GNH Policy and Project Selection Tools By Dasho Karma Ura and Dorji Penjore The Centre for Bhutan Studies © CBS, 2008
1. Objectives <ul><li>Systematically assess impacts of any policy and project on GNH </li></ul><ul><li>Select GNH enhancin...
2. Benefits <ul><li>Consideration of GNH dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Promote holistic development </li></ul><ul><li>Ackno...
Types of tools <ul><li>All ministries and sectors ( good governance ) </li></ul><ul><li>Respective ministries ( education,...
Nine domains <ul><li>9 domains </li></ul><ul><li>10 ministries </li></ul><ul><li>27 sectors </li></ul>
3. Description 11/10/11 The Centre for Bhutan Studies Each selection indicator has a four-point scale from 1 to 4 1. Walki...
<ul><li>4. Calculation </li></ul><ul><li>Every indicator will score 1,2,3, or 4 points </li></ul><ul><li>Total points = nu...
<ul><li>5. Policy Selection Tools </li></ul><ul><li>All ministries and sectors will share one set of policy selection tool...
1. Security Will probably result in a net decrease in economic security within the population Do not know the differential...
4. Biodiversity Will probably decrease the health and diversity of wildlife Do not know the effects on wildlife Should hav...
7. Family Will probably decrease the opportunities that people have to spend time with family and friends Do not know the ...
10. Recreation Will probably decrease the opportunities that people have to spend time in recreational pursuits Do not kn...
13. Stress Will probably increase the number of people feeling stressed in the population Do not know the effect on the nu...
16. Corruption Will probably increase the opportunity for corrupt behaviour within government Do not know the effect on op...
19. Judiciary1 Should decrease effectiveness of judicial system (courts and police) Do not know the effect on quality of j...
22. Participation Will probably decrease the opportunity for equitable participation in government decisions Do not know ...
1. Security 1 1 1 1 4 1 4 1 1 1 4 2 Score 7. Family 8. Support 9. Learning 10. Recreation 11. Material 12. Health 2. Equit...
13. Stress 1 4 3 4 1 2 1 2 4 4 1 19. Judiciary1 20. Judiciary2 21. Values 22. Participation 23. Pollution 14. Information ...
6. Project Selection Tools <ul><li>Three types of tools: </li></ul><ul><li>All ministries and sectors (eg. good governanc...
1. National employment Will decrease the applicability of skills and knowledge to national employment needs Do not know t...
4. Financial burden Will decrease the economic security of the student’s family Do not know the effects on the economic s...
7. Teaching quality Will diminish the quality of teaching Do not know the effects on the quality of teaching Will not hav...
10. Non-formal enrolment Will decrease the number of citizens enrolled in non-formal education Do not know the effects on...
13. Gender equality Will reduce balanced gender representation in education Do not know the effects on balanced gender re...
16. Student performance Will decrease overall student performance Do not know the effects on overall student performance ...
19. Learning method Will favour rote memorization over the competence to apply skills Do not know the effects on the com...
22. Local teaching material Will decrease the use of local social and physical environments as educational materials Do n...
25. GNH Will decrease the curriculum content on GNH Do not know the effects on the curriculum content on GNH Will not hav...
28. Collective life Will increase the value of individualism over collective life in the curriculum Do not know the effec...
31. Generosity Will reduce the promotion of generosity in the curriculum Do not know the effects on the promotion of gen...
34. Tolerance Will reduce the presence of teachings on tolerance in curriculum Do not know the effects on the presence o...
37. Folktales Will result in a decline in the knowledge of folktales Do not know the effects on the knowledge of folktal...
40. Ecological Literacy Will decrease the knowledge of local flora and fauna and their uses Do not know the effects on t...
43. House construction Will reduce knowledge of traditional practices of house construction Do not know the effects on k...
46. Agricultural literacy Will reduce knowledge of applicable agricultural skills Do not know the effects on knowledge o...
Score <ul><li>Total of 48 indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Total points = 172 </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral score = 144 (48x3) </l...
