Nationalism Paper
There have been many uproars throughout the world. Some are outburst of revolts, some
are acts of war to...
equal right bearing citizens, united in patriotic attachment to a shared set of political values and
practices. A second v...
Ukrainians and Finns in the west from a host of other ethnic groups in the south and east. In all
these cases nationalism ...
By comparison elsewhere in Europe nationalism was seen as destructive and corrosive
for by those in authority particularly...
of 4

Nationalism Paper

Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Nationalism Paper

  • 1. Nationalism Paper There have been many uproars throughout the world. Some are outburst of revolts, some are acts of war towards other countries and there have also been forms of revolutions that have happened throughout the world. Throughout Europe during the 19th century this was seen on a world view and many countries of other continents saw the destruction of what happened. A lot of new ideas was brought about in Europe and one example was nationalism. It would be the new forms of ideas across Europe that would help bring together nationalism that would change Europe and the surrounding countries forever and lead to two new countries to be born which were Germany and Italy. So what actually does the term nationalism really mean? A definition given by Ernest Gellner states that nationalism is primarily a principle which holds that the political and national unit should be congruent. Nationalism can be broken down into a sentiment or a movement. As a sentiment is means that it is a feeling of anger aroused by violation of the principle or the feeling of satisfaction aroused by its fulfillment. As a movement it means it is one actuated by a sentiment of nationalism is a theory of political legitimacy, which requires that ethnic boundaries should not cut across political ones. One example of nationalism was the French Revolution and it brought new ideas to the table for someone to look at nationalism and how it had changed. There were two distinct ways of looking at the French revolution. The first way was the emergence of what has been called civic nationalism. Loyalty to be more exact about what is being said. Loyalty to the state was enhanced by the extension of natural rights to all citizens. An example of this in France was the declaration of the rights of man which states that the principle of sovereignty resides essentially in the nation. This nationalism is called civic because it envisages the nation as a community of
  • 2. equal right bearing citizens, united in patriotic attachment to a shared set of political values and practices. A second very different answer as to what constitutes the nation was given by a German philosophers at the end of the eighteenth century. Johann Gottfried von Herder first came up with the idea of languages and nationality. He claimed to find the soul of the German volk (people) in its folklore and songs. A more explicit exposition of the links between language and nationality was delivered by Johann Gottlieb Fitche in his address to the German nation in 1806 – 1807. Fitche was a German philosopher in berlin at the time. Initially and up to 1799 Fitche was an admirer of the ideals promoted by the French revolution. However Napoleon’s victory over Prussia at the battle of Jena in 1806 and the subsequent French occupation of Berlin led to a complete change of front. Fitche believed that language made a nation. He said “Those who speak the same language are joined to each other by a multitude of invisible bonds by nature herself long before any art begins they understand each other and have the power continuing to make themselves understood more and more clearly they belong together and are by nature one and an inseparable whole.” (Europe) Fitche was more interested in Germany’s cultural mission to the world than its political union, but his view were to provide powerful support to German nationalism and the belief in the existence of ethnic nations. There were potential problems wherever there was a clash between existing political boundaries and ethnic minorities. In post congress Europe this was most obviously the case in the Hapsburg Empire which included Italians, Poles, Hungarians, Czechs, Slovenes, Croats and Serbs after 1878. Similar problems arose in the ottoman and Russian empires. The balk peninsula under the nominal rules of the Turkish sultan was populated by Serbs, Croats, Bulgarians, Romanians, Montenegrins Albanians and Greeks all of whom would come to demand their independence in time. The Russian empire was faced with similar challenges from poles,
  • 3. Ukrainians and Finns in the west from a host of other ethnic groups in the south and east. In all these cases nationalism acted as solvent helping to break up multiethnic empires. Where Italy and Germany were concerned on the other hand nationalism acted as a bonding agent bringing together peoples who were united by language culture and in case of Italy religion. Yet within a generation nationalist movements had taken root in many parts of Europe inspiring revolts in Italy, Belgium Poland and Greece. Within two generations Italy and Germany had appeared as nation states. However for nationalist sentiment in the first half of the nineteenth century it was confined to a limited minority. Many have argued that national sentiment that it was as much the product of the state as its creator. It was the Italian politician in the late nineteenth century Massimo D’ Azeglio who said at the opening of the first parliament in 1861 “We have made Italy, now we have to make the Italians.” (Europe) it’s no surprise that states have undergone a change of government in Europe due to the fact of revolutions. Throughout the nineteenth century the concert of Europe was threatened by the force of nationalism in the Ottoman Empire where there were a number of ethnic and religious groups who revolted against both the Turkish overlord and against each other. However the attitudes pf nationalism across Europe in the first half of the nineteenth century varied widely at one extreme was a man named Mazzini who formed nationalism to create what is now Italy. Nationalism to Mazzini was very redemptive force which he had greater loyalty to having Italy unified then his own religious beliefs. Nationalism had no appeal for the signatories of the Holy alliance. Britain for example which did not sign it and did not ask for nationalism in their country took a more pragmatic view and they were prepared to support nationalist revolts because they favored the Britain’s interest.
  • 4. By comparison elsewhere in Europe nationalism was seen as destructive and corrosive for by those in authority particularly the rulers in Austria and Russia. For example prince Metternich of Austria proposed to use Italian has a language in education and the medium of his government but he also regarded the unification of Italy as dangerous and pointless. However for the German state it was a little different but the German states were finally unified in 1871 as a state called Germany. So to conclude nationalism was one of the biggest uproars across Europe in the 19th century. It took the minds of people like Bismarck to help unify the German states into Germany and for Mazzini, Cavour and Garibaldi to help unify Italy. However nationalism has not been forgotten and it helped form some of the countries in other parts of the world to get their own independence and government in order. Finally nationalism in Europe was a way of having new idea and a way to challenge them to make them come true. 1. (Europe 1783 -1914 second edition Simpson William, Jones Martin 2009)

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