The Santa Cruz River after a rain, near Tubac, Arizona
PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | 02
PRESIDIO DE TUBAC
MASTER PLAN
BRIANNA LEHMAN
COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE, PLANNING, AND LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
MASTER OF LANDS...
MASTER’S REPORT COMMITTEE
RONALD STOLTZ, FASLA, FCELA
COMMITTEE CHAIR
MARGARET LIVINGSTON, PH.D., ASLA
COMMITTEE MEMBER
R....
Tubac Presidio State Historic Park has the unique distinction of being the first state park in
Arizona. It also sits firml...
Recreating Territorial history in the schoolhouse.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | TABLE OF CONTENTS | 07
INTRODUCTION........................................
INTRODUCTION
Recreating Territorial history in the schoolhouse.
Tubac Presidio State Park is in the middle of a profound shift in
purpose. Originally founded as the first state park in A...
PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | RESEARCH | 12
Research Question
How can a preserved historic site go beyond merely preserv...
PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | RESEARCH | 13
Small gardens provide interpretation for visitors.
A Sonoran-style row house...
A view of the Santa Rita Mountains from the Tubac Presidio.
The history and fate of Tubac is closely linked with the fate and fortunes
of the state of Arizona. Founded in 1752 as the...
PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | HISTORY OF TUBAC | 16
and Oklahoma as well as everywhere in between. Coronado encountered ...
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there (Wormser, 1975). There is some debate about the provenance of ...
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of California and then to travel northward, in search of suitable pl...
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(Wormser 1975). Poston clearly enjoyed his tenure in Arizona; it was...
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largely of guns and liquor) but this period of peace was not to last...
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LITERATURE
REVIEW
Adobe ruins at the nearby Guevavi Mission near Nogales, Arizona.
Interpretive design is a complete science of its own, dedicated to
the conveyance of information using many strategies. Ul...
PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | INTERPRETIVE DESIGN | 26
the role of education is important in the life of a visitor, as i...
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Interpretation has a short shelf life, and must be constantly r...
The agricultural legacy of the desert Southwest is unique. Agriculture
was practiced in the Southwest for thousands of yea...
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to the New World, as well as exploiting it for whatever resources mi...
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the King of Spain (Dunmire 2004), but their agricultural and livesto...
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monument as it was at the time; rather, “the historic functions, the...
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The Visitor Experience
If visitors are the most important componen...
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Arizona Sonora Desert Museum and Jesus Manuel Garcia-Yanez, as well ...
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Seine, Paris
Small park design specifically focuses on parks that are under 10 acres.
Small parks, like all parks, must take into accou...
PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | SMALL PARK DESIGN | 38
Microclimate
Providing a comfortable microclimate for park visito...
PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | SMALL PARK DESIGN | 39
Well-designed parks can attract widlife. Paths can be formal or inf...
Cultural and historic parks differ from recreational parks in the
amenities that they provide, as well as their overall go...
PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | CULTURAL PARK DESIGN | 41
architectural realm need to be clearly distinguishable from the ...
CASE
REVIEWS
Arizona Sonora Desert Museum
Case reviews present an opportunity to apply lessons and guidelines from
the literature review to real-world cases, where ...
Fort Loudoun is a mid-18th century British fort in Tennessee that has
since been designated as a State Historic Area. The ...
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PresidioDeTubacStatePark_MasterPlan

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
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Transcripts - PresidioDeTubacStatePark_MasterPlan

  • 1. The Santa Cruz River after a rain, near Tubac, Arizona
  • 2. PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | 02
  • 3. PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN BRIANNA LEHMAN COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE, PLANNING, AND LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA 2014 A MASTER’S REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF IN THE GRADUATE COLLEGE OF PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | 03
  • 4. MASTER’S REPORT COMMITTEE RONALD STOLTZ, FASLA, FCELA COMMITTEE CHAIR MARGARET LIVINGSTON, PH.D., ASLA COMMITTEE MEMBER R. BROOKS JEFFERY COMMITTEE MEMBER Above all, I would like to acknowledge the kindness, patience, and generosity of time and spirit of my committee members in guiding me through the completion of this Master’s Report. To my committee chair, Ron Stoltz, thank you for having confidence in my abilities to finish this report in an abbreviated time frame and for your encouragement to always keep moving forward. I would like to thank Margaret Livingston for setting stringent timelines, which always kept me on track, as well as for her impeccable editing skills. And special thanks to Brooks Jeffery for his constant encouragement towards scholarship and consideration, and for always pushing me to be just a little bit better and to do just a little bit more. I would like to thank Shaw Kinsey, director of the Tubac Presidio State Park, for his constant encouragement and willingness to answer questions and facilitate visits. His single-minded dedication to the continued Tubac Presidio State Park is a testament to his character and an encouragement to do the same. I would like to thank my classmates, for listening to all of my ideas and presentations, and for offering advice and constructive feedback that only strengthened this project. I’d also like to thank all of those former classmates who have gone out of their way to offer support, help, and advice, even after they had graduated from the program. Finally, I would like to thank my family, without whom none of this would be possible. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS | 04
  • 5. Tubac Presidio State Historic Park has the unique distinction of being the first state park in Arizona. It also sits firmly within the varied cultural history of southern Arizona, along the De Anza trail and is a part of the mission system in the Santa Cruz River Valley. The Presidio San Ignacio de Tubac was established in 1752, and was the first European settlement in what later became the state of Arizona. It is one of only three presidios in the state of Arizona, and is the only one that can be easily visited. There are a number of structures within the park that are on the National Register of Historic Places. The park itself has suffered under budget cuts from the State of Arizona, and recently faced being shut down. An intrepid group of volunteers stepped forward to manage the day-to-day activities of the park, while fundraising for improvements and other capital costs. Because of the budget cuts and ensuing issues, visitor experience is somewhat compromised and could be improved upon. This project will propose a master plan for development within the park that will focus on the visitor’s experience, as well as phasing strategies for eventual implementation of the plan. This plan will specifically focus on large-scale issues, such as site circulation, grading and drainage, and interpretive landscape design. Appropriate and interpretive design will help communicate the significance of this area in the history of Arizona as well as the development of the Southwest. This site also provides an opportunity to display native and appropriate landscape design for this region, while educating other visitors in the uniqueness of the natural habitat of the upper Sonoran desert. This project will also illustrate signage and other interpretive elements to address the challenge of clearly communicating the importance of historic sites that are not always highly visible within the park. ABSTRACT PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | ABSTRACT | 05
  • 6. Recreating Territorial history in the schoolhouse.
  • 7. TABLE OF CONTENTS PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | TABLE OF CONTENTS | 07 INTRODUCTION...............................................................8-21 BACKGROUND..........................................................11 RESEARCH FOCUS..................................................12 HISTORY OF TUBAC.................................................15 LITERATURE REVIEW..................................................22-41 INTERPRETIVE DESIGN...........................................25 HERITAGE GARDENS..............................................28 SMALL PARK DESIGN............................................37 CULTURAL PARK DESIGN...................................40 CASE REVIEWS............................................................42-59 FORT LOUDOUN STATE HISTORIC AREA.....46 BENT’S OLD FORT..................................................47 RIO GRANDE BOTANIC GARDEN.....................48 HISTORIC TUMACACORI ORCHARD................49 HUBBELL TRADING POST...................................50 FOUR MILE HISTORIC PARK...............................51 ARIZONA SONORA DESERT MUSEUM...........52 DESERT BOTANICAL GARDENS.......................53 TUCSON BOTANICAL GARDENS.....................54 TOHONO CHUL PARK...........................................55 CANYON DE CHELLY............................................56 HOMOLOVI RUINS..................................................57 FRUITA RURAL HISTORIC DISTRICT...............58 PRESIDIO SAN AUGUSTIN DEL TUCSON....59 SITE ANALYSIS............................................................60-85 INTRODUCTION........................................................63 PHOTO INVENTORY................................................67 CIRCULATION............................................................82 HYDROLOGY + VEGETATION.............................83 BUILDINGS + AMENITIES.......................................84 ARCHAEOLOGICAL REMAINS............................85 DESIGN APPLICATION.............................................86-133 CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT..................................88 CONCEPT ONE..............................................90 CONCEPT TWO..............................................91 CONCEPT THREE...........................................92 CONCEPT FOUR............................................93 FINAL CONCEPT............................................94 SITE PLAN..................................................................96 FOCUS AREAS..........................................................98 ENTRY SEQUENCE........................................98 INTERPRETED PRESIDIO............................102 AGRICULTURE WALK...............................106 COMMUNITY CENTER................................112 WATER-WISE GARDEN..............................116 HERITAGE ORCHARD.................................120 AGAVE MOUND............................................124 SITE-WIDE STRATEGIES......................................129 STORMWATER MANAGEMENT..............130 VISITOR ENGAGEMENT..............................132 NATIVE PLANT PALETTE...........................133 CONCLUSION............................................................134-137 LIMITATIONS OF WORK....................................136 RECOMMENDATIONS..........................................137 REFERENCES.............................................................138-144
  • 8. INTRODUCTION
  • 9. Recreating Territorial history in the schoolhouse.
