THINKING beyond the canopy
Political Economy of Fire and Haze
Herry Purnomo, David Gaveau, Rachel Carmenta, Bayuni Shantik...
THINKING beyond the canopyLAPAN, 2015
THINKING beyond the canopy
Political Economy Study
 Funded by DfID-UK (January-December
2015) – Extended to 2017
 Aims t...
THINKING beyond the canopy
Sites and Methods
 Riau Province
 11 sites represent clearly
identifiable fire ignition point...
THINKING beyond the canopy
No Site name District Characteristic
1 Ayu Junaidi Dumai Fire occurred in community land (2014)
2 Giam Siak Bengkalis Fire...
THINKING beyond the canopy
Findings
 The situation on the ground is really complex
 Caused by multiple actors
• Governme...
Who gets what: Slash
and clearing cut
Village head & officers
$88 (13%)
Land claimant,
$29 (4%)
Farmers group member, tree...
Who gets what:
Burning land
(ready to plant)
Village head & officers $88
(10%)
Land claimant,
$38 (4%)
Farmer group member...
Village head & officers
$88 (3%)
Land claimant,
$38 (1%)
Farmer group member, tree cutting
$77 (3%)
Farmer group member, s...
THINKING beyond the canopy
Between-ness centrality: The most influential actors in
brokering land transaction
Law and regulations
Law Article About Controversy
41/1999:
Forestry
 50: 3d
 78: 2
Prohibit to burn
and sanction
39 /201...
THINKING beyond the canopy
FIRMS NASA, 2015
Bigger picture
THINKING beyond the canopy
Land uses
Timber
logging
3%
Oil palm in forest area
7%
Oil pam in APL
13%
Planted forest
20%
Ov...
Fire Spots
Timber logging
4%
Wood
plantation
23%
Oil palm - APL
11%
Oil palm- forest area
5%
Overalpped
2%
Non-OP - APL
34...
Fire intensity (fire spots/million ha area)
-
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 ...
THINKING beyond the canopy
Fire Fighting VS Fire Prevention
 Many government agencies prioritize fire fighting
(e.g. wate...
THINKING beyond the canopy
Key points
 Many players benefit enormously from fire.
 The scale of these financial benefits...
THINKING beyond the canopy
Efforts to Overall Goals
 Reconciling agriculture development and forest
conservation
 Moving...
THINKING beyond the canopy
Proposal for the future (1)
 Public investment (fiscal policies to address the
needs of rural ...
THINKING beyond the canopy
Proposal for the future (2)
 Easing bureaucracy and raising the
accountability of public insti...
THINKING beyond the canopy
Thanks
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Political Economy of Fire and Haze

Presented by Herry Purnomo, David Gaveau, Rachel Carmenta, Bayuni Shantiko and Budy Kristanty to the British Embassy in Jakarta 26 October, 2015.
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Environment      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Political Economy of Fire and Haze