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Pol&pro scr tools

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
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Transcripts - Pol&pro scr tools

  • 1. GNH Policy and Project Selection Tools By Dasho Karma Ura and Dorji Penjore The Centre for Bhutan Studies © CBS, 2008
  • 2. 1. Objectives <ul><li>Systematically assess impacts of any policy and project on GNH </li></ul><ul><li>Select GNH enhancing policies and projects </li></ul><ul><li>Reject projects and policies that adversely affect key determinants of GNH </li></ul><ul><li>Key GNH determinants based on a pilot and national GNH surveys </li></ul>11/10/11 The Centre for Bhutan Studies
  • 3. 2. Benefits <ul><li>Consideration of GNH dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Promote holistic development </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge potential negative affects </li></ul><ul><li>Penalizes sectors </li></ul><ul><li>Scoring by heterogeneous groups </li></ul>11/10/11 The Centre for Bhutan Studies
  • 4. Types of tools <ul><li>All ministries and sectors ( good governance ) </li></ul><ul><li>Respective ministries ( education, health ) </li></ul><ul><li>Sectors ( youth, employment ) </li></ul>
  • 5. Nine domains <ul><li>9 domains </li></ul><ul><li>10 ministries </li></ul><ul><li>27 sectors </li></ul>
  • 6. 3. Description 11/10/11 The Centre for Bhutan Studies Each selection indicator has a four-point scale from 1 to 4 1. Walking to work and shops Will discourage walking to work and shops Not sure if it will discourage walking to work and shops Will not discourage walking to work and shops Will encourage walking to work and shops 1 2 3 4 Negative effect Uncertain Neutral Positive effect - ? 0 +
  • 7. <ul><li>4. Calculation </li></ul><ul><li>Every indicator will score 1,2,3, or 4 points </li></ul><ul><li>Total points = number of indicators x 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral score = number of indicators x 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Any policy or project assessed should score above average score to pass </li></ul><ul><li>Differential score system </li></ul>
  • 8. <ul><li>5. Policy Selection Tools </li></ul><ul><li>All ministries and sectors will share one set of policy selection tools </li></ul><ul><li>Example of policy screening: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bhutan’s accession to WTO </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 9. 1. Security Will probably result in a net decrease in economic security within the population Do not know the differential effects on economic security within the population Should not have any appreciable effects on economic security within the population Will probably result in a net increase in economic security within the population 1 2 3 4 2. Equity Will probably favour higher income groups more than lower income groups Do not know the differential effects on income groups Should not have any appreciable effects on income distribution Will probably favour lower income groups more than higher income groups 1 2 3 4 3. Productivity Will probably decrease the number of persons who have the opportunity to participate in productive activities. Do not know the effect on opportunity to participate in productive activities. Should have little or no effect on opportunity to participate in productive activities Will probably increase the number of persons who have the opportunity to participate in productive activities 1 2 3 4
  • 10. 4. Biodiversity Will probably decrease the health and diversity of wildlife Do not know the effects on wildlife Should have little or no effect on the health and diversity of wildlife Will probably increase the health and diversity of wildlife 1 2 3 4 5. Nature Will probably provide a net decrease in the number of persons who can access and enjoy nature Do not know the effects on peoples ability to access and enjoy nature Should have little or no effect on peoples ability to access and enjoy nature Will probably provide a net increase in the number of persons who can access and enjoy nature 1 2 3 4 6. Spiritual Will probably decrease the opportunities that people have to spend time in spiritual pursuits. Do not know the effect on opportunities that people have to spend time in spiritual pursuits. Should have little or no effect on opportunities that people have to spend time in spiritual pursuits. Should increase the opportunities that people have to spend time in spiritual pursuits. 1 2 3 4
  • 11. 7. Family Will probably decrease the opportunities that people have to spend time with family and friends Do not know the effect on opportunities that people have to spend time with family and friends Should have little or no effect on opportunities that people have to spend time with family and friends Will probably increase the opportunities that people have to spend time with family and friends 1 2 3 4 8. Support Will probably decrease the amount of social support available to people in time of need. Do not know the effect on the amount of social support available in time of needs Should have little or no effect on amount of social support available in time of needs Should increase the amount of social support available to people in time of need. 1 2 3 4 9. Learning Will probably decrease the number of persons who have an opportunity to increase skills and learning Do not know the effect on persons opportunities for increasing skills and learning. Should have little or no effect on persons opportunities for increasing skills and learning. Will probably create an net increase in the number of persons who have an opportunity to increase skills and learning 1 2 3 4