  • 10. Tubac Presidio State Park is in the middle of a profound shift in purpose. Originally founded as the first state park in Arizona, it celebrates the state’s first European settlement and the history associated with it. Budget cuts in 2009 threatened to shutter the whole park, until a volunteer group, the Friends of Tubac Presidio State Park, stepped up and assumed the day-to-day management of the park, as well as providing financial support. This new era of Tubac Presidio State Park has seen the development of the park not just as a static monument to a history long past, but also as a cross- cultural center that looks forward to the future in this melting pot of a region. This proposed Master Plan seeks to help the park in its new mission. Addressing issues of circulation, microclimate, interpretation, and water harvesting will provide the park the opportunity to better interpret its cultural heritage, provoke the curiosity of its visitors, and allow them to fully experience the park comfortably, and set an example with native plantings and water harvesting. These interventions are intended to educate, as well as to provide the visitor with a comfortable and memorable experience. This proposed Master Plan may also be an example for other state and local historic parks of how to combine interpretation and environmental design, while re-programming space to accommodate for a more dynamic sequence of events. The Tubac Presidio State Park’s goal is to bring people back to the site again and again. This proposed Master Plan is intended to accommodate that goal. How can a preserved historic site go beyond merely preserving history to interpreting it? How can the same site expand cultural and educational opportunities in arenas beyond just the historic to providing an ongoing engaging, relevant, and dynamic experience? In order to provide a designed Master Plan that accomplishes all of these goals, research was undertaken in the following areas: interpretive design; heritage gardens; small park design and maintenance; water harvesting; native plants; cultural and historic park design, and the history of Tubac. This research led to a set of guidelines that were to be implemented to achieve a successful design in each of these areas of interest. These principles were then applied to case studies near and far to determine what works and what does not in these types of designed spaces. Throughout this process, a final set of design guidelines can be ascertained, which combined with the site analysis and general site considerations, give form to the proposed Master Plan. The site in question is that of the Tubac Presidio State Park, located in Tubac, Arizona, along the Santa Cruz River and De Anza National Historic Trail. It is located approximately 20 miles north of Nogales and BACKGROUND PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | BACKGROUND | 11 the international border, and approximately 45 miles south of Tucson along Interstate 19. The park contains the remnants of the 1776 Spanish presidio (or fort) that was located on this site, making it the first permanent European settlement in Arizona. It contains several other locally important historic buildings that are listed on the National Register. The park also serves as an entry point to the De Anza Historic Trail, which runs along the historic route south to the Mexican Border and north, eventually as far as San Francisco. This park can lay claim to a number of firsts, including the first permanent European settlement in Arizona, the first printing press in Arizona, and the best preserved Spanish presidio in Arizona. The borders of the park are delineated by a low, concrete stucco wall that surrounds the site and sets it apart from the rest of the village. The volunteer coalition of park supporters had ideas about what might be implemented to improve the overall visitor experience at the park. Some of these ideas had already been implemented by various groups and individual volunteers, including a rehabilitated entry patio, kitchen garden, and mission garden demonstration area. This master plan seeks to include those renovations while incorporating them into an updated Master Plan. Programming was also devised in conjunction with the volunteer groups, including the Friends of the Tubac Presidio State Park. The park has been cobbled together over the course of many years, starting with the original Presidio excavation area, and adding buildings and spaces as they became available to the market. This has led to a park that is made of disparate pieces, without a cohesive vision or story. This site has been master-planned previously, and the legacy of those plans was still evident in the park. This could be considered a constraint; however, the opportunity to improve upon an existing plan is always an appreciated one. The underlying archaeological features posed a potential problem in terms of not disturbing the site or other potential impacts, as the fact that the archaeological remains and other buildings on the site are largely constructed of adobe, a highly erosive material that is especially susceptible to basal erosion from poorly drained surface water. On-site drainage is poor, potentially eroding existing historic adobe structures or other areas, as water is being directed into a small number of drainage outlets. Most major drainageways were adjacent to structures or populated areas of the park; however, there is a unexploited opportunity to harvest this rainwater to use for on-site irrigation. There is also a tremendous opportunity to show off native plants to visitors, especially those that reveal their beauty during peak visitor season from January to March.
  • 11. PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | RESEARCH | 12 Research Question How can a preserved historic site go beyond merely preserving history to interpreting it? How can the same site expand cultural and educational opportunities in arenas beyond just the historic to providing an ongoing engaging, relevant, and dynamic experience? Method The first step in the undertaking of this project was to meet with the Tubac Presidio State Park to determine their goals and challenges in the visioning of the overall master plan for the park. An initial survey of the on-site conditions provided a baseline for the investigation into the academic literature. Next was an extensive investigation into contemporary and classic writings on the various topics that relate to the conditions and challenges of the site. Journal articles, books, and essays were consulted on several relevant topics of investigation: interpretive design; small park design and maintenance; heritage gardens; and cultural and historic parks. Reviewing this range of sources provided a framework for detailed understanding and analysis of case reviews, ultimately leading to a framework on which the ultimate design can be hung. Case reviews provide an opportunity to analyze sites based on the theoretical framework provided by the literature reviews. Sites were chosen based on their proximity or relevance to specific topics of investigation found in the literature review, but were analyzed independently. These case reviews were analyzed for their strength and weaknesses as a project whole, and also for the overall design implications that could be applicable to the final site design. Site analysis was undertaken both with a remote/digital investigation and numerous in-person site visits. The most important site attributes to the overall design outcome were analyzed and diagrammed. A synthesis of these site factors was taken into consideration for the next phase of the project: conceptual development. Several iterations of design were considered during concept development. The strengths and weaknesses of each concept were analyzed , and the four concepts were then synthesized into one final concept, which addresses many of the weaknesses of the previous design iterations while capitalizing on their strengths. From the final conceptual design, a site plan was developed, fleshing out the specific focus areas of the site in more detail and depth. Focus areas RESEARCH were chosen for their variety and for the level at which they addressed the existing site conditions. A detailed planting plan was created for each of these focus areas to aid in the future implementation by the park. Additionally, site- wide strategies were proposed to address the unique challenges and conditions of the site, including stormwater management, volunteer engagement, and implementation of a native plant palette. Suggestions were proposed for specific areas and interventions throughout the site as part of an overall phasing and implementation strategy. Goals and Objectives Goal: To better interpret the history of the site for visitors. Objective: Provide effective interpretive design and look beyond the obvious areas of interpretation to include more cultural and environmental history of the area, instead of just focusing on the narrow historic slice of the Presidio. Goal: To provide educational experiences that expand beyond the historic and cultural context. Objective: Provide examples of water harvesting, native plantings, and edible desert-appropriate plants as demonstration for best practices when gardening in the desert. Goal: Offer a more comfortable, relaxing and engaging experience for visitors. Objective: Provide better and more extensive pathways, more exhibit design along the pathways, and consider microclimate and shade for visitors, while respecting accessibility and the advanced age of many of the park visitors. Goal: Create a realistic and manageable master plan for the park, as it is managed largely by volunteers. Objective: Understand and implement small park management strategies, and facilitate volunteer efforts from park volunteers and beyond, so the park can continue to operate and function within its means. Goal: Create a new identity for the park as a center for cultural exchange. Objective: Create multi-use areas that accommodate different events and users, and allow for dynamic park programming that can take advantage of the different spaces to create an expanded concept of a historical park.
  • 12. PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | RESEARCH | 13 Small gardens provide interpretation for visitors. A Sonoran-style row house is preserved on the park grounds. A printing press demonstration in the museum. Mesquite bosques outline the edge of the site.
  • 13. A view of the Santa Rita Mountains from the Tubac Presidio.
