growth of Social Security – In 2010, average monthly check for ret...
LO 18.4 Social Security: Living on Borrowed Time• The Growth of Social Security – What’s the problem? • Fewer work...
LO 18.5 Social Welfare Policy Elsewhere• 71% of Americans believe that the poor could escape poverty if they worked...
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
Health Care Policy • The Costs and Benefits of Health Care ...
LO 19.1 Health Care Policy• The Cost of Health Care (cont.) – Americans now spend over $2.5 trillion a year...
LO 19.1 Health Care Policy• The Cost of Health Care (cont.) – Americans now spend over $2.5 trillion a ye...
LO 19.1 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Edu...
LO 19.1 Health Care Policy• Access to Health Care – ⅔ of Americans – Private health insurance obtained ...
LO 19.1 Health Care Policy• Access to Health Care (cont.) – Medicare – Covers nearly everyone age 65 and ...
LO 19.1 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Edu...
LO 19.1 Health Care Policy• Reform Efforts – Harry Truman • National Health Insurance ...
LO 19.2 Environmental Policy• Economic Growth and the Environment – Environmental interest groups exploded in...
LO 19.2 Environmental Policy• Environmental Policies in America – Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)...
LO 19.2 Environmental Policy• Environmental Policies in America (cont.) – Wilderness Preservation – New in ...
LO 19.2 Environmental Policy• Environmental Policies in America (cont.) – Endangered Species Act of 1973 is a...
LO 19.2 Environmental Policy• Environmental Policies in America (cont.) – Nuclear Waste – In 1987 Congress ...
LO 19.2 Environmental Policy• Global Warming – The increase in the earth’s temperatures that, according t...
LO 19.2 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Edu...
Energy Policy • America’s Energy Usage ...
LO 19.3 Energy Policy• Coal – 90% of the country’s energy resources are in coal deposits. – Coal acc...
LO 19.3 Energy Policy• Petroleum and Natural Gas – Oil supplies 37% of our energy. – Natural gas – 24...
LO 19.3 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Edu...
LO 19.3 Energy Policy• Nuclear Energy – Nuclear electric power accounts for 9% of our total energy....
LO 19.3 Energy Policy• Renewable Sources of Energy – Renewable sources (7% of energy) are water (6% ...
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
LO 20.1 American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers • Foreign Policy ...
LO 20.1 American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers• Instruments of Foreign Policy...
LO 20.1 American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers• Actors on the World S...
LO 20.1 American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers• Actors on the World Stage (cont.)...
LO 20.1 American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers• The Policymakers – The Presi...
LO 20.1 American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers• The Policymakers (cont.) – Cen...
LO 20.2 American Foreign Policy Through the Cold War• Isolationism – We tried to remain isolated up to World War II• Cont...
LO 20.2 American Foreign Policy Through the Cold War• The Cold War (cont.) – Cold War – Hostility between the United Stat...
LO 20.2 American Foreign Policy Through the Cold War• The Cold War (cont.) – Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) ...
LO 20.3 American Foreign Policy and the War on Terrorism• The Spread of Terrorism – Terrorism – Use of ...
LO 20.3 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Edu...
LO 20.3 American Foreign Policy and the War on Terrorism• Afghanistan and Iraq – U.S. declared war ...
LO 20.3 American Foreign Policy and the War on Terrorism• Afghanistan and Iraq (cont.) – Axis of Ev...
LO 20.3 American Foreign Policy and the War on Terrorism• Afghanistan and Iraq (cont.) – In 2007, Bus...
LO 20.4 Defense Policy• Defense Spending – Defense spending makes up about one-fifth of the federal...
LO 20.4 Defense Policy• Personnel – The United States has about 1.4 million men and women on active du...
LO 20.4 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Edu...
LO 20.5 The New National Security Agenda• The Changing Role of Military Power – Force is often not appropriate for a...
LO 20.5 The New National Security Agenda• The Changing Role of Military Power (cont.) – United States and its allies ...
LO 20.5 The New National Security Agenda• The Changing Role of Military Power (cont.) – Economic Sanctions – Nonmilit...
LO 20.5 The New National Security Agenda• Nuclear Proliferation – Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (1968) – Nations ...
LO 20.5 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Edu...
LO 20.5 The New National Security Agenda• Foreign Aid – Congress appropriates less than 1% of budget for foreign a...
