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Political Thoughts | Taqiuddin an-Nabhani

Political Thoughts Taqiuddin an-Nabhani Hizb ut-Tahrir Al- Khilafah Publications
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Political Thoughts | Taqiuddin an-Nabhani

  • 1. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 1 Political Thoughts Taqiuddin an-Nabhani Hizb ut-Tahrir Al- Khilafah Publications PO Box 1100 London CR4 2ZR Tel: 0956 245968 e-mail:info@khilafah.com website:http://www.khilafah.com
  • 2. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 2 Al- Khilafah Publications PO Box 1100 London CR4 2ZR Tel: 0956 245968 e-mail: info@khilafah.com website: http://www.khilafah.com 1420 AH / 1999 CE ISBN 1 899574 077 Translation of the Qur’an It should be perfectly clear that the Qur’an is only authentic in it’s original language, Arabic. Since perfect translation of the Qur’an is impossible, we have used the translation of the meaning of the Qur’an’ throughout the book, as the result is only a crude meaning of the Arabic text. Qur’anic ayat and transliterated words have been italicised. Ahadith appear in bold I - subhanahu wa ta’ala r - sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam ra - radhi allaho anha AH - After Hijrah CE - Common Era
  • 3. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 3 Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 1 Political Thought . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 2 Politics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 3 Political Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 4 Politics is the Art of Possibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 5 Politics and International Politics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 6 Understanding the International Situation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 7 The International Community, it’s Norms & Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 8 Political Thinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 9 Political Awareness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 10 Political Struggle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 11 Political Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 12 Political Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 13 Involvement in Politics is an Obligation Upon Muslims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
  • 4. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 4 14 The Statesman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 15 The Political Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77 16 Vacuum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85 17 Ruling in Islam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 18 The Ruling System in Islam is One of Unity and is Not Federal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95 19 The Public Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97 20 Detachment between the Ummah and the State, and the Obligation of Accounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105 21 Establishing Political Parties is a Fard Kifayah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 22 How can Individuals & Parties Influence International Politics & the States direction? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112 23 Democracy is a System of Kufr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114 24 The Political Issue for the Ummah and the Islamic State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119 25 The Vital Issue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122
  • 5. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 5 Introduction P olitics means the taking care of the affairs of the Ummah internally and externally; it is performed by the State and the Ummah. The State handles this taking care (of the Ummah’s affairs) practically, and the Ummah accounts the State (re it’s performance). Ever since the Khilafah was destroyed and Kufr political systems were applied in the Islamic lands, Islam ceased to be political. In it’s place came Western political thought established upon the Capitalist doctrine, a doctrine that detaches religion from life. What must be clearly understood by the Muslim Ummah is that taking care of the affairs by Islam cannot happen without the Khilafah and that separating political Islam from life and from the deen means eradicating Islam, it’s systems and rules and the wiping out of the Ummah, her values, civilisation and message. The capitalist states adopt the doctrine of detaching the deen from life and politics, and they work actively to spread this doctrine and establish it’s rules upon the Muslim Ummah. They also work to mislead the Ummah and convince her that politics and the deen do not mix, and that politics means realism and being content with the current situation and the impossibility of changing it. All this is to ensure that the Ummah remains under the yoke of the states of Kufr, oppression and tyranny, and unable to envisage the path for revival. In addition they work to alienate Muslims from the Islamic political groups and from involvement in politics. This is because the Kufr states know that there is no way to strike against the West’s political thoughts and rules except by political action and by being involved in politics on the basis of Islam. This campaign to alienate the Muslims from politics and politicians has reached the extent of depicting politics as contradictory to the greatness and spirituality of Islam. Therefore, the Ummah has to understand the secret behind the war fought by the infidel states and the puppet rulers against the Islamic
  • 6. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 6 6 u Political Thoughts groups, who are working to revive the Muslims by establishing the Khilafah State, fighting the Kufr thoughts and restoring the glory of Islam. Therefore, it is a must that the Muslim Ummah understands clearly the meaning of politics linguistically and in Shari’ah, and that political Islam cannot exist without the Khilafah State. Without it, Islam ceases to be political. Nor can it be considered alive except when this State in it’s capacity as an executive political entity implements and executes the Islamic rules. This is the Shari’ah method by which the Islamic rules and systems are executed in the public life. They have also to know that Allah I has obliged the Ummah to implement these rules, and forbade arbitration to Kufr systems due to their contradiction with Islam and as they are man-made. Therefore, it is necessary to culture the Ummah with the Islamic culture and to continually inject her with the Islamic political thoughts and rules and explain how these thoughts and rules emanate from the Islamic Aqeedah in it’s capacity as a political thought. It is also necessary to concentrate this culture from it’s spiritual aspect in it’s capacity as the commands and prohibitions of Allah I without reference to any other consideration. This spiritual aspect will guarantee the strength of the Islamic thoughts and rules within the souls, and manifest the meaning of politics and political thought to the Ummah, such that she perceives the responsibility placed on her shoulder to initiate the Islamic thoughts and rules in practical life, and the importance of the universal message that Allah I obliged her to carry to the world. This is particularly important as she sees the level she has reached in the present time, due to the disappearance of the Islamic state and the thoughts and rules of Islam from her life, and the level which the world has sunk to in terms of evil, misery and the enslaving of humanity. This political culturing, whether it is culturing by the Islamic thoughts and rules or by following the political events, will create the political awareness and cause the Ummah to shoulder her fundamental mission and original responsibility, which is to carry the Islamic Da’wa to all peoples and nations.