  • 14. The history and fate of Tubac is closely linked with the fate and fortunes of the state of Arizona. Founded in 1752 as the first permanent European settlement in the state of Arizona, at a site occupied by Native Americans at the time, the Tubac Presidio of San Ignacio was originally established as a response to the Pima Revolt of 1751 and the need for protection for the ever-increasing number of settlers in this area of southern Arizona. Tubac is a place of many firsts, and combined with a boom-and-bust cycle repeated over the centuries, the history of Tubac goes back centuries further than the founding of a simple Spanish fort. The Santa Cruz | River of the Holy Cross The story of Tubac’s founding begins with its proximity to the Santa Cruz River. Born in Arizona, in the southern mountain watersheds near Sonoita, the river passes through Mexico before making its way back north into the United States. The Santa Cruz River was a key passageway for Spanish explorers seeking to first explore what was then called the Pimería Alta, or the northern range of Spain’s territorial conquest that was inhabited by the Spanish-named Pima Indians. A ribbon of life in an otherwise desolate, hot, and dry desert, the presence of the Santa Cruz River defines the narrative of human occupation in southern Arizona. Owing to the underlying soils and bedrock, the river itself over its entire course is generally underground, with perhaps a rivulet of water here and there, until the monsoon rains cause the river to overflow its banks. The only indication of water is often the surrounding dense, lush, riparian habitat; a cool and shady juxtaposition to the desert heat. However, there are places where the course of the river exhibits surface flow, with bedrock existing just below; in these areas the promise of the river comes alive with striking riparian bosques and the trills of thousands of birds that alight here during their annual migration. Human occupation has always depended on available natural resources, and here, where the Santa Cruz River bubbles up to the surface year- round, there could be no more hospitable place to be found in the desert. Prehistoric Occupation The early flowing water of the Santa Cruz River was appealing to all kinds of life forms. In the early Pleistocene, this area was home to North American mammoths, bison, camels, horses, and other now-extinct HISTORY OF TUBAC PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | HISTORY OF TUBAC | 15 megafauna. Surely they were attracted to the perennial flow of water and the dense vegetation, which would provide a veritable feast for herbivores. These megafauna went extinct over 10,000 years ago, leaving plenty of room for prehistoric peoples to make this place their home. People had farmed the Santa Cruz for over 3,000 years before the Spanish arrived at its banks (Lamberton 2011), utilizing its fertile alluvial soils deposited by thousands of years of seasonal flooding, as well as developing a sophisticated system of irrigation channels that brought water from the banks of the Santa Cruz to the agricultural fields below. These prehistoric people, generally referred to as the Hohokam, grew crops common to the area, especially the southwest triumvirate: corn, beans, and squash, all adapted for the conditions of the desert. Some cotton was brought up from Central America sometime during this pre-Columbian period. In addition to agricultural harvests, the Hohokam were very good at harvesting and utilizing wild foods, gathering mesquite pods, cholla fruits, and other desert plants to round out their diets. The canals dug by the Hohokam are the oldest known in North America (Lamberton 2011) and can still be seen today in some areas. When the Spanish arrived, instead of trying to superimpose their own system on the river, they took these prehistoric canals and improved upon them to create their own system of irrigation canals, called acéquias. These prehistoric Hohokam have disappeared from the Santa Cruz River valley, but their descendants can be found in the neighboring O’odham peoples, who too have a long and storied history in this area. The name Hohokam comes from the modern Pima word meaning “ancient ones” or “those who have gone” (Trimble 1977). The modern O’odham or “the people” as they call themselves, are composed of the Pima, Papago, and Sobaipuri tribes, as well as the Tohono O’odham, as they are commonly referred to today. The Spanish Period The early Spanish explorers were conquistadores who, driven out of Africa by Portugal in their quest for riches, and lured by stories of Eldorado, ventured to the new world in search of gold and other treasure. These early conquistadores were more interested in the treasure they sought than the people they found inhabiting the New World. Francisco Coronado was the most well- known of these original Spanish conquistadores, coming to New Spain in 1540 and eventually exploring the New World from California east to Kansas, Texas
  • 15. PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | HISTORY OF TUBAC | 16 and Oklahoma as well as everywhere in between. Coronado encountered native North Americans in Arizona and fought with them, the first documented clash between Native Americans and the Spanish in the United States. Eventually Coronado and every other Spanish explorer were recalled to Spain in 1542, save for 3 priests, who chose to remain and were never heard from again. Onate returned to the United States in 1595 with 400 colonists and the first permanent heads of cattle and settled near El Paso, but returned to Spain in 1607, marking the end of the period of the Spanish conquistadores in the New World (Trimble 1977). The next Spaniards to set foot in the new world came with a different mission: converting the native inhabitants to Catholicism, and eventually collecting taxes and other profits from them. The entire area beyond the Santa Cruz River valley was then known as the Pimeria Alta. It was so named by the Spanish missionaries, as this was the land of the Pima Indians, on the north edge of Spain’s territory in the New World. Jesuits came to this area in the 1560s, but didn’t establish a permanent mission until 1591, when they settled San Felipe, in what is now Sinaloa (Dunmire 2004). From there, the Jesuits expanded ever northward, establishing cabercerias (main churches) and visitas (small ranches where services were offered weekly) as they went. The most well-known of these travelling Jesuits today is Father Kino. Father Kino Padre Eusebio Kino first came to the Pimeria Alta in 1687, where he established his first mission at Dolores, Sonora in 1687. He first journeyed into what is now Arizona in 1691, making it as far north as Bac before returning to the mission at Dolores. He made many more journeys into southern Arizona, setting down the roots of missions everywhere he journeyed, eventually founding over 29 missions and 73 visitas in the Pimeria Alta, as well as traveling an estimated 75,000 miles. When he was young man he experienced a serious illness and was given up for dead, but somehow miraculously survived, attributing the miracle to his patron saint, Francis Xavier (Trimble 1977). In thanks, he dedicated his life to missionary work, as well as adding the name of Saint Francis to his own. As a young man in his native northern Italy, Eusebio Kino had studied agriculture, viticulture, and animal husbandry, and he brought those interests to his missionary work in the New World (Dunmire 2004). As the padres traveled into the New World, they sought out land that would be suitable for European crops. Often times this coincided with where people were already living; the settlements existed, and the church simply moved in with them (Trimble 1977). Father Kino himself traveled with seeds and cuttings, making the establishment of the garden his first priority (Dunmire 2004) in whatever permanent settlement he established. Although he did not settle in Tubac, he did found a mission just a few miles upriver at Tumacacori. For Father Kino, the gardens were an important part of his missionary work. He saw the native inhabitants as struggling to produce enough food (which may or may not have been true), but he believed that it would be easier to convert them to Catholicism if they saw that their new life also came with greater abundance. At the Tumacacori mission (among others) the locals lived within the mission grounds and participated in the agricultural work in return for a share of the yields, all of the while operating under the watchful guidance of the Jesuits. Kino was much loved by the local inhabitants, as he was a gentle man and did not exploit their labor, and did not mistreat anyone. Kino also brought horses, cattle, and other livestock to the area, the legacy of which lives on in cattle ranching operations all over southern Arizona today, as well as throughout the entirety of North America. As Marshall Trimble remarks, “perhaps Kino’s greatest legacy to the natives was the bringing of fruit trees, crops, vegetables, sheep, mules, and cattle into Arizona. The padre was the area’s first cattle-baron” (1977:77). Kino died in 1771 in Magdelena, in current-day Mexico, dedicating a new mission. He had dedicated his whole life to his missionary work in the New World, right until the very end. The Jesuits were expelled from the New World in 1767, after King Carlos III of Spain became fearful of their influence in the New World (Trimble 1977). The mission at Tumacacori thrived for a time after the Jesuits were expelled, replaced soon after by Franciscan missionaries. Tumacacori was constantly under siege by bands of Apache, who were not agriculturalists and preferred to conduct raids. The Apache threat to the mission and the surrounding area partly led to the founding of the Tubac Presidio of San Ignacio in 1752, but what brought the issue to the forefront was the Pima Revolt of 1751. The Pima Revolt The Pima Revolt was largely a response of the native inhabitants to the occupation by the Spaniards. Father Kino was well known for being a kind and gentle man, but this was the exception to the rule of the treatment by most Spanish explorers. There were other problems, in that the native inhabitants were reluctant to give up their nomadic lifestyles; they disliked the work that was forced upon them by the Spanish and the ways that they were punished if they did not perform the work or did not perform it correctly; the language gap and feeling of racial superiority on the part of the Spanish became an issue; and most of all, most of the native inhabitants did not have elected or clearly defined leadership positions, so it was not possible to negotiate with or surrender to the Spanish as a whole (Trimble 1977). The Spanish had also taken away the fertile valley agricultural lands for the missions from the original inhabitants, forcing them to work at the missions to reap the benefits of the fertile agricultural soil that had previously been theirs. All of these issues caused resentment to grow among the local inhabitants, and combined with Spain’s financial problems and dwindling manpower in the region led to an explosive conclusion. More than 100 men, comprised of varying tribes throughout the Pimeria Alta, massacred more than 100 settlers near Spanish encampments. A peace was eventually negotiated, and the Presidio at San Ignacio del Tubac was founded to control the Pimas, as well as several other presidios throughout the Pimeria Alta. Founding of the Presidio del Tubac The first mention of the site of Tubac in the history books was in 1726, when Jesuit missionary Father Augustin de Campos mentions baptizing children
  • 16. PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | HISTORY OF TUBAC | 17 there (Wormser, 1975). There is some debate about the provenance of the name “Tubac”, but one compelling story tells it thusly: In the Tohono O’odham language, the place was called “tschoowaka”, or roughly translated, “rotten”. A Tohono O’odham village located at present-day Tubac was attacked by enemy raiders, who were promptly killed and left unburied, so it seems like the accurate translation for the word Tubac may in fact be closer to “the place where some enemies rotted” (Lamberton 2011) More commonly, the translation of the name is “black water”. After the Pima Revolt in 1751, Governor Ortiz Parilla established a presidio at Tubac with 50 soldiers under the command of Juan Tomas Belderrain. The soldiers were encouraged to bring their families with them, and Tubac became a permanent settlement, with women and children. Belderrain was killed by Indians shortly thereafter, and command was then taken of the Presidio by Juan Bautista de Anza, who held the post for over 15 years (Lamberton 2011). Juan Bautista de Anza Juan Bautista de Anza was of Basque descent, born in the Pimeria Alta into a famous family of soldiers. His father was killed by Apaches when he was young. De Anza today is most well-known for the National Historic Trail that bears his name, celebrating his journey to the founding of San Francisco. What is not well known is that these expeditions were launched from the Tubac Presidio. In 1773, the Viceroy of New Spain, Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa granted Juan Bautista de Anza permission to travel to the existing missions Historic flow of the Santa Cruz River.