LO 20.5 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Edu...
Political Policy
Political Policy
Political Policy
Political Policy
of 82

Political Policy

Chaper
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Political Policy

  • 1. Government, Politics, and the Economy • Capitalism – Individuals and corporations own the principal means of production and seek profits. • Mixed Economy – Government is deeply involved in economic decisions as regulator, consumer, subsidizer, taxer, employer, and borrower. To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • 2. LO 17.1 Government, Politics, and the Economy• Economic Policy at Work: Wal-Mart – Wal-Mart is 3rd largest company • Hires 1.4 million workers • Provides cheap products through tough negotiation with distributors • Most of the merchandise in Wal-Mart comes from other countries. • In 2002, Wal-Mart is estimated to have imported $12 billion in goods from China, one-tenth of China’s total 2002 U.S. exports. • Wal-Mart’s low costs have forced many factories to move overseas. – Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) – Federal agency regulates stock market. • Buyers of Wal-Mart stock are entitled to accurate knowledge from the company – Wal-Mart’s employees are entitled to a minimum wage of $7.25 per hour. – Collective bargaining – How labor union representatives and management negotiate pay and acceptable working conditions. – Wal-Mart workers are protected by regulations governing worker safety and hiring and other employment policies. – Wal-Mart cannot discriminate on the basis sex, race, or age in hiring, firing, and promotions.
  • 3. LO 17.1Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman To Learning Objectives
  • 4. LO 17.1Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman To Learning Objectives
  • 5. LO 17.1 Government, Politics, and the Economy• “It’s the Economy, Stupid” – Economic conditions are the best single predictors of voters’ evaluation of the president. – Democrats stress the importance of employment, and Republicans stress importance of inflation. To Learning Objectives
  • 6. LO 17.1 Government, Politics, and the Economy• Unemployment and Inflation – Unemployment rate – Proportion of the labor force seeking work but unable to find jobs. • 125,000 new monthly needed just to keep up with new entrants into the labor force. • 10% unemployment rate in late 2009 with economic recession. – Inflation – The rise in prices for goods & services • Inflation has remained below 4% for the past 30 years To Learning Objectives
  • 7. LO 17.1Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman To Learning Objectives
  • 8. LO 17.1 Government, Politics, and the Economy• Unemployment and Inflation (cont.) – Underemployment rate – Statistic that includes the unemployed, discouraged workers, and people who are working part-time that cannot find full-time work. – In July 2010, the national unemployment rate was 9.5% and underemployment rate was 16.5%. • Currently 8.4% (November 2011) To Learning Objectives
  • 9. Policies for Controlling the Economy • Laissez-Faire – Principle that government should not meddle in the economy. – The 1929 stock market crash sent unemployment soaring, but Hoover clung to laissez-faire. – Roosevelt’s New Deal involved the government in the economy during the Great Depression.Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman To Learning Objectives
  • 10. LO 17.2 Policies for Controlling the Economy• Keynesian Versus Supply-Side Economics – Keynesian economic theory – That government spending and deficits can help the economy deal with its ups and downs. • 2009 $787 billion stimulus package – Supply-side economics – Cutting tax rates will stimulate the supply of goods. Lower tax rates stimulate supply of goods, as people are motivated to work longer, increase savings and investments, and produce more. • Bush tax cuts To Learning Objectives
  • 11. LO 17.2Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman To Learning Objectives
  • 12. LO 17.2 Supply-side KeynesianCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman To Learning Objectives
  • 13. Politics, Policy, and the International EconomyCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman To Learning Objectives
  • 14. LO 17.4 Arenas of Economic Policymaking• Business and Public Policy – Antitrust policy – Designed to ensure competition and prevent monopoly. – Republicans are less likely to break monopolies than Democrats – Antitrust legislation permits the Justice Department to sue in federal court to break up companies that control too much of the market. • AT & T To Learning Objectives
  • 15. LO 17.4 Arenas of Economic Policymaking• Labor and Government – Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 • Exempted unions from antitrust laws. – Wagner Act of 1935 (Wagner Act) • Guarantees workers the right of collective bargaining, sets down rules to protect unions and organizers. – Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 • Prohibited unfair practices by unions, and gave the president power to halt major strikes by seeking a court injunction for an 80-day “cooling off” period. • also permitted states to adopt right-to-work laws, which forbid labor contracts from requiring workers to join unions to hold their jobs. To Learning Objectives
  • 16. LO 17.4 Arenas of Economic Policymaking• Labor and Government (cont.) – Labor Unions have had 3 notable successes: • Unemployment Compensation - Government provides unemployment compensation to employees during lay- offs that is paid for by workers and employers. • Minimum wage - Government guarantees a minimum wage to be paid to employees. • Lobbied for child-labor laws To Learning Objectives