  • 7. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 7 1 Political Thought P olitical thought is of the highest types of thought. Political thought is that which is concerned with taking care of the affairs of the Ummah. The highest level of political thought is that which is related to man and the world from a particular point of view. The Islamic Aqeedah is a political idea, so it is a political thought; indeed it is the foundation of the political thought for Muslims. It is an ideology, a system and a Deen, part of which is the state. The Islamic Aqeedah is distinguished from other Aqeedahs and ideologies in that it is spiritual and political. The thoughts and rules which emanate from it address the affairs of this world as well as the Hereafter. The point of view shaped by the Islamic Aqeedah differs from all points of view shaped by other ideologies and systems. Similarly, it’s thoughts and rules differ from all other thoughts and rules existent in the world. Such differences exist in the foundation from which they stem, in their sources of legislation, and in their entireties as well as their details. The Islamic Aqeedah brought thoughts and rules addressing all of life’s affairs, and the human relations in it. It looks after these affairs and relationships whether related to ruling, economics, social relations, education, internal or external policies of a state, or be they related to the relationship between the ruler and the ruled or the relationship of the state with other states, nations or peoples. Therefore, the political Aqeedah of Islam is complete and comprehensive; it addresses all affairs and aspects of life and treats all situations accurately. Allah I says: “And we have revealed to you The Book explaining all matters”.[An-Nahl: 89]
  • 8. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 8 8 u Political Thoughts He I also says: “Today I have completed your Deen for you, encompassed my blessings upon you, and have accepted Islam to you as a Deen”. [Al- Maidah: 3] The absence of the thoughts and rules that emanate from the Aqeedah has had the greatest impact on the life of Muslims. The Ottoman states adopting ideas and rules from non-Islamic sources and considering them as part of Islam even by name, and the negligence in adhering to the divine rules by individuals in their lives, were considered the most important factors in destroying the Islamic state and bringing the Muslims to such a level of humiliation and decline. Therefore, it is of extreme importance that Muslims completely adhere to the thoughts and divine rules, for they lead to the controlled behaviour of individuals as well as of the Ummah in the running of the state. The rules which emanate from the political Islamic Aqeedah oblige the Muslims to implement Islam completely, and to establish upon it’s basis an independent and distinguished Islamic entity and to build a unique society which is the Islamic society. They also oblige Muslims to be one Islamic Ummah regardless of their ethnic background and colour, united by the Islamic Aqeedah which unifies their viewpoint about life, namely the Halal and Haram, which makes this viewpoint a yardstick for their view towards incidents and events, and for judging them under one single state. Furthermore, the Islamic Aqeedah obliges Muslims as parties, groups and organisations to work to resume the Islamic way of life and carry the Islamic Da’wah i.e. to resolve the vital issue of the Muslims. The resumption of the Islamic way of life means the return of Muslims to the Islamic way of life in Dar-ul-Islam, an Islamic society dominated by the Islamic thoughts and emotions and ruled by the systems and rules of Islam. In this society, all of life’s affairs are run in accordance with the divine rules under the Islamic Khilafah state. In the Khilafah state, Muslims appoint a Khaleefah who is given the Bayah for obedience as
  • 9. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 9 Political Thought u 9 long as he rules by the Book of Allah, the Sunnah of His Messenger and carries the Islamic message to mankind through Da’wah and Jihad. For the Muslim Ummah today to achieve revival, she must make the Islamic Aqeedah the basis for her life and establish ruling and authority on that basis. In other words, she must address the daily problems by the rules that emanate from this Aqeedah i.e. by the divine rules solely in their capacity as commands and prohibitions from Allah. Only then will revival be achieved with certainty. As a matter of fact, not only will revival take place but the true revival will occur. Only then will the Ummah return to her previous position of glory and world leadership. Therefore, the Ummah must be cultured by the political culture starting before anything else with it’s rational Aqeedah i.e. it’s comprehensive idea about the universe, man and life. This Aqeedah must be taught as a political idea and not only as a spiritual idea. Then all political thoughts that emanate from it, as well as the means and goals which are built on it must be part of that culture (to the Ummah). The Islamic Ummah embraces the Islamic Aqeedah as a comprehensive idea about the universe, man and life, as a political Aqeedah, as an intellectual leadership and basis, and as a specific viewpoint on life. Therefore, upon witnessing the entire world, including herself, in disarray, suffering under political and economic injustice, enslaved by tyrant powers, and living a nightmare of hardship, enslavement and humiliation, the Ummah is obliged to take upon her shoulders the responsibility of saving the world and bringing it out of the darkness of mis-guidance and deception to the light of guidance and happiness. Though the Ummah suffers under the tyrant power she is not permitted to think of herself only. Selfishness does not relate to her beliefs and is alien to her deep-rooted values and thoughts. Therefore, she must think of saving the world as well as herself and she must change herself and liberate the world, and not work for herself alone. This is because she is part of this world, and she exists in order to guide mankind. Once she embraced the Aqeedah of Islam, it became an obligation upon her to save mankind from misery, injustice, humiliation and enslavement. The Muslim Ummah embraces a political idea about life, and she embraces a method to implement this idea in life. Once a nation possesses the correct idea and it’s method, then without a doubt, it
  • 10. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 10 10 u Political Thoughts becomes worthy of disseminating goodness and worthy of carrying the leadership of this idea. Due to this, not only is the Ummah capable of achieving true revival, but she is also able to be the source of goodness for others and carry this idea to the people both as an intellectual leadership and a certain viewpoint about life. Consequently, through the carrying of the Islamic Da’wah to all peoples and nations she is capable of solving the problem of the world and saving it from the misery, enslavement and humiliation that it is drowning in.