  • 12. 10. Recreation Will probably decrease the opportunities that people have to spend time in recreational pursuits Do not know the effect on opportunities that people have to spend time in recreational pursuits Should have little or no effect on opportunities that people have to spend time in recreational pursuits Should increase the opportunities that people have to spend time in recreational pursuits 1 2 3 4 11. Material Will probably result in a net decrease in feelings of material well-being within the population . Do not know the differential effects on feelings of material well-being within the population Should not have any appreciable effects on feelings of material well-being within the population Will probably result in a net increase in feelings of material well-being within the population 1 2 3 4 12. Health Will probably increase the rate of disability or other health limitations in the population Do not know the effect on the rate of disability or other health limitations in the population Should have little or no effect on the rate of disability or other health limitations in the population Should decrease the rate of disability or other health limitations in the population 1 2 3 4
  • 13. 13. Stress Will probably increase the number of people feeling stressed in the population Do not know the effect on the number of people feeling stressed in the population in the population Should have little or no effect on the number of people feeling stressed in the population in the population Should decrease the number of people feeling stressed in the population in the population 1 2 3 4 14. Information Will probably decrease the amount of information that most people have about government activities Do not know the effect on the amount of information that most people have about government activities Should have little or no effect on the amount of information that most people have about government activities Should increase the amount of information that people have about government activities 1 2 3 4 15. Culture Should decrease the opportunity for people to learn about or participate in cultural practices and traditions Do not know the effect on opportunity to learn about or participate in cultural practices and traditions Should have little or no effect on opportunity to learn about or participate in cultural practices and traditions Should increase opportunity to learn about or participate in cultural practices and traditions. 1 2 3 4
  • 14. 16. Corruption Will probably increase the opportunity for corrupt behaviour within government Do not know the effect on opportunity for corrupt behaviour in government Should have little or no effect on opportunity for corrupt behaviour in government Should decrease the opportunity for corrupt behaviour in government 1 2 3 4 17. Discrimination Will increase probability of discrimination based on ethnicity, religion or gender Do not know the effect on probability of discrimination based on ethnicity, religion or gender Should have little or no effect on probability of discrimination based on ethnicity, religion or gender Should decrease the probability of discrimination based on ethnicity, religion or gender 1 2 3 4 18. Rights Should decrease protection for individual rights Do not know the effect on protection for individual rights Should have little or no effect on protection for individual rights Should increase protection for individual rights 1 2 3 4
  • 15. 19. Judiciary1 Should decrease effectiveness of judicial system (courts and police) Do not know the effect on quality of judicial system Should have little or no effect on effectiveness of judicial system Should increase effectiveness of judicial system 1 2 3 4 20. Judiciary2 Should decrease equitable access to judicial system (courts and police) Do not know the effect on equitable access to judicial system Should have little or no effect on equitable access to judicial system Should increase equitable access to judicial system 1 2 3 4 21. Values Reduces the importance of compassion, generosity and gratitude Do not know the effect on the perceived importance of compassion, generosity and gratitude. Should have little or no effect on the perceived importance of compassion, generosity and gratitude. Reinforces the importance of compassion, generosity and gratitude 1 2 3 4
  • 16. 22. Participation Will probably decrease the opportunity for equitable participation in government decisions Do not know the effect on opportunity to participate in government decisions Should have little or no effect on equitable participation in government decisions Should increase the opportunity for equitable participation in government decisions 1 2 3 4 23. Pollution Will probably increase the amount of pollution or degradation of the air, land or water Do not know the effects on pollution or degradation of the air, land or water Will probably not have any effect on pollution or degradation of the air, land or water n Will probably decrease the amount of pollution or degradation of the air, land or water 1 2 3 4