  • 17. LO 17.5Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman To Learning Objectives
  • 18. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • 19. Types of Social Welfare Policies • Social Welfare Policies – Policies that provide benefits, cash or in-kind, to individuals, based on either entitlement or means testing. • Entitlement Programs – Government programs providing benefits to qualified individuals regardless of need. • Means-Tested Programs – Government programs providing benefits only to individuals who qualify based on specific needs. – http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/tue-december-13- 2011/newt-gingrich-s-poverty-code?xrs=share_copy To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • 20. LO 18.1 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • 21. LO 18.2 Income, Poverty, and Public Policy• Who’s Getting What? – Income distribution – The way the national income is divided into “shares” ranging from the poor to the rich. – In recent decades, the share of the highest fifth has grown while those of the lowest fifths have gotten smaller. – Relative deprivation – A person perceives that he or she is not doing well economically in comparison to others. To Learning Objectives
  • 22. LO 18.2 Income, Poverty, and Public Policy• Who’s Getting What? (cont.) To Learning Objectives
  • 23. LO 18.2 Income, Poverty, and Public Policy• Who’s Poor in America? – Poverty line –based on what a family must spend for an “basic” standard of living, set at three times the cost of a subsistence diet. – 43.6 million people, or 14.3% of population, were poor in 2009, according to Census Bureau. – Poverty rate for female-headed families is almost 30%, as opposed to less than 6% for families with two parents. To Learning Objectives
  • 24. LO 18.2 Income, Poverty, and Public Policy• How Public Policy Affects Income – Progressive tax – A tax by which the government takes a greater share of the income of the rich than of the poor. – For example, when a rich family pays 50% of its income in taxes, and a poor family pays 5%. To Learning Objectives
  • 25. LO 18.2 Income, Poverty, and Public Policy• How Public Policy Affects Income (cont.) – Transfer payments – Benefits given by the government directly to individuals either cash transfers, such as Social Security payments, or in-kind transfers, such as food stamps and low-interest college loans. To Learning Objectives
  • 26. LO 18.3Helping the Poor? Social Policy and the Needy• “Welfare” As We Knew It – Social Security Act of 1935 created the Social Security program and the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program. – In 1964 President Lyndon Johnson declared a War on Poverty, and added welfare programs to the policies that fight poverty. – In 1981, President Ronald Reagan declared war on antipoverty programs, and persuaded Congress to cut welfare benefits and lower the number of Americans on the welfare rolls by arguing that welfare had proved to be a failure. – Bill Clinton created Temporary Assistance for Needy Families • People on welfare would have to find work within 2 years • Lifetime maximum of five years for welfare. To Learning Objectives
  • 27. LO 18.3 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • 28. LO 18.3 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • 29. LO 18.4 Social Security: Living on Borrowed Time• The Growth of Social Security – In 2010, average monthly check for retired workers was $1,100. – Current payroll taxes are 12.4%. • Workers contribute 6.2% of their wages up to $102,000, and their employers match it. – Trust Fund must invest money in U.S. Treasury bonds, which has been earning about 6% a year. To Learning Objectives
  • 30. LO 18.4 Social Security: Living on Borrowed Time• The Growth of Social Security – What’s the problem? • Fewer workers per retiree • People are living longer/collecting more Social Security • Recession has hurt the amount paid in – U.S. Treasury Bonds have done poorly in the recession – Fewer people working / receiving smaller checks • Social Security increases to adjust to inflation but the payroll tax does not To Learning Objectives
  • 31. LO 18.5 Social Welfare Policy Elsewhere• 71% of Americans believe that the poor could escape poverty if they worked hard enough, compared to 40% of Europeans. To Learning Objectives
  • 32. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • 33. Health Care Policy • The Costs and Benefits of Health Care To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • 34. LO 19.1 Health Care Policy• The Cost of Health Care (cont.) – Americans now spend over $2.5 trillion a year on health care. – In 2009, health expenditures were over one-sixth (17%) of the gross domestic product (GDP). – Nearly one-fourth of all federal expenditures go to health care. To Learning Objectives
  • 35. LO 19.1 Health Care Policy• The Cost of Health Care (cont.) – Americans now spend over $2.5 trillion a year on health care. – Factors behind costs • Too many medical care facilities; new technologies, drugs, and procedures; no one has primary responsibility for paying or controlling health care costs; defensive medicine; and higher insurance premiums. To Learning Objectives
  • 36. LO 19.1 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • 37. LO 19.1 Health Care Policy• Access to Health Care – ⅔ of Americans – Private health insurance obtained individually or from employers (58% insured). – Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) provide health care for yearly fee, and limit choice of doctors and treatments. – Enrolled in HMOs – More than 50% of Americans and ¾ of doctors. To Learning Objectives