  • 11. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 11 2 Politics P olitics or Siyasah is looking after the affairs of the Ummah (nation) internally and externally. It is carried out by the state and the Ummah. The state is the entity that engages in this caring in practice while the Ummah engages in it by taking the state to task. This definition of politics exists among all people, for it describes the reality of politics as a term. It is like the definition of the mind, truthfulness and authority, among others. Each meaning has a common reality for all people and therefore has a common meaning for them, for it is a comprehended reality. However, they differ in the rules that govern such a reality. Moreover, the linguistic meaning of this word in the root verb Sasa, Yasoosu, Siyasatan is to care for ones affairs. The author of Al- Qamoos Al-Muheet, (an Arabic dictionary) says, and sustu ar-raiyata siyasatan means commanded her and forbade her. This definition can also be extracted from the Ahadith addressing the rulers responsibility, the obligation of taking him to task and the importance of caring for the interests of Muslims. The Messenger r said: “Any person Allah has placed in (a position) to foster the peoples affairs and he does not give them his advice he will not even smell the scent of Jannah (paradise). And the saying of the Messenger r: Anyone who took charge of any Muslims and he died while he was deceiving them Allah will prevent him from entering paradise (Jannah). And: There J will be leaders over you, (who will do things) you recognise (as part of the Deen), and you don’t recognise. Whoever recognised he would be relieved (of sin), and whoever denied (the wrong), he would be safe. But what about he who accepted and followed. They said: Shouldn’t we fight against them. He r said: No, as long as they prayed. And Whoever awakens and his concern is not for Allah, he does not belong to Allah. And: Whoever awakens not concerned with Muslims (affairs) is not from them. Jareer ibn Abdullah said: I
  • 12. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 12 12 u Political Thoughts gave a pledge to the Prophet r to establish the prayer, to give the alms, and to give advice to every Muslim. Jareer Ibn Abdullah also said: I came to the Prophet r and said: I give a pledge to you on Islam. The Messenger placed the condition upon me to give advice to every Muslim. These Ahadith, whether pertaining to the ruler in his position of ruling, or to the Ummah’s questioning of the ruler, or those dealing with the relationship between the Muslims with each other as far as caring for their interests and giving them the sincere advice is concerned, they all give the definition of politics as: fostering the Ummah’s affairs. Therefore, the definition of politics is a divine definition derived from the Shari’ah evidences. With regard to the caring for the affairs of the Ummah in practice, Shar’a has given the ruler alone that responsibility. Neither the citizens, collectively or anyone of them individually is allowed to carry out such tasks, unless he is legitimately appointed to do so. Such legitimate appointment can be made through a pledge of allegiance from the people as is the case with the Khaleefah. Appointment can also be made by the Khaleefah himself or by any of those who are authorised by the Khaleefah to make appointments like his assistants and the Governors (Walis). Anyone who is not appointed by the pledge of allegiance (from the citizens) or by the Khaleefah is not allowed to carry out any of the affairs of the Ummah, either internally or externally. Authority and caring for the peoples affairs is designated by the Shari’ah exclusively to the ruler. Allah’s Messenger r said: “Whoever sees something he dislikes from his Ameer, he should be patient with him, for anyone who rebels against the authority and dies in that state (of rebellion), he will die in a state of Jahiliyah (ignorance).” This Hadith makes rebellion against him a rebellion against the authority. This means authority belongs to the Ameer, and no one else. Allah’s Messenger r also said: “The children of Israel were looked after by their prophets. Whenever a prophet died, another succeeded him, but there will be no prophet after me. There will be Khulafaa and they will number many.” This means that your affairs, Oh Muslims, will be cared for by the Khulafaa. Thus, the ones who care for the Muslims affairs have been specified. These Ahadith indicate that none other than the Ameer has the authority and no one is allowed to care for the peoples affairs except the Khulafaa. This proves that caring for the citizen’s affairs
  • 13. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 13 Politics u 13 is for the ruler exclusively. Furthermore, the Messenger’s action shows that caring for the peoples affairs and the authority are restricted to him as a head of state. It was he r who used to delegate authority and caretaking actions to people. For example, the Messenger r appointed people to carry out his duties in Medina upon his departure for a Ghazwa (battle). He also appointed governors, judges, people to collect resources, people to perform certain public work such as the distribution of water, and the estimating of fruit’s and produce, etc. The above is an evidence to restrict authority and caretaking to the ruler, i.e. the Khaleefah and whoever is assigned by the Khaleefah, and to the Ameer and whoever is appointed by the Ameer. The Sultan or authority is caring for the peoples affairs in a binding fashion. In other words, carrying out the rulers responsibilities is restricted to the ruler. Absolutely no one else is permitted to carry out these responsibilities. This is because the Shar’a delegated the authority and the task of caretaking to the sultan (Khaleefah) and whoever is appointed by the Khaleefah. If an individual other than the Imam or one appointed by the Imam, assumes the responsibility of ruling and looking after the affairs of the people he will be acting against the Shar’a and thus his action would be Batil (invalid) and every invalid action is Haram. Therefore, it is not allowed for anyone other than the Khaleefah and whoever is appointed by the Khaleefah i.e. by other than the ruler, to perform any action of government and ruling. Such a person is not allowed to assume caretaking for the Ummah in a binding fashion, for this is the job of the ruler and no one else is allowed to perform it. With regard to the internal policy of the Islamic state, it is based on implementing the rules of Islam internally. During the existence of the Islamic state, it carried out the rules of Islam in it’s domain. It used to organise mutual relations, execute the punishment system (Hudud), protect ethics (Akhlaq), ensure the performance of the Ibadat (worships), and foster the affairs of all it’s subjects in accordance to the Islamic laws. Islam clarified the method of executing it’s rules on those under it’s authority, be they Muslims or non-Muslims. The Islamic state used to implement the rules of Islam in accordance with this method since the method of implementation is a divine rule (Hukm Shari’ah) in the same way that it is a solution to a problem. All people are addressed with Islam, for Allah r addressed all of mankind with it.