  • 17. PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | HISTORY OF TUBAC | 18 of California and then to travel northward, in search of suitable places to establish new missions (Wormser 1975). De Anza was the commander of the Tubac Presidio at the time of his departure, and personally financed the journey himself (Lamberton 2011). De Anza brought with him Jose Joaquin Moraga, and together they went north to California in 1774, leaving Tubac in the hands of the settlers. This expedition led to the founding of San Francisco, and they returned to Tubac later that year to gather settlers to take with them to found a new colony at this site of San Francisco. Upon their return from their successful journey to California, they then travelled to Mexico City to seek settlers. While there de Anza was promoted to Lt. Colonel (Wormser, 1975). He was also given financing in the form of mules, horses, cattle, and 2 year’s pay as an enticement for new settlers to travel to the new colony. The settlers recruited from Mexico City were joined by more prospects from San Felipe in Sinaloa, as well as any settlers drawn from Tubac, and departed from the Presidio of Tubac on October 23rd, 1775 (Wormser 1975). The party consisted of 177 settlers from Sonora, 63 from Tubac, and 114 children (including 4 born en route). Amazingly, the party sustained only one fatality, a woman who died in childbirth near the present-day Canoa Ranch, whom is buried at the mission at San Xavier del Bac. The journey to San Francisco had emptied Tubac of most of its occupants. Coupled with the increased threat from the Apache raiders, most settlers who remained moved onto to safer areas, and the presidio itself was moved to Tucson in 1776. Post-Presidio Life at Tubac Life was difficult for those few who remained in Tubac. Apache raids intensified with the soldiers gone; one year, the raiders made off with all of the cattle and corn in town (Lamberton 2011). Many people moved near the fort at Yuma Crossing to escape the raids (Wormser 1975). The Jesuits were expelled in 1827 due to controversy between land owners and the Church (Trimble 1977), and their property in Tubac had been auctioned off, while the adobe buildings fell to ruins (Wormser 1975). Between 1821 and 1835 (but largely after 1830) more than 100 mines, settlements and ranches were wiped out, and 5,000 people were killed in the Tubac area (Trimble 1977). In 1871, Tubac received an attachment of the San Rafael Company to help protect the few settlers that remained, and to combat the Apache raids. This attachment was compromised of Spanish officers and Piman soldiers (who were eventually replaced with Yuman soldiers from Sonora). In addition to defending the fort and its nearby settlers, the company rebuilt the adobe buildings located around the presidio that had been originally occupied by Indians (Wormser 1975). In 1789, the commander of the presidio, Lt. Nicolás de la Errán gave the first Spanish land grant to Toribo Otero (the land which is presently the Tubac Golf Resort) and helped kick off a new era in Tubac history, one of renewed exploitation of the local natural resources; namely, land, and minerals. Ranching, Mining, and Land Grabs Tubac eventually became the center focus area for mining operations taking place in the nearby Santa Rita and Arivaca Mountains (Wormser 1975). Don Toribo de Otero put the 400 acres of his land grant to good use, planting orchards, and served his community by serving in the military (Lamberton 2011). These mining claims were not originally worked because of the ever- present threat of Apache raids in the area. Tubac also became the victim of political upheaval in the area of the present-day border, with the War for Mexican Independence and the declining influence of Spain on the region. Nothing in Tubac felt finalized until the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which gave the US all land north of the Gila River, and the 1853 Gadsen Purchase, which gave Arizona the form that we see today. Now that Tubac was in the United States and there was a safe route back east (Wormser 1975), the gold rush was on. Gold is Discovered Gold had drawn settlers away from Tubac in the 1840s. The promise of gold in California proved too much of a temptation, and the increased Apache threat was a significant disincentive to stay. The Gadsen purchase changed the direction of the fortune-seekers, sending them back to the Territory. Tubac was reoccupied by 1850, and by 1853, there were even about 100 friendly Apaches who had settled in the area. In 1854, Charles Poston and Herman Ehrenberg sailed from San Francisco to the Sea of Cortez, then travelling overland, through Alamos, drawn by Tubac’s potential. Together they formed the Sonora Exploring and Mining Company, with mining interests in the Sopoi, the Santa Ritas, and Arivaca. Poston and Ehrenberg made Tubac the headquarters of their new mining operation, and fixed up some of the old presidio buildings to house their venture. Poston, known as the “Father of Arizona” quickly became a town leader, performing marriages, baptisms, and divorces, as he was legally authorized to do so as county clerk, but the church put a quick stop to that
  • 18. PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | HISTORY OF TUBAC | 19 (Wormser 1975). Poston clearly enjoyed his tenure in Arizona; it was said that “Poston spent much of his leisure time sitting in one of the natural pools of water in the Santa Cruz River, reading newspapers, smoking Mexican cigars, and pondering the imponderables” (Trimble 1977:215). Business was good for a time; Poston’s mines made $3,000 a day in silver, and continued to boom until 1861 when federal troops were withdrawn from the area, and the Apache took over (Trimble 1977). Poston and Ehrenberg’s mining company eventually failed; they reorganized it as the Santa Rita Mining Company, and opened the famed Heintzelman mine in Arivaca. Rafael Pumpelly and Samuel Colt (of the firearm fame) came to have interests in the Santa Rita Mining Company. Eventually William Wrightson replaced Poston. Wrightson had brought a printing press with him, and founded Arizona’s first newspaper, The Weekly Arizonan, in Tubac in 1859. This printing press is still in working condition and can be seen in the museum at the Tubac Presidio State Park. Lawlessness Prevails During this time, Tubac was a part of Dona Ana County, whose county seat was Mesilla, located near present-day Las Cruces, New Mexico (Wormser 1975). Enforcement of the law was difficult, given the distance and general inaccessibility of this new Territory, and Arizona was generally a lawless place. Apache raids had declined for a time, due to a policy of appeasement (consisting Artist’s rendering of the Tubac Presidio.
  • 19. PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | HISTORY OF TUBAC | 20 largely of guns and liquor) but this period of peace was not to last for long. The Daily Arizonan reported that between 1857-1861, 111 Americans and 57 Mexicans had died violent deaths in Tubac; this when the average population of Tubac was between 700 and 800 at a time. The famed Apache leaders, Cochise and Mangas Coloradas, reigned over the Apache raids. The increased raids came to be too much for the town to bear, and Tubac was abandoned, yet again. Adobe buildings in Tubac crumbled, and the Heintzelman and Santa Rita mines were abandoned. Charles Poston returned to Tubac in 1864 with J. Ross Browne, who reported that there was not a soul between Tubac and Tucson save the crumbling ruins (Wormser 1975). Ft. Crittenden Tubac was not abandoned for long. People once again returned in 1865, after John N. Goodwin, the 1st Territorial Governor, ordered a Mexican garrison stationed at the Presidio, which was then called Ft. Crittenden. This resurgence was short-lived, as the troops were withdrawn in 1868. The withdrawal had a domino effect, with the Arizona Mining Company then calling it quits. Apache raids once again increased. After the Camp Grant Massacre in 1871, General George Crook was brought in to solve the “Indian Problem”, but his only focus was on the Chiracahua Apaches, and so the raids went on (Wormser 1975). People came, seeking their fortunes in Tubac, but left disappointed shortly thereafter. Still, some settlers remained. By the late 1870s life went on, with kids in the school (which can still be seen in the park today), and the area where the presidio once stood full of adobe ruins. Recovery Period In 1882, the official town papers were issued for Tubac; the townsite was surveyed and laid out in 58 blocks. The town did not grow much, due to Apache raids, and T. Lillie Mercer, a local merchant, organized a volunteer cavalry called the Tubac Scouts, of which he was captain, in order to defend the town against these raids (Wormser 1975). What happened then? By the early 1900s, Tubac had a justice of the peace, a constable, a schoolhouse with several teachers, and 443 people, according to the 1910 census. There was a general store, and mass was held by visiting priests from Nogales. The Southern Pacific Railroad reached Tubac in 1910, and with it came the outside world. Arizona was admitted to the Union in 1912, and officially became a state. Some Tubac settlers had a setback in 1914, when the Supreme Court handed down a decision in the infamous case of the Baca Float, in which the heirs to the original land holdings in New Mexico were allowed to select an equal quantity of land elsewhere. They chose a piece of land straddling the Santa Cruz River, encompassing Tubac and its extents. The Supreme Court found for the Baca claimants, and forced some long-time Tubac settlers off of their land (Wormser 1975). Tubac flourished in the 1920s, with two trains a day bringing mail, and more students attending the local school. In the 1930’s, the main economic driver became gentlemen’s ranches, generally owned by Easterners, who were drawn by the unparalleled landscape and idea of the western lifestyle. By 1948, only 3 Tubac residents actually owned their own farms (Wormser 1975), and there were only 15 families in Tubac, as many of these ranching families lived on their ranches outside of town. Tubac as an Art Colony Dale Nichols started an art colony in Tubac in 1948. Although the art colony failed after a year, a new identity for Tubac was born, and the Santa Cruz Valley Art Association was formed to encourage this new identity. The Tubac Center for the Arts was built in 1972 and continues to be an important facet of the community. Tubac also hosts the Festival of the Arts every February, which is the longest-running annual art gathering in the United States and is internationally renowned. Today, Tubac sells itself as the place “Where Art and History Meet”, with over 100 art galleries and art happenings year-round. Tubac Today Today Tubac is known largely for two things: art, and golf. In 1958, William R. Momon built a golf course on the old Otero Ranch, and the Tubac Golf Resort and Spa is a big draw. The village itself is now known mostly as an artists’ colony. With the tightening of security at the border after the 9/11 attacks, people became wary of visiting the border, and much of the commercial trade moved from Nogales to Tubac, breathing new life into the old Presidio. Tubac was recently named 1 of 14 “Up-and Coming, Must See Destinations in 2014” by Conde Nast Traveler and the Tubac Golf Resort and Spa was rated “1 of 10 Best Places to Escape the Cold” by USA Today.
  • 20. PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | HISTORY OF TUBAC | 21
  • 21. LITERATURE REVIEW
  • 22. Adobe ruins at the nearby Guevavi Mission near Nogales, Arizona.