  • 38. LO 19.1 Health Care Policy• Access to Health Care (cont.) – Medicare – Covers nearly everyone age 65 and older. – Medicaid – 43 million people with low incomes are covered. – Children’s Health Insurance Program covers many children. – More than 46 million people (15%) have no health insurance. To Learning Objectives
  • 39. LO 19.1 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • 40. LO 19.1 Health Care Policy• Reform Efforts – Harry Truman • National Health Insurance – A compulsory insurance program for all Americans that would have the government finance citizens’ medical care. – Bill Clinton • Health Security Act - provide health care coverage for all • Required employers to provide health insurance for their employees or pay a premium into a public fund; raised taxes on cigarettes; and imposed a small tax on other large companies. – Barack Obama • Insure people with preexisting conditions; no dropping coverage when people became sick; cap out-of-pocket expenses; no extra charges for preventive care; close the gap in Medicare’s coverage for prescription drugs; and increase the number of people with health insurance. To Learning Objectives
  • 41. LO 19.2 Environmental Policy• Economic Growth and the Environment – Environmental interest groups exploded in both size and number during the 1960s and 1970s. – Today, conflicts are apparent between economic growth and environmental goals. To Learning Objectives
  • 42. LO 19.2 Environmental Policy• Environmental Policies in America – Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is the largest federal independent regulatory agency, created in 1970 to administer much of U.S. environmental protection policy. – National Environmental Policy Act (1969) – Agencies must file environmental impact statements with EPA, which detail proposed policy’s environmental effects. – Clean Air Act of 1970 – Combats air pollution, by charging the EPA with protecting and improving the quality of air. – Clean Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 – A law intended to clean up the nation’s rivers and lakes, by enabling regulation of point sources of pollution. • ⅔ of U.S. lakes and rivers are safe for fishing and drinking. To Learning Objectives
  • 43. LO 19.2 Environmental Policy• Environmental Policies in America (cont.) – Wilderness Preservation – New in 1916 with National Park System. – There are now 378 national parks and 155 national forests. – About 4% of the land in the U.S. is designated as wilderness and half of that is in Alaska. To Learning Objectives
  • 44. LO 19.2 Environmental Policy• Environmental Policies in America (cont.) – Endangered Species Act of 1973 is a law requiring the federal government (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) to protect all species listed as endangered. – As of 2009, the endangered species list included 1,215 animal and 752 plant species. To Learning Objectives
  • 45. LO 19.2 Environmental Policy• Environmental Policies in America (cont.) – Nuclear Waste – In 1987 Congress designated the NV Yucca Mountain as the site to consolidate and permanently bury nuclear fuel. – NV congressional delegation have delayed implementation of plan due to safety and cost issues. To Learning Objectives
  • 46. LO 19.2 Environmental Policy• Global Warming – The increase in the earth’s temperatures that, according to most scientists, is occurring as a result of the carbon dioxide that is produced when fossil fuels are burned collecting in the atmosphere and trapping energy from the sun. – Scientists – Earth is warming at a rapid rate; by 2100 will be between 2 and 6 degrees warmer; seas will rise; severe droughts, rainstorms, heat waves, and floods will be common; and major climatic and agricultural zones will shift causing pestilence, famine, and disease. – 4% of world’s population live in the U.S., but the U.S. produces more than 20% of the gases that cause global warming. To Learning Objectives
  • 47. LO 19.2 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • 48. Energy Policy • America’s Energy Usage To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • 49. LO 19.3 Energy Policy• Coal – 90% of the country’s energy resources are in coal deposits. – Coal accounts for 22% of the energy Americans use, and it produces 48% of its electricity. – Coal contributes to global warming, smog, and acid rain. To Learning Objectives
  • 50. LO 19.3 Energy Policy• Petroleum and Natural Gas – Oil supplies 37% of our energy. – Natural gas – 24% of energy and produces 21% of our electricity. – Natural gas and oil contribute to global warming, transporting oil can result in spills, and refining oil pollutes the air. – 57% of oil we use is imported. To Learning Objectives
  • 51. LO 19.3 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • 52. LO 19.3 Energy Policy• Nuclear Energy – Nuclear electric power accounts for 9% of our total energy. – 21% of our electricity is produced by nuclear energy. – Concerns – Radiation leaks; use of atomic fuel; and disposal. – Since 1978, no new nuclear power plants and many are abandoned. To Learning Objectives
  • 53. LO 19.3 Energy Policy• Renewable Sources of Energy – Renewable sources (7% of energy) are water (6% of electricity), wind (1% of electricity), sun, geothermal sources, hydrogen, and biomass (3% of energy). – Biomass power – Plants and plant derived materials used to produce electricity (biopower) and liquid fuels (biofuels). To Learning Objectives