  • 14. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 14 14 u Political Thoughts AllahI said: “O man! What has seduced you from your Lord Most Beneficent”. [Al- Infitar : 6] Scholars of Usool-ul-fiqh stated that every sane person who understands the speech is addressed with the divine rules, whether he or she is a Muslim or non-Muslim. Imam al-Ghazali stated in his book Al-Mustasfa Fi Al-Usool: The addressed person is the one who is charged (Mukallaf). He/she must be a person who understands the speech. What qualifies someone as being subject to the rules is whether as a human being, the person’s mind has the ability to understand the speech. Therefore, all mankind is addressed with Islam, an address of Da’wah as well as Takleef (legislation). The speech of Da’wah means calling all people to embrace Islam. The address of Takleef means obliging all people to act upon the rules of Islam. Islam considers the group that is governed with this system as a human unit, regardless of it’s race and ethnicity. To qualify for such a view, it only mandates citizenship (loyalty to the state and system). In Islam, there are no minorities. All people, as humans irrespective of any other consideration, are subjects of the Islamic state, as long as they are citizens of it. Therefore, the internal policy of the Islamic state is to implement the Islamic Shari’ah on all those who carry it’s citizenship, be they Muslims or non-Muslims. The foreign policy of the Islamic state is it’s relationship with other states, peoples and nations. This relationship is the looking after of the Ummah’s affairs externally. This foreign policy is based on a fixed and non-changeable idea, namely to spread Islam to the world, to every nation and every people. This basis does not vary or change irrespective of any change in the individuals who are in power. This basis of foreign policy existed throughout history, from the time the Messenger r settled in Medina until the Ottoman state collapsed as the last Islamic state. Throughout history, this basis did not change at all. Since the Messenger r erected his state in Medina, he established it’s relationship with other states on the basis of spreading Islam. So, he struck treaties with the Jews in order to enable himself to spread the Da’wah in Hijaz. Then he
  • 15. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 15 Politics u 15 r struck the treaty of Hudaibiyah with Quraysh to be able to spread the Da’wah in the Arabian Peninsula, establishing relations with them based on spreading Islam by inviting them to embrace it. In addition the Khulafaa that came after him r established their relations with all the states on the basis of spreading Islam, and continued to carry the Da’wah of Islam to the world. The existence of the state is for no other reason but to implement Islam internally and carry it’s Da’wah to the world externally. Consequently, the task of the Islamic state externally is solely and exclusively to carry the Islamic Da’wah. What makes the spreading of Islam the basis for the foreign policy is the fact that the Message of Muhammad r is for all mankind. Allah I says: “We have not sent you (O Muhammad) except as a giver of glad tidings and a warner to all mankind ”. [Saba: 28] And Allah I says: “Oh mankind, and admonition from your Lord has come to you”. [Yunus: 57] He I said: “Say Oh mankind, I am the Messenger of Allah to you all”. [Al- Araf:158] He I also said: “This Qur’an has been revealed to me by inspiration that I may warn you and all whom it reaches”. [Al- Anam: 19]
  • 16. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 16 16 u Political Thoughts The Messenger r conveyed the message to the people. After his death, his message, continued to be conveyed by the Muslims. Therefore, carrying the Islamic Da’wah to the world is a continuation of the work of the Messengers. That is why carrying the Islamic Da’wah is the basis of the Islamic state’s relationship with other states, nations and peoples. This is defined by the Hukm Shari’ah, which is established by the Qur’an, Sunnah and Ijmaa us Sahabah. Consequently, the foreign policy of the Islamic state is to carry the Islamic Da’wah to the world. The Islamic state implements this foreign policy via an established and non-changeable method, namely Jihad. This method does not change regardless of any changes to the people in authority. This method existed throughout history since the Messenger r settled in Medina until the last Islamic state was destroyed. The method never changed nor varied. Since the Messenger r established the state in Medina, he r prepared the army and initiated Jihad in order to remove the physical obstacles from it’s way. The Quraysh were a physical barrier preventing the spread of the Islamic Da’wah, so they were determined to eliminate it. He r succeeded in eliminating the Quraysh as an entity in addition to other entities that prevented the spread of the Da’wah until Islam dominated the Arabian Peninsula. Then, the Islamic State started approaching other nations in order to spread Islam amongst them. However, it found that the acting ruling bodies stood as physical obstacles preventing the penetration of the Da’wah. Thus, it became necessary to remove these entities obstructing the path of the Da’wah so as to reach the people themselves and call them to Islam by ruling them by it. Ruling them by Islam will lead the people to see and experience the justice of Islam and comfort and tranquillity of living under it’s flag. The people will be invited to embrace it in the best manner and without any compulsion or force. Jihad continued as the method to spread Islam. So, countries were conquered and kingdoms and states were removed by Jihad with Islam ruling the peoples and nations. Islam was embraced by hundreds of millions of people after it ruled them. Therefore, the method that was followed in the foreign policy was Jihad, which was fixed and non- changeable, and it will never change. It is the duty of the Islamic state to engage itself in certain political actions. Some of these actions pertain to giving clear information about
  • 17. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 17 Politics u 17 Islam, disseminating the ideas of Islam and performing the Da’wah and propagation for Islam. Other political actions pertain to demonstrating the power and the ability of the Islamic state as well as the toughness and courage of Muslims. The Messenger r did many actions of this nature, where he r sent many people to the very heart of the lands of shirk to call them to Islam, such as the occasion when 40 men were sent to Najd to convey Islam. He r also used to show the might of the state as when he r paraded the Muslim army in Medina prior to departing to the Ghazwah of Tabuk. The Messenger r said: “I was supported by terror from a month’s distance march.” It is due to this that the Muslim army throughout history was feared. Therefore, the political action pertaining to the spread of the Islamic thoughts and showing the power of the state must be performed before fighting can take place. While Jihad is the fixed and non-changeable method to spread Islam, political actions and designed (planned) manoeuvres are a must before engaging in fighting. This is a fundamental issue in establishing the relationship between the state and other states, peoples and nations in a specific