  • 23. Interpretive design is a complete science of its own, dedicated to the conveyance of information using many strategies. Ultimately its serves to expand the understanding and appreciation of the cultural, historic, or environmental factors of a site. Interpretation often takes the form of signage or other illustrative media, in an attempt to guide a visitor’s understanding of the site in front of them. However, interpretation can be a more subtle undertaking, emphasizing the message at hand through environmental cues, demonstration areas, and other means. History of Interpretive Design Tilden Freeman wrote the seminal work regarding the field of Interpretive Design, the volume from which many modern accounts are refined, called Interpreting Our Heritage. For Freeman, the main purpose of interpretation is to “awaken people’s curiosity.” He also emphasized the importance of passive interpretation, where visitors are free to take or leave the information at their leisure. If the purpose of interpretation was to simply impart knowledge, then a book, movie, or a webpage would suffice. Interpretation differs from a book or a website in that for it to be interpretation, dissemination of information must take place at the site itself, which serves to reveal information, rather than simply imparting it. Freeman himself defines interpretation as “an educational activity which aims to reveal meaning and relationships through the use of original objects, by firsthand experiments, and by illustrative media, rather than to simply communicate factual information” (Freeman 1977:8). He also sets forth his “6 Principles of Interpretation” to help guide those looking to undertake an interpretive effort. Those principles are as follows: interpretation needs to be related to the experiences or personality of the visitor; interpretation is not information, rather it is revelation based on information; interpretation is an art influenced by many other arts; interpretation is not instruction but provocation; interpretation presents a whole rather than a part; and that interpretation addressed to children should be a different message, not a dilution of the original message (Freeman 1977). These principles possibly can and should be modified; however, they are an excellent starting point for interpretative efforts across the board. Freeman also emphasized the importance of illustrating interesting facts and figures that people can relate to on a personal level, and project themselves into the story, engaging with the subject on a more personal level. Involving people in this INTERPRETIVE DESIGN PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | INTERPRETIVE DESIGN | 25 process of learning and discovering, of giving them a problem to solve, is what more effectively engages a visitor and makes them receptive to the message that the site is trying to convey. Interpretation for Children Children are an important demographic for interpretation, as school groups and families on holiday comprise a large demographic group of visitors to sites with interpretive emphasis. This creates an opportunity to tailor interpretation efforts to the interests and strengths of children – under the age of twelve, for our purposes. Though it may be instinctual to dilute information to make a topic easier for children to understand, Freeman argues that children do not find topics difficult to understand if they find the topic interesting. Children are more interested in facts and figures, especially superlatives, as they are at a developmental stage where they are trying to determine how the world works, and how things can be placed in comparison to each other. Children are also more interested when all of their senses are engaged, not just by sight and sound (which are easy) but by touch, taste, and smell (Freeman 1977). This presents a unique challenge for interpretation, as sight and sound are generally easy, but how can you taste the past? What does history sound like? Lessons that can be applied to the experience of children under twelve can also be applied to adults. Most people, whether under 12 or over, retain more information when they are feeling actively engaged with the topic. Lessons from Interpretation Interpretation is important at cultural, historic, and environmental sites, as often a visit to the site itself is the only experience the visitor might ever have with the topic (Freeman 1977). It is especially important to use the opportunity for interpretation to make the argument for preservation – why is the site worth preserving? When people have a firsthand experience with the site in question, they are more likely to support preservation efforts in the future, both at that specific site and others. The visitor is an important part of the interpretation equation because they have the ability to affect the world around them, and the interpreter is important because they serve as an intermediary between the visitor and the site that is to be interpreted (Pierssené 1999). Interpretation is not important just for the sake of the ongoing preservation of the specific site;
  • 24. PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | INTERPRETIVE DESIGN | 26 the role of education is important in the life of a visitor, as it can help the visitor to understand and appreciate how the world around them works. According to Pierssené, “learning’s usefulness does not consist merely in factual knowledge or technical skills. Wisdom is a higher quality, and so is imagination. Wisdom and imagination are both built on knowledge” (Pierssené 1999:20). Knowledge is what is imparted through effective interpretation, which leads to both imagination and wisdom. Pierssene suggests that this wisdom serves the visitor at the interpretive site, but can expand into the rest of their lives. New Interpretation Techniques Interpretation is generally undertaken, and is indeed more effective, at the site itself, rather than being taught; a dialogue is being created between the resource being interpreted and the visitor. In this, interpretation cannot take place in a vacuum; the individual must actually visit the site in question. Special events, such as demonstrations, special historic anniversary celebrations, and the like can be a good way to help interpret history, as well as to encourage new and returning visitors to the site. Effectiveness of interpretation is also important, as word of mouth is strong currency in encouraging new and returning visitors. The most important concern is disseminating information that the population will be interested in receiving. Reconstructed Tucson Presidio.
  • 25. PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | INTERPRETIVE DESIGN | 27 Interpretation has a short shelf life, and must be constantly re-evaluated for the accuracy of the information, and the effectiveness of the message’s delivery. Pierssené also offers a checklist for effective interpretive planning that builds on Freeman’s guidelines and adds a new series of factors to consider when planning an interpretive project. These suggested guidelines include: relating directly to what the visitor can personally see or experience; dealing with the “how” or “why” of a situation; expressing a fact or story that can be built upon; creating an underlying appeal to a visitor’s humanity; and hinting at general principles that a visitor can see exemplified throughout the site, if they keep their eyes open (Pierssené 1999:87). The last concern of effective interpretation design is that of productivity. Although it is difficult to quantify, evaluating the effectiveness of interpretive efforts is an effective step to take in this evaluation, through visitor observations, exit interviews, and other means. Reconstruction: Right or Wrong? A debate rages about the efficacy and ethics of reconstruction efforts in historic interpretation, with arguments being made on both sides. Those in favor of reconstruction argue that reconstruction allows for easier interpretation of the reconstructed object by the relatively uninformed visitor. They also argue that it is a popular tool for interpretation and has its place in the interpretive toolkit (Jameson 2004). Reconstructions are often the by-product of a work program from an earlier era (Williamson 2004). Arguments can also be made that reconstructions allow for ease of interpretation (Distretti and Kuttruff 2004), creating a living history scenario where history can be “animated” (Fry 2004); and that interpretation should not be just for the benefit of the experts, but easy for the layperson to understand (Wheaton 2004). Reconstruction detractors argue against reconstruction largely focusing on the perceived falseness of reconstruction efforts, especially when they are not based on copious research and careful examination of existing structural evidence. Any reconstruction that takes place under the auspices of the National Park Service has to adhere to the strict criteria put forth by the National Park Service, and if undertaken, needs to be clearly identifiable as a reconstruction (Jameson 2004). Often in historic sites, reconstruction efforts tend to focus on one narrow representation of the site (Williamson 2004). This focus might be one specific time period, or one specific user group; many times this is the more recent past, such as the representation of European settlers in the American West. Reconstruction efforts can be especially problematic when it comes to maintenance issues and the upkeep that they demand, especially when it comes to adobe (Wheaton 2004). Adobe presents a particular challenge in the ephemerality of the material, but also in the lack of skilled craftsman and maintenance employees that are versed in the intricacies of the medium. Preservation and Interpretation in the Southwest Although there is a long history of ruins reconstruction in the Southwest, the major landholders and cultural institutions who manage the ruins have their own guidelines for dealing with preservation and reconstruction efforts. As discussed previously, the National Park Service generally does not support reconstruction efforts, except for cases in which there is enough research and documentation to eliminate guesswork in the production of the final product. Sites that are managed by the Park Service are maintained continuously in the condition that they were in when they came under the stewardship of the National Park Service. A noninvasive approach to preservation is favored by the Arizona State Parks, which often takes the form of reburial, or covering the excavation with enough local fill to protect the remains, to preserve the site for future public and professional education. At sites where maintenance and security is potentially problematic, this is an especially effective solution. Even though the site may be reburied, environmental mitigation still needs to be undertaken to minimize the effects of site erosion caused by wind, rainfall, and runoff (Neal 2004). If these environmental preventions are undertaken, the site will require little subsequent maintenance. Neal also argues that “generally, sites that we as archaeologists and resource managers are not prepared to protect, manage, and properly investigate and interpret should not be developed for the public” (2004:243). If this is in fact the case, and reconstruction is ruled out, how can the site that can’t be seen be effectively interpreted for a visiting public?
  • 26. The agricultural legacy of the desert Southwest is unique. Agriculture was practiced in the Southwest for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans, adapted to local environmental conditions. What is also remarkable is that the system in the Southwest produces more food on less water than anywhere else in the world (Nabhan 2010). Development of agriculture is intrinsically linked with the development of permanent human settlements; without each other, neither could exist. In a day and age where most of the food that we consume every day is produced in another state or another country, with a completely different environment and water supply, it is easy to lose track of the cultural lifeways that made life in the desert possible for thousands of years. Though it has not often been the concern of heritage professionals to incorporate agricultural heritage practices into the greater interpretive and preservation whole, it has become more common to incorporate agriculture into the greater story of our culturally and historically significant places. A story of our past is made more whole with the story of the food which sustained it. Prehistoric Foodways The ancient Hohokam, precursors to the modern O’odham tribes, were the farmers of the desert, and adapted their agricultural practices and resources to fit their unique needs. Much of this early agricultural innovation originated in Mexico, which had potential for crop development that was rivalled only by the Fertile Crescent and Asia (Dunmire 2004). The earliest origins of agriculture in the New World are found in present-day Mexico. What is now southern Arizona benefitted from its close proximity to this early agricultural center, as crops were brought north along trade routes from Mexico, where they could be tested in and adapted for the desert climate. Some of the crops that were grown in the early Santa Cruz River Valley were several varieties of squash, gourds, beans, and maize; those were further reinforced with crops that had been brought up from Mesoamerica, such as grain amaranth, tomatoes, cotton, tobacco, and prickly pears. From 2100 BCE to 1540 CE, 20 cultures native to the Southwest had independently developed a group of crops and agricultural practices that were unique to the Southwest (Nabhan 2010). Pottery, dating to around 2000 BCE, was found near Tucson, making these the oldest pots ever recorded in the Southwest. These pots allowed for the cooking and processing of food stuffs that would otherwise be too problematic to consume. Also found were pipes and remnants of a plant in the tobacco genus, dating to 1200 BCE, which mark HERITAGE GARDENS PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | HERITAGE GARDENS | 28 this site the first known incidence of tobacco smoking anywhere in the world (Dunmire 2004). The development of irrigation was a key component in developing agricultural practices in the desert. Current archaeological findings place the earliest date of irrigation of the Santa Cruz River around 1200 BCE. This system of canals and dams was developed independently of irrigation systems developing in Mexico around the same time. The dams and canals that were dug by the Hohokam were incredibly sophisticated, and this irrigation system can be found nowhere else in what is now the United States (Dunmire 2004). The Hohokam used this irrigation system to cultivate corn, beans, squash, and gourds, as well as cotton, tobacco, little barley, native agaves, and cholla in their fields. In addition to these cultivated agricultural yields, they also supplemented their diets with harvested wild foods of the desert, including mesquite pods, saguaro fruits, purslane, saltbush, and chollas, in addition to wild game, such as bison, pronghorn antelope, and rabbits (Dunmire 2004). The Hohokam disappeared from southern Arizona approximately 1,000 years ago. While no one knows with any certainty, it is suspected that severe drought may have played a role. While the Hohokam may have disappeared, it is their descendants, the O’odham, who inhabited this area of the Santa Cruz River when the Spanish first arrived on the shores of the New World. The Pimería Álta When the Spanish arrived in the Pimería Álta, they found themselves in a unique and vibrant agricultural tradition. At the time of the Spanish arrival, native farmers in the Southwest were growing crops in a wider range of microclimates and life zones than the rest of the farmers of North America combined (Nabhan 2010), making these farmers experts in the unique growing conditions of the desert Southwest. The indigenous peoples also had at their disposal the “richest assemblage of food plants in the western hemisphere” (Dunmire 2004:33). To this day, no lasting domesticated and productive plants came from the area that is now the United States and Canada (Dunmire 2004). The O’odham people had domesticated some native southwestern crops for their own use; these include agaves, wolfberry, devil’s claw, bushmint, and chiltepins (Nabhan 2010). They also had their own manner of preparing food, such as boiling, grilling on coals, or parching in baskets. The Spanish came with the intention of spreading the word of God