  • 17. 1. Security 1 1 1 1 4 1 4 1 1 1 4 2 Score 7. Family 8. Support 9. Learning 10. Recreation 11. Material 12. Health 2. Equity 4. Biodiversity 5. Nature 6. Spiritual 3. Productivity
  • 18. 13. Stress 1 4 3 4 1 2 1 2 4 4 1 19. Judiciary1 20. Judiciary2 21. Values 22. Participation 23. Pollution 14. Information 16. Corruption 17. Discrimination 18. Rights 15. Culture = 49/92; neutral score = 69 = 3 x 23 Final score WTO policy needs to be reviewed; far below neutral score of 69
  • 19. 6. Project Selection Tools <ul><li>Three types of tools: </li></ul><ul><li>All ministries and sectors (eg. good governance ) </li></ul><ul><li>Respective ministries (eg. education, health ) </li></ul><ul><li>Sectors (eg. youth, employment ) </li></ul><ul><li>Example of project selection : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary Education Services </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 20. 1. National employment Will decrease the applicability of skills and knowledge to national employment needs Do not know the effects on the applicability of skills and knowledge to national employment needs Will not have any appreciable effects on the applicability of skills and knowledge to national employment needs Will increase the applicability of skills and knowledge to national employment needs 1 2 3 4 2. Rural employment Will reduce the applicability of skills and knowledge to rural employment Do not know the effects on the applicability of skills and knowledge to rural employment Will not have any appreciable effects on the applicability of skills and knowledge to rural employment Will reinforce the applicability of skills and knowledge to rural employment 1 2 3 4 3. Family relations Will weaken extended family relations Do not know the effects on extended family relations Will not have any appreciable effects on extended family relations Will strengthen extended family relations 1 2 3 4
  • 21. 4. Financial burden Will decrease the economic security of the student’s family Do not know the effects on the economic security of the student’s family Will not have any appreciable effects on the economic security of the student’s family Will increase the economic security of the student’s family 1 2 3 4 5. Community integrity Will weaken the integrity of communities Do not know the effects on the integrity of communities Will not have any appreciable effects on the integrity of communities Will strengthen the integrity of communities 1 2 3 4 6. Education quality Will diminish the overall quality of education Do not know the effects on the overall quality of education Will not have any appreciable effects on the overall quality of education Will improve the overall quality of education 1 2 3 4
  • 22. 7. Teaching quality Will diminish the quality of teaching Do not know the effects on the quality of teaching Will not have any appreciable effects on the quality of teaching Will improve the quality of teaching 1 2 3 4 8. Curriculum quality Will diminish the quality of the curriculum Do not know the effects on the quality of the curriculum Will not have any appreciable effects on the quality of the curriculum Will improve the quality of the curriculum 1 2 3 4 9. Formal enrolment Will decrease the percentage of youth enrolled in the education system Do not know the effects on the percentage of youth enrolled in the education system Should not have any appreciable effects on the percentage of youth enrolled in the education system Will increase the percentage of youth enrolled in the education system 1 2 3 4
  • 23. 10. Non-formal enrolment Will decrease the number of citizens enrolled in non-formal education Do not know the effects on the number of citizens enrolled in non-formal education Will not have any appreciable effects on the number of citizens enrolled in non-formal education Will increase the number of citizens enrolled in non-formal education 1 2 3 4 11. Informal learning Will decrease opportunities for citizens to participate in informal learning activities Do not know the effects on opportunities for citizens to participate in informal learning activities Will not have any appreciable effects on opportunities for citizens to participate in informal learning activities Will increase opportunities for citizens to participate in informal learning activities 1 2 3 4 12. Income equality Will favour educational opportunity for high income groups over low income groups Do not know the effects on educational opportunity for income groups Will not have any appreciable effects on educational opportunity for income groups Will favour educational opportunity for low income groups over high income groups 1 2 3 4
  • 24. 13. Gender equality Will reduce balanced gender representation in education Do not know the effects on balanced gender representation in education Will not have any appreciable effects on balanced gender representation in education Will improve balanced gender representation in education 1 2 3 4 14. Parental involvement Will decrease the amount of parental participation in the student’s schooling Do not know the effects on the amount of parental participation in the student’s schooling Will not have any appreciable effects on the amount of parental participation in the student’s schooling Will increase the amount of parental participation in the student’s schooling 1 2 3 4 15. Motivation Will decrease the motivation of students to learn Do not know the effects on the motivation of students to learn Will not have any appreciable effects on the motivation of students to learn Will increase the motivation of students to learn 1 2 3 4