fashion. Also, good neighbourly relations or economic relations makes the spread of Islam easier. Consequently, the political idea that the Islamic state’s relationship with other states, nations and peoples is based upon is to spread Islam among them and carry Islam to them. The method to achieve this is Jihad in the way of Allah (Fi sabeel Allah). With regard to questioning the state by the Ummah, Islam made it mandatory on Muslims to take the rulers to task. The fact that Islam obliged Muslims to obey them even if they are unjust or take peoples rights, does not mean remaining silent regarding their behaviour. Rather, they should be obeyed and should be questioned for their actions and behaviour. Allah I obliged the Muslims to question the rulers. He r also decisively ordered them to force change on the rulers if they took the peoples rights or did not fulfil their duties toward them, or neglected any of their affairs, went against any rule of Islam or ruled by other than that which Allah I revealed. Muslim reported that Ummu Salamah said that Allah’s Messenger r said: “There will be leaders over you, (who will do things) you recognise (as part of the Deen), and you don’t recognise. Whoever recognised that would be relieved (of sin), and whoever denied (the wrong), he would be safe but what about the one who accepted and followed”. They said: Shouldn’t we fight against
  • 18. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 18 18 u Political Thoughts them. He r said: “No, as long as they prayed.” In another narration “Whoever recognised he would be relieved (of sin), and whoever denied (the wrong) he would be safe, but what about the one who accepted and followed”. This narration explains the other one. The Messenger r ordered to deny the ruler in any method that is within ones ability: with the hand as long as it does not escalate to physical fighting, with the mouth using any permissible statement, or with the heart if unable to do the first two. The Messenger r considered that whoever does not deny the Haram actions of the ruler is a partner in the sin, for he r said: “Whoever accepted what they did and submitted to that, then he would not be safe from the sin”. Furthermore, the evidences of commanding good and forbidding evil are evidences for the obligation of questioning the ruler, for they are general and thus include the ruler as well as others. Allah I commanded us to command goodness and forbid evil in a decisive manner. He I said: “And let there arise amongst you a group, inviting to all that is good (Islam), commanding al-Marouf (good) and forbidding al-Munkar (evil); and those are the ones whom are the successful” [ Al- Imran: 104] “Those who, if We firmly establish them on earth, remain constant in prayer, and give in charity, and command what is right and forbid the doing of what is wrong”. [Al- Hajj: 41]
  • 19. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 19 Politics u 19 “And the believers, both men and women, they are protecting friends one to another; they command what is right and forbid what is wrong”. [At- Tauba: 71] “You are the best Ummah raised to mankind, you command what is right and forbid what is wrong”. [Al- Imran: 110] “Those who follow the (last) Messenger, the unlettered Prophet whom they find mentioned in the Torah and Gospel; He commands them of what is right and forbids them what is wrong” [Al- Araf: 157] “(It is a triumph of) those who turn (unto Allah) in repentance and who worship and praise (Him), and wander in devotion to the cause of Allah, and bow down (before Him) and prostrate themselves in adoration, and command what is right and forbid what is wrong”. [At- Tauba: 112]
  • 20. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 20 20 u Political Thoughts Allah I ordered us in the above ayaat to command goodness and forbid evil. This order was attached with the connotation (Qareenah) that makes such orders decisive, namely the praise for doing it. He I said: And those are the successful ones, you are the best Ummah and the repenters, the worshippers, among others. The presence of these connotations (Qareenahs) makes the order decisive which means an obligation. Also, questioning the ruler is only commanding him to do good and forbidding him from doing evil and therefore, it is an obligation. There are also numerous Ahadith directing us to command good and forbid evil. Huthayfah b. al-Yaman said that the Prophet r said: “By the One in whose hand is my soul, you have to command the good and forbid the evil or Allah will be about to send a punishment upon you then you will ask Him for help and He will not answer you.” Abu Said Al-Khudri said: Allah’s Messenger r said: “Whoever of you sees evil, let him change it with his hand, and if not able then with his mouth and if he is still not able then let him hate it within his heart and that is the least of faith.” Also Uday b. Umayrah said: I heard the Prophet r say: “Allah does not punish the general public because of the wrong doing of specific people until they see the evil (committed) among them while able to stop it and they do not. If they do that, Allah will punish the specific people and the general public.” The above Ahadith make commanding good and forbidding evil an obligation. These Ahadith oblige the Muslims to command the rulers to do good and forbid them from doing evil. Undoubtedly, this is the very action of questioning them for their actions. However, there are Ahadith that address questioning the ruler specifically due to the importance of commanding him to do good and forbidding him from evil. Atiyyah reported that Abu Said said: Allah’s Messenger r said: “The best jihad is a word of truth to an unjust ruler.” Abu Umamah reported that: A man approached Allah’s Messenger r at the first Jamrah (in Hajj) and asked him: Oh Messenger of Allah, which is the best jihad? The Messenger r remained silent. When the Messenger threw the second stone, the man asked him again. The Messenger did not reply. Upon throwing the stone of Aqbah, and the Messenger was about to mount, he r said: “Where is the questioner”? He said: Here I am Oh Messenger of Allah. He r said: “A
  • 21. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 21 Politics u 21 word of truth said to an unjust ruler.” This is an explicit text pertaining to the ruler and the obligation of saying the truth to him, i.e. questioning him. Struggling against those rulers who take peoples rights or fall short in their duties or neglect any of the Ummah’s affairs or do the like of that is an obligation. This is because Allah I demanded it and considered it like jihad. Rather, He I made it the best type of jihad; since Muhammad r said the best jihad is struggling against the tyrant ruler. This in itself is sufficient to prove that it is an obligation to question the rulers. The Messenger r encouraged the struggle against the unjust rulers regardless of the harm that is inflicted upon the person who does so. The Muslim is encouraged to do it even if it leads to his death. It was reported that the Messenger r said: “The master of martyrs is Hamzah and a man who stood up to an unjust ruler, commanding him (to do good) and forbidding him (from evil) and was killed”. This is one of the most emphatic forms commanding the Muslims to endure harm, even death, in the process of questioning the ruler and struggling against the unjust rulers.