  • 27. PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | HERITAGE GARDENS | 29 to the New World, as well as exploiting it for whatever resources might be contained within its shores. They also sought to bring their food traditions with them, faced with an uncertain agricultural future before them. The conquistadores that came in search of gold were not as concerned with bringing those food traditions with them, but the missionaries who followed were. Father Eusebio Kino, who had studied agriculture and animal husbandry, was especially focused on breathing new life into the New World soils. In addition to a wide variety of fruit trees, vegetables, and grains, he also brought honeybees, livestock, and horses to the New World, which forever changed the face of the American Southwest. The plants and animals that Spain brought to the New World were not all species native to the motherland. Though the American Southwest and Mexico are largely associated with a Spanish cultural influence, the gardens and foodways of Spain were shaped themselves by Persian, Arabic, Moorish, Greco-Roman, Mayan, and Aztec cultures and foods, which were all adapted for a dry, desert climate. Later settlers brought even more species with them, introducing dates, olives, berries, and several new breeds of livestock (Nabhan 2010). In 1767, the Jesuit missionaries were expelled from the New World by Mission Fig
  • 28. PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | HERITAGE GARDENS | 30
  • 29. PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | HERITAGE GARDENS | 31 the King of Spain (Dunmire 2004), but their agricultural and livestock heritage remained and became completely ingrained in the social fabric of the American Southwest. Heritage Farming Today Heritage farming practices are more relevant today than ever. Especially in the desert Southwest, where predictions state that the environment will only get hotter and drier in the very near future, maintaining agricultural systems and propagating plants adapted to the desert environment may soon become a necessary means of survival. What the farming practices in the Southwest have been accomplishing for years, in terms of breeding edible and productive crops that can withstand sun and drought, may be an advantage to the rest of the world. The world is predicted to soon have less available fresh, potable water; therefore, furthering the development of agricultural practices that are water- wisewill help to ultimately adapt our agricultural lifestyles to changing times. For example, the O’odham brown tepary bean can reach maturity and produce seeds with only soil moisture accumulated from two rain events (Nabhan 2010), The increased interest in local food production has proved advantageous Barley Celery Rice Wheat Cabbage Endive Lettuce Celery Leek Carrot Garlic Onion Radish Turnip Black-eyed pea Broad beans Garbonzo Lentil Pea Apricot Peach Plum Citron Lemon Lime Orange Apple Fig Olive Pear Pomegranate Quince Anise Caraway Cumin Banana Date Palm Grape Melon Watermelon English Walnut Coriander Black Mustard Sugarcane Fennel Marjoram Mint Oregano Parsley Rosemary Rue Master List of Plants Introduced by the Spanish in Arizona/Sonora Dunmire 2004 for heritage farming practices, as people are seeking out these locally produced heritage products. Heritage farming is on the upswing throughout the country, especially in the Southwest, combining traditional desert farming techniques with modern machinery. This resurgence of interest in heritage farming is especially advantageous given the precarious water situation in the Southwest. Due to unprecedented post-war growth in the sunbelt areas, water and land that was once used primarily for agriculture is now being destroyed by development, whereas the water becomes redirected for residential, recreational, and industrial needs (Nabhan 2010). People’s interest in supporting heritage farming practices can be seen throughout the Southwest, and indeed, all over the nation, at farmer’s markets, local farm-to-table restaurants, organizations like the Santa Cruz Valley Heritage Alliance, and publications such as Edible Baja Arizona, which promote heritage and local sustainable food production. The increasing interest in heritage foods has also made other groups sit up and take notice. Cultural and historic sites can encourage visitor growth by featuring heritage foods at the visitors’ center, or during special events, allowing visitors a chance to actually taste history (Nabhan 2010). Casual visitors are given the opportunity to explore heritage foods, and visitors that come with the express intent of exploring agricultural traditions comprise a new category of visitor. Congress has asked the National Park Service to explore and develop ways to encourage the production of traditional products in national parks through its Conservation Study Institute Publication #14 in 2007 (Nps.gov 2014). This effort can be seen in several historic areas managed by the National Park Service: The Kino Heritage Fruit Tree Project at Tumacacori; the gardens at the Hubbell Trading Post National Historic Site; the gardens at the Canyon de Chelly National Monument, where the agricultural heritage is interpreted by Navajo Park Service staffers; and the historic orchard at Capitol Reef National Park, among others. Although these heritage farms on state and national park land are designed for interpretation and education of visitors on native and heritage food traditions, they serve a dual purpose. By growing, preserving, and propagating these heritage species, they also serve to ensure their continuous survival for the future. Many of these sites and others endeavor to breed and propagate these species to keep one foot in the traditions of the past while also looking toward the future. When many parks, farms, groups, and individuals share the load, it increases the chances of survival and adaptation of these heritage foods and livestock. Ethnobotanic Gardens Ethnobotanic gardens are a small piece of whole heritage foodway preservation oeuvre. Often ethnobotanic gardens take the form of a small exhibit incorporated into a larger botanical garden, however, ethnobotanic gardens themselves have grown increasingly common as demonstration areas in other cultural and historic sites. Sometimes these gardens are attempted recreations of historic gardens. However, as landscapes are composed of living, changing things, its often not possible to have and preserve the exact planted
  • 30. PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | HERITAGE GARDENS | 32 monument as it was at the time; rather, “the historic functions, the diverse traditional craft techniques, and the original ideas” (Hajós 2004:258) are the important elements that can be interpreted and tell us something about our botanic past. Ethnobotanic gardens can also exhibit collections of useful species, exposing a relationship between people and plants (Innerhofer and Bernhardt 2011). Though they can be considered a type of reconstruction, gardens that a visitor can use all of their senses to explore give people an opportunity to put themselves into the historic place; “An essential aspect of monument preservation is to bring about the vivid recollection of the abundance of past human culture” (Hajós 2004:258). The experience of food can recall an immediate memory for people as individuals, remembering our grandmother’s pie, or special birthday treats. Food itself, and the preparation of and cultivation of food, is a universal human attribute. When we can put ourselves into the shoes of a different person at a different time, through the way that they grow, cook, consume, and store food, we can easily view them as real, living, breathing people, and not some grand historic abstract. If the purpose of preservation is to allow the visitor to project themselves into the past, a heritage garden presents the past in a way that is very tangible, and accessible, and also quite visceral. Purpose of Ethnobotanic Gardens Ethnobotanic gardens do not have to be designed with the sole intention of representing the food that people grew and ate. Plants were grown for other purposes, including medicine, crafts, and ritual purposes; in this way, ethnobotanic gardens can illustrate the fundamental relationship between people, plants, and the natural environment (Innerhofer and Bernhardt 2011). A planting plan can be determined in conjunction with existing indigenous groups, if at all possible, or gleaned from archaeological evidence or other research outcomes. Ethnobotanic gardens can also provoke an instinctual reaction to the natural world, an irrational response in a rational time, engaging people’s hearts instead of just minds (Cohen 1997). Establishing a metaphysical link between the past and the present allows people to connect sympathetically with a people and place not of their current time. Ethnobotanic gardens can serve another important purpose, in preserving the biological diversity of plant and animal species (Innerhofer and Bernhardt 2011). Though we tend to think of gardens and plants as fairly static and relatively unchanging in their planted materials, they can be utilized for interpretive efforts. The garden can be used as a backdrop or resource for teaching classes and workshops on traditional medicinal techniques, or be used to grow materials for classes and demonstration of traditional crafts (Innerhofer and Bernhardt 2011). Preserving the physical plant is important for preserving the genetic reserve of the species, as well as the cultural heritage that is an implicit part of its cultivation (Jones and Hoversten 2004). Ethnobotanic gardens can also serve as an important cultural linkage throughout generations. By researching and implementing carefully constructed ethnobotanic gardens, they can be maintained and cultivated through a number of years, which helps to convey shared cultural knowledge and understanding through the generations (Innerhofer and Bernhardt 2011). This is especially critical when considering that many of these species could face threats in the wild through climate change, habitat loss, or other possible destruction. What Makes an Ethnobotanic Garden Successful? Though it is difficult to immediately define what constitutes success in any built environment, especially in the landscape, an attempt at quantifying those attributes also means attempting to continually improve upon them. Susan Jones and Mark Hoversten endeavored to visit and study a large number of ethnobotanic gardens located throughout the southwestern United States, and distilled their findings into the following definition: “A successful ethnobotanic garden tells a compelling story about the relationship between people, plants, and the natural world in a particular place at a particular time, within a broader cultural or environmental context” (Jones and Hoversten 2004:153). They also propose six questions for anyone attempting to design an ethnobotanic landscape to ask themselves before proceeding: 1) What people are being interpreted?, 2) What aspects of their culture?, 3) How did they use this place?, 4) What plants did they use?, 5) How did they use them?, and 6) what did they make with them? Through their careful study and analysis, Jones and Hoversten determined that the best ethnobotanic garden design goes beyond merely disseminating information, and strives to provoke thought, bring about change in visitors’ perception of, attitudes towards, and behavior on the land (Jones and Hoversten 2004:153). In addition to their visits to a number of ethnobotanic gardens, they did extensive research and investigation of other case studies, to develop a framework for attributes of successful ethnobotanic gardens. In their opinion, a successful ethnobotanic garden: adheres to a clearly defined mission; focuses on its visitors and capitalizes on the resources of its site and institution; tells a compelling story; provides an environment conducive to learning; and adapts through time. These attributes cover the range of design decisions that should be considered when developing an interpretive framework for ethnobotanic gardens. They hope that the consideration of these five attributes will lead to a successful interpretation, programming, and design framework (Jones and Hoversten 2004). A successful design can link us to our collective past, and teach us tolerance and respect for others, as well as a responsibility towards the earth (Jones and Hoversten 2004). A good design can also engage all of a visitor’s senses, and connect them to nature on an emotional level (Cohen 1997), however briefly. The design can also incorporate experiential learning opportunities for people to visually connect to the heritage that is being represented in the garden design (Jones and Hoversten 2004). Visitors are a garden’s most important resource, and without them, all of the interpretation, design, and research would be moot. In this, ethnobotanic gardens are more effective when they are fully integrated into the fabric of a site (Jones and Hoversten 2004). Getting people to the site so they can project their own memories and experiences into it is considered key for success.