  • 54. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • 55. LO 20.1 American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers • Foreign Policy – Policy that involves choice taking about relations with the rest of the world. – President is the chief initiator of U.S. foreign policy. To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • 56. LO 20.1 American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers• Instruments of Foreign Policy – Military – War, threat of war, and military force. – Economic – Control of oil, trade regulations, tariff policies, and monetary policies. – Diplomacy – Summit talks and treaties provide relationships. To Learning Objectives
  • 57. LO 20.1 American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers• Actors on the World Stage – United Nations – Created in 1945 and today has 192 member nations with peacekeeping missions and programs in areas such as economic development, health, education, and welfare. • Security Council has real power. – International Monetary Fund regulates international finance. – World Bank finances development projects in new nations. – World Trade Organization regulates international trade. – Universal Postal Union helps get mail from country to country. To Learning Objectives
  • 58. LO 20.1 American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers• Actors on the World Stage (cont.) – North Atlantic Treaty Organization • A regional organization created in 1949 by nations including the United States, Canada, and most Western European nations for mutual defense and has been expanded. – European Union • A transnational government composed of most European nations to coordinate monetary, trade, immigration, and labor policies, making its members one economic unit. – Multinational corporations – Non-Governmental Groups – Terrorist – Tourist To Learning Objectives
  • 59. LO 20.1 American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers• The Policymakers – The President is the main force behind foreign policy. – Secretary of State – The head of the State Department and key foreign policy adviser to the president. – Secretary of Defense – The head of the Department of Defense and the president’s key adviser on military policy – Joint Chiefs of Staff – A group that consists of the commanding officers of each of the armed services To Learning Objectives
  • 60. LO 20.1 American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers• The Policymakers (cont.) – Central Intelligence Agency – An agency created after World War II to coordinate American intelligence activities abroad and to collect, analyze, and evaluate intelligence. – National Reconnaissance Office uses imagery satellites to view missile sites and military activities around the world. – The National Security Agency has electronic eavesdropping capabilities and protects our national security information. – Congress has sole authority to declare war, raise and organize armed forces, and fund national security activities. To Learning Objectives
  • 61. LO 20.2 American Foreign Policy Through the Cold War• Isolationism – We tried to remain isolated up to World War II• Containment Doctrine – George Kennan called for United States to contain communism and not allow it to spread.• Truman Doctrine – United States declared it would help other nations oppose communism. To Learning Objectives
  • 62. LO 20.2 American Foreign Policy Through the Cold War• The Cold War (cont.) – Cold War – Hostility between the United States and Soviet Union from the end of World War II until the collapse of the Soviet Union and Eastern European communist regimes in 1989 and 1991. – Arms Race – Relationship started in the 1950s between the Soviet Union and United States whereby one side’s weaponry caused the other side to get more weaponry. – Mutual Assured Destruction – The result of arms race by mid-1960s in which each side had ability to annihilate the other after absorbing a surprise attack. – Korean War (1950-1953) & Vietnam War– Put containment into practice involving China and North Korea. To Learning Objectives
  • 63. LO 20.2 American Foreign Policy Through the Cold War• The Cold War (cont.) – Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) • Effort by the United States and Soviet Union to limit the growth of their nuclear capabilities – Reagan Rearmament – Proposed a five-year defense buildup costing $1.5 trillion and defense officials were ordered to find places to spend money. – Final Thaw in Cold War – Soviet leader Gorbachev’s changes helped end communist regimes and postwar barriers between Eastern and Western Europe in 1989. – In 1991, the Soviet Union split into 15 separate nations, and noncommunist governments formed in most of them. To Learning Objectives
  • 64. LO 20.3 American Foreign Policy and the War on Terrorism• The Spread of Terrorism – Terrorism – Use of violence to demoralize and frighten populations or governments. – Forms of Terrorism – Bombing of buildings and ships; kidnapping of diplomats and civilians; and assassinating political leaders. – Terrorism is difficult to defend against because terrorists have the advantage of stealth and surprise and of a willingness to die for their cause. To Learning Objectives
  • 65. LO 20.3 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • 66. LO 20.3 American Foreign Policy and the War on Terrorism• Afghanistan and Iraq – U.S. declared war on terrorism after the 9-11-2001 attacks. – Bush attacked bin Laden and al Qaeda and the Taliban regime that had been harboring them. – The Taliban fell in short order although many suspected members of al Qaeda escaped.