  • 22. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 22 3 Political Concepts U nderstanding the foreign policy is an essential requirement to protect the entity of the state and the Ummah. It is also a fundamental prerequisite to be able to carry the Da’wah to the world, and a necessary action to organise the Ummah’s relationship with others in the correct fashion. Since the Islamic Ummah is obliged to carry the Islamic Da’wah to all mankind, it is mandatory upon Muslims to set their relations with the world, beware of it’s conditions, comprehend it’s problems, be knowledgeable of the motives of states and peoples, follow up the political actions in the world, observe the political plans of the states in terms of the styles used to execute their plans, and the manner of their relationships with each other, as well as the political manoeuvres carried out by these states. Therefore, it is a must that Muslims realise the reality of the situation in the Muslim world in the light of the understanding of the international situation in order to know the actions and styles needed to establish their state and carry out their Da’wah to the world. Consequently, it becomes essential that Muslims completely understand the international situation and the details related to it. They also must comprehend the position of the existing states in the world that have weight in the general international situation. All states are enemies to Islam, since they embrace religions and ideologies opposed to Islam, and carry a point of view that not only differs but is diametrically opposed to the Islamic point of view. The superpowers specifically are more than enemies, for they have interests in the Islamic lands. It is due to these interests, that they destroyed the Islamic state in order to finish the Islamic Ummah. They set up long term plans aimed at preventing the return of the Islamic Ummah to her glorious place amongst other nations. Naturally, the superpowers are busy designing plans and spending efforts to bury the Islamic state in it’s
  • 23. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 23 cradle before the Islamic Ummah moves. They will continue to struggle against the Islamic Ummah, it’s presence and strength as long as the Islamic state is present or as long as those enemy states are strong, as states, as peoples or even as individuals. If knowledge of every state’s policy in the world is a matter that no Muslim politician can do without, knowledge of the nature, secrets, plans, styles and means of the superpowers, in general terms, is of extreme importance to every Muslim. Detailed and practical knowledge of these matters, following up the various changing daily events, with the complete realisation of the bases and foundations of the policies of the superpowers is an essential for every Muslim politician and thinker. This serves the purpose of understanding the dangers to shield the Ummah from them, thus securing the state and the Islamic Ummah and the carrying of the Islamic Da’wah to the world.
  • 24. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 24 4 Politics is the Art of Possibilities P olitics is about ideas related to fostering peoples affairs. These ideas may be bases, creeds, rules, actions that are taking place, took place, or will take place or news. If these ideas are addressing a matter of reality, then it is politics, be it contemporary or futuristic. If it occurred in the past, i.e. it was a reality in the past, whether recent or ancient, it is history. That is why history was politics and later became history. This history could have been facts that do not change with the circumstances and therefore must be studied. Or it could have been incidents that occurred in certain circumstances and therefore must not be taken into consideration. The reader must be aware of this latter type of history when reading it so as not to adopt that event in other than the circumstances in which it occurred, for he will fall in error and harm will occur if taken. A human being or an individual living this life is a politician who likes politics and coexists with it. This is because he takes care of his own affairs or the affairs of those whom he is responsible for, or his Ummah’s, the ideology’s affairs or his own ideas. However, individuals, groups, states or international alliances who champion fostering the affairs of their nations, states, region or countries are politicians by their human nature. They are politicians due to the nature of their work, life and policies. And because of this, they become outstanding politicians, and are the ones rightfully called politicians. This term is not given to an ordinary person since he is limited in his thinking in terms of looking after the affairs, as well as limited in action in life. Discussion in politics concerns politicians, not all individuals. Scholars defined politics as the art of the possible. This is a correct definition, however, it is erroneous to restrict it to immediate issues because it means realism in the wrong sense of the word which is
  • 25. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 25 Politics is the Art of Possibilities u 25 studying the situation and addressing it as it is. If this idea was correct, there would be no history or political life. This is because history charts the changing of a situation and political life is changing the ongoing events. Therefore, defining politics as the art of the possible is wrong if understood as the people and politicians understand it. However, as far as the word possible is concerned, if it is understood in it’s true meaning which is that which is opposed to the impossible then it is true, for politics is not the art of the impossible, rather the art of the possible only. Ideas that are not related to possible events and reality are not political, they are logical propositions or mere imagination. For ideas to be political, they must be related to the possible. That is why politics is the art of the possible, not the impossible. Politics doesn’t deal with the impossible and neither is it realism or practicality for that is against history. Had not the events changed according to what is possible then there would not have been politics, and history would not have existed for history is the changed situation. So politics is really the art of the possible as opposed to the impossible. The Messenger r viewed politics as the art of possibilities, meaning not the impossibilities, and because of this, he replaced shirk with Islam. The Islamic ideas and rules treated peoples problems and replaced the ideas of shirk and Kufr. Imperialism, especially Western imperialism is very aware of Islam and it’s threat if it returns to life. Thus, it put forward a realistic understanding for politics. Politics with this understanding of realism was circulated amongst Muslims and used as a basis for action by politicians. For them, politics is the art of the possible, i.e. acting according to the situation. Consequently, they started calling anything that was not part of the current situation as imagination and mere pipe dreams, in order to keep the Muslims away from Islam and it’s thoughts. This also means giving in to the current situation and not thinking of changing it. Consequently, this current understanding (of politics) among the Ummah must be fought. It must also be comprehended that politics is fostering the Ummah’s affairs according to the rules of Islam, not according to the current situation or what is required by the current situation.