  • 25. 16. Student performance Will decrease overall student performance Do not know the effects on overall student performance Will not have any appreciable effects on overall student performance Will increase overall student performance 1 2 3 4 17. Science Will decrease student performance in scientific subjects Do not know the effects on student performance in scientific subjects Will not have any appreciable effects on student performance in scientific subjects Will increase student performance in scientific subjects 1 2 3 4 18. Mathematics Will decrease student performance in mathematics Do not know the effects on student performance in mathematics Will not have any appreciable effects on mathematics Will increase student performance in mathematics 1 2 3 4
  • 26. 19. Learning method Will favour rote memorization over the competence to apply skills Do not know the effects on the competence to apply skills over rote memorization Will not have any appreciable effects on the competence to apply skills over rote memorization Will favour the competence to apply skills over rote memorization 1 2 3 4 20. Bhutanese curriculum Will favour imported curriculum content over Bhutanese sources Do not know the effects on the source of curriculum content Will not have any appreciable effects on the source of curriculum content Will favour Bhutanese curriculum content over imported sources 1 2 3 4 21. Relevance Will decrease the relevance of curriculum to the life of the average student Do not know the effects on the relevance of curriculum to the life of the average student Will not have any appreciable effects on the relevance of curriculum to the life of the average student Will increase the relevance of curriculum to the life of the average student 1 2 3 4
  • 27. 22. Local teaching material Will decrease the use of local social and physical environments as educational materials Do not know the effects on the use of local social and physical environments as educational materials Will not have any appreciable effects on the use of local social and physical environments as educational materials Will increase the use of local social and physical environments as educational materials 1 2 3 4 23. Local knowledge Will reduce the integration of local knowledge and practices into curriculum content Do not know the effects on the integration of local knowledge and practices into curriculum content Will not have any appreciable effects on the integration of local knowledge and practices into curriculum content Will promote the integration of local knowledge and practices into curriculum content 1 2 3 4 24. Self-reflection Will decrease the number of self-reflective exercises in the curriculum Do not know the effects on the number of self-reflective exercises in the curriculum Will not have any appreciable effects on the number of self-reflective exercises in the curriculum Will increase the number of self-reflective exercises in the curriculum 1 2 3 4
  • 28. 25. GNH Will decrease the curriculum content on GNH Do not know the effects on the curriculum content on GNH Will not have any appreciable effects on the curriculum content on GNH Will increase the curriculum content on GNH 1 2 3 4 26. Meditation Will decrease the integration of meditation practices in education Do not know the effects on the integration of meditation practices in education Will not have any appreciable effects on the integration of meditation practices in education Will increase the integration of meditation practices in education 1 2 3 4 27. Happiness value Will increase the value of income over happiness in the curriculum Do not know the effects on the value of income or happiness in the curriculum Will not have any appreciable effects on the value of income or happiness in the curriculum Will increase the value of happiness over income in the curriculum 1 2 3 4
  • 29. 28. Collective life Will increase the value of individualism over collective life in the curriculum Do not know the effects on individualism or collective life Will not have any appreciable effects on individualism or collective life Will increase the value of collective life over individualism over income in the curriculum 1 2 3 4 29. Compassion Will reduce the promotion of compassion in the curriculum Do not know the effects on the promotion of compassion in the curriculum Will not have any appreciable effects on the promotion of compassion in the curriculum Will increase the promotion of compassion in the curriculum 1 2 3 4 30. Tolerance Will reduce the promotion of tolerance in the curriculum Do not know the effects on the promotion of tolerance in curriculum Will not have any appreciable effects on the promotion of tolerance in curriculum Will increase the promotion of tolerance in curriculum 1 2 3 4