  • 1. THINKING beyond the canopy Political Economy of Fire and Haze Herry Purnomo, David Gaveau, Rachel Carmenta, Bayuni Shantiko and Budhy Kristanty British Embassy, Jakarta, 26 October 2015
  • 2. THINKING beyond the canopyLAPAN, 2015
  • 3. THINKING beyond the canopy Political Economy Study  Funded by DfID-UK (January-December 2015) – Extended to 2017  Aims to better inform decision makers with an understanding of the on-the-ground dynamics (economic, social, and political) that are resulting in fire.
  • 4. THINKING beyond the canopy Sites and Methods  Riau Province  11 sites represent clearly identifiable fire ignition points  Part of the largest fire events in 2013, 2014 and 2015  Methods • Mapping, surveys, policy reviews, FGDs, CBA and network analysis.
  • 5. THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 6. No Site name District Characteristic 1 Ayu Junaidi Dumai Fire occurred in community land (2014) 2 Giam Siak Bengkalis Fire occurred in state land (2013, 2014) 3 Pulau Rupat Bengkalis Fire occurred in village proliferation area (2013, 2014). 4 Rokan Adi Karya Rokan hulu Fire occurred in APL (area penggunaan lain/land for other land use) and private HGU (hak guna usaha/land cultivation right) (2013) 5 Satria Perkasa Agung (SPA) Dumai Fire in state land and far from village/settlement area (2014) 6 Sumatra Lestari (SL) Rokan Hilir Fire in community land (2013) 7 Suntara Gaja Pati (SGP) Dumai Fire in private HGU land (2013, 2014) 8 Torganda Rokan Hilir Fire occurred in village proliferation area 9 Tumpuan Bengkalis Fire in private HGU land (2010) 10 Buruk Bakul Bengkalis Fire in land ex-managed by cooperative (2014, 2015) 11 Kampung Jawa Bengkalis Fire in community land (2015)
  • 7. THINKING beyond the canopy Findings  The situation on the ground is really complex  Caused by multiple actors • Government, private actors, local community and non-state actors  Multiple land types • State forest area, corporation concession, private/community lands • Peat and mineral soil  Multiple drivers • Economy, politic, social and climate/weather
  • 8. Who gets what: Slash and clearing cut Village head & officers $88 (13%) Land claimant, $29 (4%) Farmers group member, tree cutting $77(12%) Farmers group member, slashing $96 (14%) Marketing team $38 (6%) Total Benefit Slash & cut $665/ha Farmers group organizer $338 (51%) Economy of Fire
  • 9. Who gets what: Burning land (ready to plant) Village head & officers $88 (10%) Land claimant, $38 (4%) Farmer group member, tree cutting $77 (9%) Farmer group member, slashing $96 (11%) Marketing team, $54 (6%) Total Benefit $856/ha Farmer group organizer $486 (57%) Farmer group member, burning $15 (2%) Farmer group member, cheap/free land $2 (0.2%)
  • 10. Village head & officers $88 (3%) Land claimant, $38 (1%) Farmer group member, tree cutting $77 (3%) Farmer group member, slashing $96 (3%) Marketing team, $54 (2%) Total Benefit $3,077/ha Farmer group organizer $1567 (51%) Farmer group member, burning $15 (1%) Farmer Group member, cheap/free land $2 (0.1%) OP development $992 (32%) Farmer group member, OP maintenance wage $147 (5%) Who gets what: Three-year oil palm
  • 11. THINKING beyond the canopy Between-ness centrality: The most influential actors in brokering land transaction
  • 12. Law and regulations Law Article About Controversy 41/1999: Forestry  50: 3d  78: 2 Prohibit to burn and sanction 39 /2014: Agricultural plantation  56  108 Prohibit to burn and sanction AND further detail on fire uses Agricultural Minister regulation No. 47/2014 UU 32/2009: Protection and management of environment  69:1.h; 2 and explanatio n of 2  116 Prohibit to burn with exception for traditional uses AND Sanction Govt. Regulation: - Central Kalimantan: No 15/2010 - Riau: No 11/2014
  • 13. THINKING beyond the canopy FIRMS NASA, 2015 Bigger picture
  • 14. THINKING beyond the canopy Land uses Timber logging 3% Oil palm in forest area 7% Oil pam in APL 13% Planted forest 20% Overlapped 2% APL outside oil palm 23% Forest area outside concession 32%
  • 15. Fire Spots Timber logging 4% Wood plantation 23% Oil palm - APL 11% Oil palm- forest area 5% Overalpped 2% Non-OP - APL 34% Non- concession - forest area 21%
  • 16. Fire intensity (fire spots/million ha area) - 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
  • 17. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Fire spots District election National election Fire Spots and District election
  • 18. THINKING beyond the canopy Fire Fighting VS Fire Prevention  Many government agencies prioritize fire fighting (e.g. water bombing, rain-making) over fire prevention (e.g. canal blocking, community- based water management, conflict resolution, spatial planning) • Visible and creates many new income streams through jobs, equipment and other payments • Budget politic  Needs to shift to fire prevention for long-term solution
  • 19. THINKING beyond the canopy Key points  Many players benefit enormously from fire.  The scale of these financial benefits means livelihoods alternatives need to be significant.  These players (elites or cukong) wear multiple hats e.g. farmers, politicians, businessmen, government officers and academician.  These elites form protective patronage network that hinder the government’s capacity.  Actors who get benefit are not those who suffer from fire
  • 20. THINKING beyond the canopy Efforts to Overall Goals  Reconciling agriculture development and forest conservation  Moving to Inclusive Green Growth
  • 21. THINKING beyond the canopy Proposal for the future (1)  Public investment (fiscal policies to address the needs of rural people, such as schooling, healthcare, job creation, incentives for non-fire agriculture);  Engagement by banks and financial institutions to curb inappropriate investments (in Indonesia and abroad) by conditioning financial services;  Deeper engagement with corporations active in large-scale land use;
  • 22. THINKING beyond the canopy Proposal for the future (2)  Easing bureaucracy and raising the accountability of public institutions and government;  Reforms of land-use and land tenure policies and spatial planning to reduce commercial use of peatlands;  Targeted public awareness campaigns (education, TV, media, social networks) to promote sustainable development, alternative technologies/investments in agriculture and enforcement reforms.
  • 23. THINKING beyond the canopy Thanks

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