  • 26. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 26 5 Politics and International Politics L ocal politics, i.e. fostering the affairs of the Ummah and the state is important. However, it should not be the main focus of concern nor the only concern. Making local politics the main focus of concern leads to selfishness and working for one’s self. It is also harmful because it leads to internal conflicts and struggle amongst politicians as well as groups and individuals, which can be damaging to the state and the Ummah. Furthermore, making local politics the only concern not only prevents people from comprehending the meaning of politics but also makes them negligent of the Ummah’s affairs and the politician has to look after the affairs of his Ummah to be a politician. This cannot be achieved except by being concerned with the affairs of other nations and states, and by being knowledgeable of their news and activities as well as gathering as much as possible of information about them. Therefore, international and foreign politics is as inseparable a part of politics as politics itself. It is only politics when it is composed of ideas about fostering the affairs of one’s own Ummah as well as the affairs of other nations and states. Consequently, the relationship between international and foreign politics with politics is that of a part to a whole, and can even be considered the essential component of it. The foreign and international politics that one must be concerned with is that of the influential nations and states, particularly those that are related to one’s Ummah, state or the creed that his state is based on and not all nations and states. Consequently, international and foreign politics merely mean the policy of the influential nations and states, particularly those that effect ones state and Ummah, whether this effect is direct or indirect. Therefore, the entire Muslim Ummah and particularly the politicians must be occupied with guarding against external threats, i.e. she should be
  • 27. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 27 Politics and International Politicsu 27 occupied with foreign and international politics by enhancing awareness and following up the affairs of other nations and observing all possibility of danger. Moreover, the Islamic state doesn’t consist solely of it’s rulers, rather it is the Ummah that actually lives under the authority of the Khilafah state. So, the entire Ummah is the state. The Kufr states realise this fact and use it as a basis for their work. As long as the Ummah realises that it itself is the state, it will keep up with the news and affairs of other states and peoples in order to remain aware of it’s enemies and to be prepared for them. Thus, news pertaining to foreign politics must always be well known and generally understood by the Ummah at large. It should also be the concern of politicians and intellectuals to inform the people of the foreign politics. The people in addition should choose their representatives in the Ummah’s Council for questioning and consultation on the basis of politics and international politics. Because this is what should be common among the Ummah and it’s representatives in the Majlis of the Ummah. As for the politicians and intellectuals, generally speaking, knowing the foreign and international politics is the subject that should dominate their actions and ideas. This is because the Muslim is only created for Islam and the carrying of it’s Da’wah. He/she only lives for this Deen, protecting it and spreading it. If Jihad is the pinnacle of Islam, then carrying the Islamic Da’wah is the goal that Jihad is initiated for. This peak requires knowledge of foreign and international politics. Furthermore, any state that seeks to have an impact on the world and have influence and glory, must make the foreign policy one of it’s fundamental issues, and it must use it’s foreign policy as a means to enhance and strengthen it’s position internally and externally. Due to this reality, politicians and intellectuals must comprehend foreign and international politics, whether they are rulers or not. This is what makes them politicians, i.e. people who take care of the affairs of the Ummah, because the important affairs of the Ummah depend on the foreign and international politics. Consequently, it is the duty of all political parties, politicians, intellectuals and scholars to make foreign and international politics the highest priority in their work. It is not sufficient for politicians, intellectuals and scholars to know
  • 28. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 28 28 u Political Thoughts foreign and international politics in general, feeling satisfied with knowing the conclusions of events. While general knowledge is useful, it is not sufficient to anticipate coming threats and to protect the Ummah, nor to understand events, useful incidents, intentions and goals. Detailed knowledge and analysis of such actions, events, intentions and goals is therefore a necessity. In order to understand the enemy’s intentions toward the state and Ummah, one must first be aware of the statement of the enemy and the circumstances in which the statement was made. Secondly, one must be aware of the enemies actions and the circumstances surrounding their actions. Thirdly, one must be aware of the enemy’s relationships and the status of these relationships. Without the above three points, one cannot know the intentions of the enemy. Knowing the above three points requires details: statements made must be known in detail, kept up with, and followed up, so that their context is known. The same applies to actions and relationships. While the common people do not concern themselves with the details, the prominent members of the Ummah, particularly the politicians must be aware of them, for they are in charge of the Ummah and claim that they foster her affairs. It is true that presently, international politics and the policies of the influential states are based on diplomacy, meaning contacts and agents. However, this is only temporary. Such a situation only exists due to the absence of a terrifying superpower in the world. When a terrifying superpower is present in the world, the situation will change and the international and influential states politics will depend heavily on political and military actions. Nonetheless, it’s details should still be a subject of concern. Thus, if there exist agents, they should be known, even if they were from Kufr states and if contacts are made and political actions took place, they should be known in detail, especially covert actions. Foreign and international politics, whether based on agents, contacts, political or military actions, must be well known in detail. This means knowing politics itself as well as intentions and goals and to understand the real meaning behind statements made, actions or relationships. If details are not known, politics will not be understood nor will the person be a politician and obviously, intentions and goals will not be known.
  • 29. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 29 6 Understanding the International Situation T he international situation is constructed according to the existing relationships among the effective states on the international scene. Whilst states active on the international scene may number many, effective states are few. The effectiveness of the state is proportionate with that state’s strength. Since a state’s situation varies effectively due to it’s strength and weakness, relations consequently also vary amongst these states. A change could occur due to war which weakens a participating state and it’s influence on other states (on the international situation) thereby leading to another state rushing to replace it. Also, a change may take place during peace time through the gradual development of power. So a state may become weak and another may become stronger. However, war is more effective in making change. Due to the variation in a state’s situation and strength, the international situation also changes. A change might take place in the participants or in the structure of relations. Since change in the situation and strength of influential states at the international stage is not rapid, it takes long periods of time for the international situation to change. The strength of a state is not only dependent upon it’s military might, it also relies on all it’s material, intellectual and moral abilities and capabilities that it can muster from outside it’s borders. So, a state’s strength includes it’s ideology or universal message which it carries to the world in addition to the military and economic strength it possesses as well as it’s skill and shrewdness in executing political actions and diplomacy. In a struggle between one state and others on the international stage, the state picks the strongest and most effective of it’s tools at it’s disposal, or at least, what it perceives to be the most effective, depending on the international situation. Ideological, military or economic strength all have
  • 30. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 30 30 u Political Thoughts the potential to achieve and maintain the interests as well as establish an international status for the state on the international stage. Any of them can be translated into strong political influence. Nonetheless, military strength remains the most prominent and effective for it is the title of the state and the symbol of it’s power. Military strength is always seen behind a politicians actions as a possible option when all other means fail. Military strength cannot be detached from the will to use it. The readiness to use it adds to it’s strength and the lack of will to use it weakens it. The willingness of a state to use it’s military weakens against a state that is much stronger than it or when the military strength of both states reaches problematic levels. This occurs when an arms race between them leads them to a point where they are able to destroy each other completely. In such a situation, the importance of the other state’s strengths, such as, it’s ideological and political ability and it’s economic and diplomatic strength becomes apparent. A state functions on the international scene to establish and protect it’s interests. A state’s interests outside of it’s domain vary in number. Some of it’s interests are ideological, such as creating an atmosphere conducive for the spread of it’s ideology. Some are moralistic such as keeping it’s status, dignity, and international position. Some of it’s interests are materialistic, such as issues related to security like the need for strategic locations, raw materials, and markets to export it’s surplus industrial and agricultural products. Interests are of two types, vital and secondary. The vital interest is that for which the state is ready to engage in an immediate war. The vital interests increase and decrease proportionally to the strength and weakness of the state. A strong state has many vital interests and consequently, it’s international relations and presence on the international stage increases. It is the interests of the state that dictate the state’s relations with others, not the other way around. The size of the states’ interests is set by the type and size of the state’. For example, a regional state’s interests, concerns and relations are confined to a region and consequently it makes it’s regional interests the sphere for it’s political activities. A global state, however, organises it’s interests all over the world and has concerns and relations in every corner of the globe, and consequently, the entire world is it’s political stage.