  • 31. PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | HERITAGE GARDENS | 33 The Visitor Experience If visitors are the most important component of an ethnobotanic garden, how can a garden be designed in a way that is informative and engaging for the visitors? Jones and Hoversten present several attributes of a successful visitor experience, known by the nickname ADROIT: A clearly defined Arrival; Decompression before the new experience; Reception to the message being imparted; Orientation to prepare the visitor for an education journey; Interpretation to provoke thought; and Transformation of the visitor or their behavior in some way (2004). Several non-material qualities that contribute to the overall visitor experience are also suggested: namely, congruency between spaces; immersion in the space; proximity to other cultural or environmental resources; and access to the site itself and its surrounding resources (Jones and Hoversten 2004). Heritage Farming Efforts in the Santa Cruz Valley There are many organizations that work within the greater Santa Cruz River Valley, focused on discovering, recovering, and growing these heritage foods for the future. All of these groups could be considered for partnerships with the Tubac Presidio State Park in developing their own heritage garden project. The Kino Heritage Fruit Tree Project is working in partnership with Heritage orchard at Tumacaori National Historical Park.
  • 32. PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | HERITAGE GARDENS | 34 Arizona Sonora Desert Museum and Jesus Manuel Garcia-Yanez, as well as Robert M. Emmanuel at the University of Arizona to find and propagate fruit trees that are of the same cultivars brought by the Spanish missionaries in the 17th and 18th centuries, by looking at mission orchard communities, historic houses, and private backyards in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico. The Heritage Fruit Tree Project is cultivating these stocks and planting them in the historic orchards at Tumacacori National Historical Park and Tucson Origins Historic Park, contributing to the interpretation, education and preservation of these heritage fruit stocks (Desertmuseum.org). Native Seed/SEARCH, based in Tucson, was founded to protect the biodiversity of the plants of the southwest by storing and propagating seeds, distributing the seeds to tribal communities, and growing and adapting seeds at test gardens and in partnership with growers worldwide. Seed saving serves dual purposes; it preserves the cultural practices associated with the heritage crops, while protecting the biodiversity of the groups and promoting food security through the preserved genetic diversity. Promoting and propagating heritage crops allows communities to guarantee their own food security by saving and planting their seeds year after year, promoting the cultural sustainability and survival along with the seeds’ survival (nativeseeds.org). Tumacacori National Historical Park is working in partnership with the Kino Heritage Fruit Trees Project to replant a section of the historic mission orchard at the site. Research was undertaken to identify, obtain and propagate these historic trees, including peach, pear, apple, quince, pecan, pomegranate, and fig. Locating this heritage garden in a historically significant mission site enhances its connection with the cultural interpretation of the site, and is one more link in the chain that connects the whole network of heritage gardens in the Southwest (Nps.gov). The Santa Cruz Valley Heritage Alliance is a group working towards the establishment of the Santa Cruz River Valley as a National Heritage Area. A National Heritage Area is a designation of a cultural landscape that provides a framework for preservation efforts and economic growth within the designated area. The National Park Service defines a National Heritage Area as a place “where nature, cultural, historic and recreational resources combine to form cohesive, nationally distinctive landscapes arising from past and present human activities shaped by geography” (Nps.gov). The designation of National Historic Area does not impose federal zoning or regulations; instead, it is a community-based preservation strategy that simply encourages preservation and development (Santacruzheritage.org). According to Santa Cruz Heritage Alliance, “the non-economic benefits of the proposed Santa Cruz Valley National Heritage Area include the promotion of local foods, crafts, and other traditional products. The National Heritage Area designation also supports and improved quality of life for residents through preservation of the places, landscapes, and traditions that make this region unique” (Santacruzheritage.org). The incorporation of local and heritage foods and products into the program for the Tubac Presidio State Park can serve to establish the park as an integral piece of the National Heritage Area. Heritage orchard at Tumacaori National Historical Park.
  • 33. PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | HERITAGE GARDENS | 35
  • 34. Seine, Paris
  • 35. Small park design specifically focuses on parks that are under 10 acres. Small parks, like all parks, must take into account the needs and desires of a wide variety of users, but unlike larger parks, these uses must be effectively designed into a smaller, often less varied, space. Management and funding is also an important concern (Phillips 1996), as it is with large parks, but as smaller parks tend to be physically smaller in size, draw from a limited surrounding user base, and have more specific programming. Funding and management tends to be more of an issue for smaller parks. Designing for all potential user groups, as well as anticipated user needs, is an important step in proactively addressing issues that may eventually arise, and helps to secure a stable, long-term future for the park. Many small parks share a common set of amenities, and when these amenities are designed with consideration and thoughtfulness, they can contribute greatly to the long-term success of a small park. Picnic Areas Picnic areas provide a specific destination within a small park, and bring users during many different times of day. Picnic benches should be arranged so that they are able to be used by both large and small groups, and are especially important gathering places for Hispanic families (Forsyth and Musacchio 2005). Other easily overlooked but still important concerns are accessibility, shade, and pathways to and from the picnic areas (Phillips 1996). Providing gathering space of a social nature in a cultural and historic park will help to define a use for the park that is based on more than just tourism, and will help further integrate the site into the surrounding community. Parking Lots Under Phillips’ guidelines for park design, landscaping should be at least 10% of a parking lot design, with at least one tree for every 10 spaces (Phillips 1996). Although this may be considered adequate for more temperate climates, it is considerably more important to provide shade in parking lots in the desert, both for the people and cars using the lot, but also to mitigate the average asphalt parking lot’s contribution to the urban heat island effect. Plantings and trees in parking lot areas can also serve as a visual screen from a surrounding residential area (Phillips 1996). The design of the parking lot itself, as well as the design of areas buffering a nearby road, are also important attributes. The SMALL PARK DESIGN PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | SMALL PARK DESIGN | 37 planted area within a parking lot can serve as a sort of landmark, as well as contributing to the scenic beauty of the surrounding area, making the small park a good neighbor. Trails There are a number of different ways that trails can be designed in small parks, taking into account the user base, as well as any attractions or other assets that need to be reached. Simple things, like designing long curves to discourage shortcuts (Phillips 1996) can be universally applied, or providing walking paths that provide a sensory experience (Forsyth and Musacchio 2005), which will keep visitors actively engaged. More specific design guidelines focus on providing accessibility, for instance, no higher than a 5% slope on walkways (Phillips 1996). Other features require more informed consideration; should the pathways be paved in cement or gravel, depending on the anticipated use, or should brick pavers be used, because they contribute more to the overall character of the park (Phillips 1996)? These are questions that must be answered on a case-by-case basis, depending on a number of factors unique to each individual small park. Stormwater Management Managing stormwater can be an important factor in smaller park design, in areas that lack municipal stormwater management, and especially in the desert. It has also become best practice to manage stormwater on-site, instead of pushing it off for another party to deal with. Stormwater can be managed by traffic islands and parking lots to improve the overall quality of the groundwater (Phillips 1996); it can serve to highlight the greater hydrologic functions of the park and surrounding areas (Forsyth and Musacchio 2005); it can serve an important role in an arid climate to provide supplemental irrigation to vegetated areas; and can create habitat for wildlife and plants (Forsyth and Musacchio 2005). Looking at the myriad benefits that managing stormwater on-site has (not to mention the cost savings of not having to build costly stormwater infrastructure), it would be irresponsible to not consider stormwater management when designing the infrastructure of a small park.