  • 30. 31. Generosity Will reduce the promotion of generosity in the curriculum Do not know the effects on the promotion of generosity in curriculum Will not have any appreciable effects on the promotion of generosity in curriculum Will increase the promotion of generosity in curriculum 1 2 3 4 32. Responsibility Will reduce the promotion of responsibility in the curriculum Do not know the effects on the promotion of responsibility in curriculum Will not have any appreciable effects on the promotion of responsibility in curriculum Will increase the promotion of responsibility in curriculum 1 2 3 4 33. Cooperation Will reduce the promotion of cooperation in the curriculum Do not know the effects on the promotion of cooperation in curriculum Will not have any appreciable effects on the promotion of cooperation in curriculum Will increase the promotion of cooperation in curriculum 1 2 3 4
  • 31. 34. Tolerance Will reduce the presence of teachings on tolerance in curriculum Do not know the effects on the presence of teachings on tolerance in curriculum Will not have any appreciable effects on the presence of teachings on tolerance in curriculum Will increase the presence of teachings on tolerance in curriculum 1 2 3 4 35. Dzongkha literacy Will result in decreased percentages of adult literacy in Dzongkha Do not know the effects on percentages of adult literacy in Dzongkha Will not have any appreciable effects on percentages of adult literacy in Dzongkha Will result in increased percentages of adult literacy in Dzongkha 1 2 3 4 36. English literacy Will result in decreased percentages of adult literacy in English Do not know the effects on percentages of adult literacy in English Will not have any appreciable effects on percentages of adult literacy in English Will result in increased percentages of adult literacy in English 1 2 3 4
  • 32. 37. Folktales Will result in a decline in the knowledge of folktales Do not know the effects on the knowledge of folktales Will not have any appreciable effects on the knowledge of folktales Will result improved knowledge of folktales 1 2 3 4 38. Festivals Will result in a decline in knowledge of local tshechu and other festivals Do not know the effects on knowledge of local tshechu and other festivals Will not have any appreciable effects on knowledge of local tshechu and other festivals Will result in improved knowledge of local tshechu and other festivals 1 2 3 4 39. Lozey Will result in a decline in knowledge of traditional lozey Do not know the effects on knowledge of traditional lozey Will not have any appreciable effects on knowledge of traditional lozey Will result in improved knowledge of traditional lozey 1 2 3 4
  • 33. 40. Ecological Literacy Will decrease the knowledge of local flora and fauna and their uses Do not know the effects on the knowledge of local flora and fauna and their uses Will not have any appreciable effects on the knowledge of local flora and fauna and their uses Will increase the knowledge of local flora and fauna and their uses 1 2 3 4 41. Nutritional literacy Will decrease knowledge of a nutritionally balanced diet Do not know the effects on knowledge of a nutritionally balanced diet Will not have any appreciable effects on knowledge of a nutritionally balanced diet Will increase knowledge of a nutritionally balanced diet 1 2 3 4 42. Reproductive health Will decrease knowledge of STD prevention and family planning Do not know the effects on knowledge of STD prevention and family planning Will not have any appreciable effects on knowledge of STD prevention and family planning Will increase knowledge of STD prevention and family planning 1 2 3 4
  • 34. 43. House construction Will reduce knowledge of traditional practices of house construction Do not know the effects on knowledge of traditional practices of house construction Will not have any appreciable effects on knowledge of traditional practices of house construction Will increase knowledge of traditional practices of house construction 1 2 3 4 44. Weaving Will reduce knowledge of traditional weaving practices Do not know the effects on knowledge of traditional weaving practices Will not have any appreciable effects on knowledge of traditional weaving practices Will enhance knowledge of traditional weaving practices 1 2 3 4 45. Bamboo works Will reduce knowledge of traditional bamboo works Do not know the effects on knowledge of traditional bamboo works Will not have any appreciable effects on knowledge of traditional bamboo works Will enhance knowledge of traditional bamboo works 1 2 3 4
  • 35. 46. Agricultural literacy Will reduce knowledge of applicable agricultural skills Do not know the effects on knowledge of applicable agricultural skills Will not have any appreciable effects on knowledge of applicable agricultural skills Will enhance knowledge of applicable agricultural skills 1 2 3 4 47. Media literacy Will reduce the ability to analyze and filter media content Do not know the effects on the ability to analyze and filter media content Will not have any appreciable effects on the ability to analyze and filter media content Will improve the ability to analyze and filter media content 1 2 3 4 48. IT literacy Will reduce IT use and abilities Do not know the effects on IT use and abilities Will not have any appreciable effects on IT use and abilities Will improve IT use and abilities 1 2 3 4
  • 36. Score <ul><li>Total of 48 indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Total points = 172 </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral score = 144 (48x3) </li></ul><ul><li>The project scored 123 points only </li></ul><ul><li>The project fails; below the neutral score </li></ul>

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