  • 31. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 31 Understanding the International Situation u 31 What has to be clear is that understanding the international situation means to understand the international relations and their structure, the continuous competition among the various states for the position of leading state and effecting international politics. Consequently, understanding the stand of the world’s leading state is of great importance to understand international politics as well as the international situation. In times of peace, the leading state is considered the one with the final word in the international situation. In such times, the second state is equal in it’s political influence on the international situation as any other state. The influence other states have on the international situation results from their ability to influence the leading state. The influence a state can have on the leading state is directly proportional to the state’s own strength as well as it’s international strength and consequently that is the extent to which it can influence international politics. Nonetheless, and relatively speaking, the leading state is the most able to direct international politics to it’s advantage and influence the international situation. It is due to the above that understanding every influential state on the international arena is the basis for understanding the international situation. The struggle with the first state over it’s position and constant competition among active states in order to influence international politics has existed since ancient times. In every period of history, there was a state that was viewed as the leading state. Sometimes there existed other states that competed with the leading state for it’s position. This competition, however, did not manifest itself through political activities, but rather through military actions, such as wars and attacks to conquer states. This situation lasted until the mid-eighteenth century when international law evolved to become law and legislation. From that point onwards, political actions started to become an important aspect of international relations and in resolving international conflicts. Since then, political actions replaced military means in resolving disputes, curtailing the domination of the leading state and competing for it’s position. Political actions carried out by states in general, states competing against the leading state, and the leading state in particular are based on what is called international norms and international law. As a matter of fact, these actions have become dependent on international law and legitimacy. In order to understand the international situation and international
  • 32. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 32 32 u Political Thoughts politics there must exist guidelines explaining the political situation of every state and it’s relationship with other world states, especially with the major states that influence the direction of events in the world. One should keep in mind however, the political plans of the countries and the styles used in their execution as well as the political manoeuvres performed by them. States engage in political actions for the purpose of fostering their national interests and establish their relations with others in accordance with these interests. The state that embraces a specific ideology and carries it to the world, makes the ideology an active component in it’s international relations and specifies it’s interests outside of it’s domain. Therefore, it is mandatory that the Muslim Ummah, which is working to establish the Islamic state and carry the Da’wah to the world, familiarises itself with the states with respect to the ideas they embrace and whether they are ideological or not. The Ummah will then be in a position to know the factors that affect these state’s international relations and interests, and trace back these relations in order to understand their hidden details and goals, so as to distinguish between what is a manoeuvre and what is not, the action and it’s goals and be aware of the latest situation in terms of the international relations. It must be clear, however, that the international situation does not remain static but varies. The position of each state does not remain the same from the international point of view, it goes through phases of strength or weakness, and of effectiveness or ineffectiveness. The relations between a given state and other states also differ and vary. Such changes demand the continuous political culturing of the Ummah. They also require the Ummah to continuously follow up and comprehend foreign politics in it’s actual terms. Carrying the Islamic Da’wah is the determining factor and the controller of these politics. These are the principles for understanding the international situation. Every politician must have information regarding the international situation and must follow up with it in order for him/her to have a clear view of things and be able to, through political analysis, pass judgement on every political event in a way where his/her judgement is close to the truth and reality. Political analysis is the method to judge any political event in any area in the world. It is dependent on understanding the political situation of that area or country and it’s relation with international politics.
  • 33. AAKARSI finallast.qxd 18/08/99 20:35 PM Page 33 7 The International Community, it’s Norms & Laws T o understand the reality of political actions and how these actions are executed from the international perspective one must have an understanding of the international norms and law. With regard to the international norms, they are as old as the states and entities. International norms are a group of rules which resulted from human relations in wartime as well as in peace. As a result of their observance by human groups over an extended period of time, these rules became international norms. This group of rules became permanent among states, and states started to voluntarily consider themselves committed to adhering to them, so they almost became a law. Such commitment is moral, not material and human groups adhered to them voluntarily and out of fear of public opinion. Whoever did not observe them was rebuffed by public opinion. An example of an international norm is the norm of not fighting in the sacred months which existed amongst the Arabs prior to Islam. It was due to such an agreed upon norm that the Quraysh denounced the Messenger r when the expedition of Abdullah b. Jahsh killed Amru b. Al-Hadrami and took two Qurayshi men as prisoners and captured the trade caravan. Quraysh started spreading the propaganda that Muhammad r and his companions desecrated the sacred month, spilled people’s blood, took their wealth and imprisoned other men. They agitated public opinion against him because he went against international norms. Among the various communities, there existed well-known rules which were followed in times of both war and peace, such as, Messengers or ambassadors and war booty, among others. Some of these norms are general and observed by all human communities, such as, ambassadors or Messengers. Other norms are exclusive to certain communities. These