  • 36. PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | SMALL PARK DESIGN | 38 Microclimate Providing a comfortable microclimate for park visitors is a very important aspect to park design. Without considering this factor, the user base for the park will likely be very small. When designing in more temperate climates, it is important to consider the creation of a number of different microclimates, such as seasonal shade, and warm sunny spots in winter (Forsyth and Musacchio 2005). In the desert, shade becomes the most important environmental condition to consider for overall visitor comfort. Microclimate can be managed through several different means. Man- made and mechanized structures can be placed on-site; shade sails, cooling towers, misters, and other shade structures can all be utilized to manage microclimate. Though this can be a very effective technique, the setting and context of the site should be taken into consideration. There are other, more “natural” interventions that can manage microclimate and be more visually appropriate to a natural or historic small park. Water resources can come into play, considering the cooling effects that bodies of water have on the surrounding environment. Hydrologic approaches can also support plantings, such as trees, that can contribute to the greater evapotranspiration rate and create a climatic oasis (Forsyth and Musacchio 2005). Trees and other plants, and the shade that they provide, contribute immediately to microclimate management, and can serve further environmental functions by mitigating local air pollution, improving the quality of stormwater runoff, and providing habitat suitable to wildlife. Wildlife Ecology is an important aspect of park design, though it is often considered secondary to human concerns. Parks, through their very existence, can contribute to the greater ecology of a region in contributing a patch to the overall habitat matrix. Even if the park is designed solely for human recreational purposes, it can still contribute to a greater ecological whole by preventing erosion, preventing proliferation of invasive species, buffering waterways, and more (Forsyth and Musacchio 2005). Parks can also be designed to provide visual, but not physical, access to certain areas, preserving the idea of “open space” while providing protected habitat for flora and fauna (Forsyth and Musacchio 2005). Serving wildlife and ecological function serves us all; “parks can connect people to plants, wildlife, history, and each other, and thus support interactions” (Carr et al 1992:24). Such practices as daylighting streams, for instance, can make visible to park visitors the ecologic functioning of an area beyond the scope of the park itself. Although it may be too much to ask of a small park for it to create habitat for large charismatic species, such as mountain lions or bears, small parks can be designed to accommodate generalist species, such as birds, insects, and pollinators. General guidelines for designing habitat in small parks for wildlife include connecting with other ecological corridors, maintaining a tree canopy and water source, and limiting human access in areas (Forsytn and Musacchio 2005). Plantings Managing the planting plan for a small park is challenging, as plantings are very important in terms of their function; plantings help to create microclimate, buffer the park visually, create wildlife habitat, and filter stormwater. Planting native species is also important, especially in areas that are environmentally sensitive and/or susceptible to invasive plant species. However, strict native plantings are not always desirable, as “there is value to planting strategies that reflect historical patterns of urbanization, honor a region’s ethnic heritage, or use a mixture of local and exotic plants to highlight seasonal change and the sensory experience of a park” (Forsyth and Musacchio 2005:55). Plantings then do not serve only ecological or microclimatic functions, but instead can be agents of education and interpretation. Volunteers In an age where money and reliable maintenance are hard to come by, getting volunteers involved for the design and maintenance of a small park is of the utmost importance. Small parks are ideally positioned to take advantage of volunteer efforts, as their small size makes such efforts seem manageable and volunteering is seen to have a more discernable impact. Especially if the park is a public amenity, designed to appeal to a wide segment of the population, a large pool of potential volunteers will potentially be created; “involved people are one of the most important features of a successful park” (Phillips 1996:6). Small parks are considered part of the daily ritual of life for its nearby users, and the participation of the public can help to ensure its long-term success (Forsyth and Musacchio 2005) in a way that no amount of design and maintenance ever can. Although in some instances the design of a small park can be helped along by public input, it is also effective for community groups to initiate small projects to upgrade the park after it is built (Forsyth and Musacchio 2005). Community involvement outside of the immediate neighbors is also important; park elements can be designed to complement local school curriculum (Forsyth and Musacchio 2005), or the park design and maintenance itself can be undertaken in partnership with local schools (Lancaster 1983). One thing is for certain; the more people actively involved in the outcome of a small park, the more of a long-term success it will guarantee. State Historic Small Park Design Small parks that serve as more than just recreational facilities have their own unique design concerns and strategies, including more provisions for reconstructions, site works, interpretation, and visitor comfort (Lancaster 1983). Though these are common features to state historic parks across the board, each historic park has its own individual characteristics and challenges that must be addressed on a case-by-case basis.
  • 37. PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | SMALL PARK DESIGN | 39 Well-designed parks can attract widlife. Paths can be formal or informal, paved or unpaved. Green infrastructure can manage stormwater runoff. Volunteers assist with day-to-day tasks.
  • 38. Cultural and historic parks differ from recreational parks in the amenities that they provide, as well as their overall goal of preservation. Cultural and historic parks also have additional missions in terms of education and interpretation, elements that are often not part of small parks designed primarily for recreational purposes. Historic Sites vs. Historic Parks What is the difference between a historic site and a historic or cultural park? A site may be an isolated object that is not surrounded by context that contributes to the overall interpretation of the site, and is not protected or preserved in any significant way. Historic and cultural parks “are established through the thematic identification, bounding, and interpretation of a place, and by development (sometimes quite limited) intended to facilitate and shape the park experience” (Carr, Eyring, and Guy-Wilson 2013:1). Sites do not have to be either cultural or historic; a site can be both (Solomonson 2013), it is often the cultural history of land use that leads to the establishment of a historic site. Myopic Cultural Presentation in Historic Parks A problem with cultural presentation in historic parks is that it often focuses on one narrow slice of history, to the exclusion of everything else. In areas where there has been a long history, use, and occupation of an invading force, there is a difficulty in accurately representing the disparate groups and time periods in one cohesive plan of interpretation and design. This difficulty of dichotomy often results in one singular, easily presented representation that does not necessarily acknowledge the full history of the area. In these instances, it is important to examine the greater cultural context of the historic site to facilitate an accurate representation of past meaning and uses. This can help address the challenge of representation in historic sites, especially for those sites that have a history of indigenous occupation that may lack an extensive written or physical record. Extensive research is an important aspect to inclusive representation, and although they are easily overlooked, the “attitude and practices of indigenous tribes are a fundamental element of the meaning and significance of the place” (Porter and Bull 2013:170). Though Porter and Bull are discussing the cultural landscapes of Australia in this case, the cultural context of the arrival of European explorers is very similar between the United CULTURAL PARK DESIGN PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | CULTURAL PARK DESIGN | 40 States and Australia. European settlers arrived in both lands, each of which were already inhabited, kept what they found useful and disregarded the rest. Preservation Ethos Many historic and cultural parks are established with the specific intent of preserving the site. For parks, more than preserved “objects”, a cohesive and persuasive presentation of the landscape to visitors and outsiders is the first step in ensuring its continued conservation (Porter and Bull 2013). The link can be established between the visitor and the life of the park, as the park design itself is focused on the visitor and a meaningful experience of a landscape, but also is a means of preservation (Carr, Eyring and Guy-Wilson 2013). Design and Representation in Historic Parks Though there are many political, social, and cultural concerns in the creation of a park, these factors lend themselves to design implications through the creation or planning of the park itself. It is important to consider “focusing on the landscape…without altering it, creating atmosphere rather than buildings, proposing new use and activities…and sufficiently integrating local communities into the parks activities” (Lucienne Thys-Secho 2013:135). Designing for multiple uses gives a cultural or historic park meaning and programming beyond the immediate preservation goals, and can potentially increase the ongoing user base for the cultural asset. This can also help the position of the park within the community in which it resides; parks can contribute to the long-term economic health of the surrounding community (Carr, Eyring and Guy-Wilson 2013). Guidelines have been suggested for a variety of specific design attributes in cultural and historic parks. To ensure the long-term success of the park, it is important to combine recreation, aesthetics, and conservation, as well as its symbolic value, both in a local and national discourse (Solomonson 2013). Especially when designing a cultural or historic site, it is tempting to look at the past and cultural cues to inspire the specific site elements; however, “respect for the character of the local area will not be achieved by the appropriation of stylistic cues or fashions from another era, but through the sensitive consideration of the location, siting, and scale of the new elements” (Spackman and Massgo 2002). For the National Park Service, historic reconstructions in the
  • 39. PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | CULTURAL PARK DESIGN | 41 architectural realm need to be clearly distinguishable from the original fabric, and this approach can be applied to landscape interventions as well. Another approach is to more clearly consider the palette of the interventions: plants, construction techniques, interpretive materials should create a strong link to the culture being interpreted, and should be treated as an educational opportunity, not just as site decoration (Jones and Hoversten 2004). Tumacaori National Historical Park.
  • 40. CASE REVIEWS
  • 41. Arizona Sonora Desert Museum
  • 42. Case reviews present an opportunity to apply lessons and guidelines from the literature review to real-world cases, where these guidelines and attributes can be evaluated for their successes and failures. These case studies are not specific to one area of investigation in the literature review; many of these sites combine elements of interpretive design, small park design, cultural and historic park design, and heritage gardens, as well as archaeological remains and reconstructions. Some case reviews have just one or two of these elements, and some have all of the above. This is because none of these elements exists in a vacuum, and successful parks combine all of these elements into a greater whole. CASE REVIEWS PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | CASE REVIEWS | 45 They also serve a function in that a project cannot be evaluated before it is built, and case studies can function as a stand-in for an in-depth project review after the fact. The importance of conducting case reviews in the overall conceptualization and design of a site plan is to apply the lessons from the literature review, through the case reviews, onto the eventual site design. This research is intended to function as a proof-of-concept for any design decisions made for the final design. Tohono Chul Entry Plaza
  • 43. Fort Loudoun is a mid-18th century British fort in Tennessee that has since been designated as a State Historic Area. The fort was occupied originally between 1756 and 1760, and was eventually abandoned and overgrown, although it remained an important landmark locally. Archaeological excavations conducted under the auspices of the WPA found some historic remains. Interpretation efforts at that point included an artifact display, a brochure, and a self-guided walking tour. When the Tennessee Valley Authority threated to flood the site, extensive research was undertaken, both archaeological and historic, and enough information was found to appropriately guide reconstruction efforts, which commenced in 1960. The area that now comprises Fort Loudoun State Historic Area was saved from the flooding, but the ensuing lake completely altered the surroundings of the site. As the site was largely reconstructed, and because of the lack of original historic material, there was no need to protect fragile archaeological remains. Themes of interpretation were selected for the site; these included the natural environment of the valley, the history and occupation of Fort Loudoun, and the archaeological remains, as well as the fort reconstruction itself. As the site is used mostly by tourists and school groups, the reconstruction of the site allows for easier interpretation of the site, a more complete educational resource for school demographics, and enhances awareness of the historic past. Living history weekends and events serve to PRESIDIO DE TUBAC MASTER PLAN | CASE REVIEWS | 46 FORT LOUDOUN STATE HISTORIC AREA reinforce the interpretive efforts for this demographic, among others. The site also attracts visitors for more than just history; people in search of fall colors or water-related recreation also visit the site (Distretti and Kuttfruff 2004). Design Implications Reconstruction should only be undertaken in instances where the historic record is complete enough to allow reconstruction to proceed in an informed fashion. In this case, the research did allow for this method of interpretation, which is a benefit to a wide variety of visitors who may find the historic remains of the site easier to understand if they are made visible. Ease of interpretation encourages school groups and other educational users to visit the site. The site creates opportunities for recreation outside of historic site visitation. Reconstruction can take place at a site where there is no longer any visible evidence; recreating the evidence is enough to restore interest in the site.

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