  • 67. LO 20.3 American Foreign Policy and the War on Terrorism• Afghanistan and Iraq (cont.) – Axis of Evil – Iran, Iraq, and North Korea as declared by Bush. – In 2003, a U.S. led coalition removed Hussein from power. – Win war on terror – End support of ideology and strategy used by terrorists out to destroy the United States and its allies. To Learning Objectives
  • 68. LO 20.3 American Foreign Policy and the War on Terrorism• Afghanistan and Iraq (cont.) – In 2007, Bush ordered a troop surge in Iraq to slow violence and let Iraqis develop a democratic government, train police and defense forces, – Obama removes all combat troops as of December 2011 To Learning Objectives
  • 69. LO 20.4 Defense Policy• Defense Spending – Defense spending makes up about one-fifth of the federal budget, which is $600 billion per year. – This is more than the next 15 or 20 biggest spenders combined. – Results – Nuclear superiority, dominant air force, navy with worldwide operations, and power around the globe. To Learning Objectives
  • 70. LO 20.4 Defense Policy• Personnel – The United States has about 1.4 million men and women on active duty and about 845,000 in the National Guard and reserves. – About 300,000 active duty troops are deployed abroad and many of them serve in Iraq, Afghanistan, Europe, Japan, and South Korea. To Learning Objectives
  • 71. LO 20.4 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • 72. LO 20.5 The New National Security Agenda• The Changing Role of Military Power – Force is often not appropriate for achieving all goals. – Soft power – Nation persuades others to do what it wants without force or coercion. – National security hinges as much on winning hearts and minds as it does on winning wars. To Learning Objectives
  • 73. LO 20.5 The New National Security Agenda• The Changing Role of Military Power (cont.) – United States and its allies have used military force to accomplish humanitarian ends. – 1999 – Protect ethnic Albanians in Kosovo by bombing Serbs. – 2010 – Provide food, housing, and medical care in Haiti after a severe earthquake. To Learning Objectives
  • 74. LO 20.5 The New National Security Agenda• The Changing Role of Military Power (cont.) – Economic Sanctions – Nonmilitary penalties imposed on nation. – Penalties – No aid; ban military sales; restrict imports; or a total trade embargo. – Goals – Stop terrorism, unfair trading, human rights abuse, and drug trafficking; and promote environmental initiatives. To Learning Objectives
  • 75. LO 20.5 The New National Security Agenda• Nuclear Proliferation – Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (1968) – Nations agreed to not acquire or test nuclear weapons. – United States, Russia, Britain, France, China, India, Pakistan, and North Korea have declared that they have nuclear weapons. – North Korea and Iran are now developing nuclear weapons and U.S. policymakers are concerned. To Learning Objectives
  • 76. LO 20.5 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • 77. LO 20.5 The New National Security Agenda• Foreign Aid – Congress appropriates less than 1% of budget for foreign aid in areas of economic development and military assistance. – U.S. donates more total aid than any other country, it devotes a smaller share of its GDP to foreign economic development than any other developed nation. To Learning Objectives
  • 78. LO 20.5 To Learning ObjectivesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman