CLAY
 Clay is a naturally occurring material composed
primarily of fine grained minerals, which shows
plasticity through ...
Alumina octahedral
Silica tetrahedral
STRUCTURE OF CLAY
CLAY MINERALS
There are four main groups of clays:
1- Kaolinite.
2-Montmorilonite(nanoclay raw material).
3-Illite.
4- Chlorite.
NANO CLAY
 Nano clays are minerals which have a high
aspect ratio and with at least one dimension of
the particle in the ...
Impurities act as stress concentrators,
resulting in poor impact and tensile properties.
The cation exchange capacity pr...
Plan
PREPARATION OF NANO CLAY
Ammonium clay
powder(1.16g)
Dissolved in de-ionized water
Stirred using magnetic stirrer
Citric acid
(0.38g)
NH4OH (pH-7)
...
Nano clays are synthesized by the sol-gel
method while ethanol and some acids are used as
organic solvents.
The sol-gel ...
Typical precursors are acetic, nitric, Chloride,
formic and sulphuric acids, which undergo various
forms of reactions.
C...
The schematic processes
which show how incoming
molecules can penetrate
through the clay and expand
clay layers.
(a) Dry c...
XRD patterns and AFM images show, the
expansions in clay layers can be due to changes
in elastic modulus of the multilaye...
The characterization of clay synthesized by the
sol – gel method was studied by using XRD and
FTIR techniques.
The sampl...
Properties:
The nanometer-sized montmorillonite clay
particles can improve surface integrity and
provide advantages in th...
Epoxy resin and hardener in the ratio of 5:1
were used to produce nanoclay/epoxy
composites.
Organomodified nanoclay par...
Mechanical properties
The increase of Young’s Modulus of
nanoclay/epoxy samples is dependent on the
amount of nanoclay be...
The Young modulus and tensile strength of the
composites increased with increasing the
nanoclay content. The optimal amou...
The fracture surface of the sample after the test
was then investigated morphologically using SEM
and TEM.
 It was found...
SEM IMAGES
 TEM also retrieved that the addition of
nanoclay can bridge up the voids to avoid the
formation of crack due to the inte...
APPLICATION OF NANO CLAY
Clay minerals have long been used in several
applications, ranging from industrial materials to
...
An increased consumption is indicated by
clay nanocomposites approaching almost
one-quarter (24 pct) in 2005.
Montmorill...
The performance of cosmetics is enhanced by
the use of nanoclay and they allow good color
retention and coverage for nail...
Nanoclay as drug vehicle: nanoclays as drug
vehicle for controlled release of drug is one of
the born age area in medicin...
Thickening lubricating oils with nanoclay can
produce especially high temperature resistant
lubricating greases.
The use...
Nano clay
Nano clay
Nano clay
Nano clay
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Nano clay

NANO CLAY
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Science      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Nano clay

  • 1. CLAY  Clay is a naturally occurring material composed primarily of fine grained minerals, which shows plasticity through a variable range of water content and which can be hardened when dried or fired.  Clay deposits are mostly composed of clay minerals (phyllosilicate minerals) and variable amount of water trapped in the mineral.  Clay materials have been investigated because of their importance in agriculture, in ceramics, in construction and other uses.
  • 2. Alumina octahedral Silica tetrahedral STRUCTURE OF CLAY
  • 3. CLAY MINERALS
  • 4. There are four main groups of clays: 1- Kaolinite. 2-Montmorilonite(nanoclay raw material). 3-Illite. 4- Chlorite.
  • 5. NANO CLAY  Nano clays are minerals which have a high aspect ratio and with at least one dimension of the particle in the nanometer range. The purity and NANO exchange capacity of the nano-clay are also critical characteristics. The purity is important in achieving maximum increases in mechanical properties and achieving optimum clarity for use in films.
  • 6. Impurities act as stress concentrators, resulting in poor impact and tensile properties. The cation exchange capacity provides the surface activity necessary for acceptance of modifiers or surface treatments. NANO CLAY CLAY
  • 7. Plan PREPARATION OF NANO CLAY
  • 8. Ammonium clay powder(1.16g) Dissolved in de-ionized water Stirred using magnetic stirrer Citric acid (0.38g) NH4OH (pH-7) Heated in a furnace at 100°c /20hrs. Gel/powder Pale yellow powder 60◦c/24hrs Experimental procedure :
  • 9. Nano clays are synthesized by the sol-gel method while ethanol and some acids are used as organic solvents. The sol-gel process is a wet-chemical technique widely used recently in the fields of materials science and ceramic engineering. Such methods are used primarily for the fabrication of materials starting from a chemical solution which acts as the precursor for an integrated network (or gel) of either discrete particles or network clays.
  • 10. Typical precursors are acetic, nitric, Chloride, formic and sulphuric acids, which undergo various forms of reactions. Clay may form a sol (quick clay) if it is washed sufficiently to remove the counter ions. Quick clay may be gelled if enough counter ions are added, so that the colloidal particles aggregate.  Sol-gel synthesis may be used to prepare materials with a variety of shapes, such as porous structures, thin fibers, dense powders and thin films.
  • 11. The schematic processes which show how incoming molecules can penetrate through the clay and expand clay layers. (a) Dry condition (interlayer), (b) The incoming molecules like water molecules wedge into the interlayer after adding water or acid and (c) The cation's are hydrated which results in repulsive forces and expanding clay layer ( Hydration energy).
  • 12. XRD patterns and AFM images show, the expansions in clay layers can be due to changes in elastic modulus of the multilayer's. It can be intentionally tuned by changing the multilayer design and that significant porosity is present in the multilayer even after heating and acid treatments. The improved mechanical stability of the nanoclay structures yields to the formation of strong C–O–C bonds and Si–O–Si bonds between the two silanes of dense structure.
  • 13. The characterization of clay synthesized by the sol – gel method was studied by using XRD and FTIR techniques. The samples are cleaned inside the ultrasonic bath after rinsing and washing in heated acetone then ethanol the surface cleanliness is checked with XRD technique.
  • 14. Properties: The nanometer-sized montmorillonite clay particles can improve surface integrity and provide advantages in the mechanical and thermal properties of the composite. The overall increase in efficiency of this media is three to four times faster than unfilled polymer while the durability has more than doubled. The interaction between nanoclay and surrounding matrix even though high tensile strength and modulus were obtained.
  • 15. Epoxy resin and hardener in the ratio of 5:1 were used to produce nanoclay/epoxy composites. Organomodified nanoclay particles (SiO2) were then added into the mixture of epoxy resin and hardener to form nanoclay/epoxy composites. All composites with the nanoclay content of 1 wt.%,3 wt.%, 4 wt.% 5 wt.% and 7 wt.% and four identical samples for each type of composites were made. Nanoclay/Epoxy composites
  • 16. Mechanical properties The increase of Young’s Modulus of nanoclay/epoxy samples is dependent on the amount of nanoclay being added. The stiffness of the samples with 3 wt.%, 4wt.% and 5 wt.% of nanoclay increased by 24%, 31% and 34% respectively. All the nanoclay/epoxy samples achieved higher ultimate tensile strength as compared with the pristine sample.
  • 17. The Young modulus and tensile strength of the composites increased with increasing the nanoclay content. The optimal amount of nanoclay should not exceed 5wt.%. The increases of Young’s modulus and tensile strength of a composite sample with 5wt.% were 28% and 25%, respectively. Further increasing the content of nanoclay would result in decreasing the mechanical properties of resultant composites.
  • 18. The fracture surface of the sample after the test was then investigated morphologically using SEM and TEM.  It was found that the samples with 3 wt.% and 4 wt.% of nanoclay formed nanoclay clusters with uniform size and dispersion.
  • 19. SEM IMAGES
  • 20.  TEM also retrieved that the addition of nanoclay can bridge up the voids to avoid the formation of crack due to the interlocking effect. Nanoclay clusters with the diameter of 10 nm enhanced the mechanical interlocking inside the composites and thus, breaking up the crack propagation. The formation of boundaries between the nanoclay clusters and epoxy can fine the matrix grains and further improve the flexural strength of the composites.
  • 21. APPLICATION OF NANO CLAY Clay minerals have long been used in several applications, ranging from industrial materials to consumption in health-related products. The introduction of nanoclay as fillers or additives in polymers for various desired effects has been of enormous interest for research and development studies.
  • 22. An increased consumption is indicated by clay nanocomposites approaching almost one-quarter (24 pct) in 2005. Montmorillonite and nanoclay is useful in nanocomposites.
  • 23. The performance of cosmetics is enhanced by the use of nanoclay and they allow good color retention and coverage for nail lacquers, lipsticks and eye shadows.
  • 24. Nanoclay as drug vehicle: nanoclays as drug vehicle for controlled release of drug is one of the born age area in medicinal application, nanoclay have great potential as compared to polymer and carbon nanotubes for drug delivery applications.
  • 25. Thickening lubricating oils with nanoclay can produce especially high temperature resistant lubricating greases. The use of nanoclay in wastewater treatment has become common in industry today.

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