Climate Change Impacts on Water
Resources and Community
Adaptation: A Case of Jhiku Khola
Watershed in Nepal
Narendra Raj ...
Structure of presentation
• Study area
• Observed climate change trends
• Adaptation strategies for increasing drought
•Ra...
Watershed
Jhikhu Khola Watershed (km2) 140.30
Population(no) 90,000
Altitude range (m) 790-2200
Study Area
Observed temperature and precipitation trend
y = 0.049x - 69.446
R² = 0.3275
y = 0.0064x + 1.6069
R² = 0.0031
0
3
6
9
12
1...
0.000
2.000
4.000
6.000
8.000
10.000
12.000
14.000
16.000
18.000
20.000
Mean Monthly Discharge
Maximum
Average
Minimum
0
0...
Adaptation Measures: Construction of
Wells
VDC Number
Anaikot 21
Baluwa 186
Hokse 102
Kharelthok 12
Panchkhal 117
Palanchok 9
Total 447
VDC Number
Anaikot 21
Baluwa 186
Hokse 102
Kharelthok 12
Panchkhal 117
Palanchok 9
Total 447
y = -17.907x + 37001
R² = 0.1955
y = 2.4345x - 4859.1
R² = 0.7317
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
0.0...
-4.5
-4
-3.5
-3
-2.5
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
June August October December February April
Average depth of water level by
season
...
Decreasing
Water Level
11% Detoriation in
Water Quality
11%
Dried Out
Within 5 Years
3%
Dried Out
Within 5-10
years
1%
No ...
Adaptation Measures: Construction of
Ditch Along the River Bed
Distribution of Ditches
Total Number of Ditches: 127
Google Earth ( Jan 26, 2010)
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47
depth2013
Depth_2012
Density
...
Adaptation measures: Rain water
collection Tanks at Household Level and
Water Storage Pond at Community Level
Adaptation: Rain water
harvesting (Tank)
Rain Water harvesting
Pond
Adaptation Measures: Change in Land
Use
• Abandonment of agricultural land
• Change in cropping patter ( maize)
Current cropping pattern and monthly rainfall
Type
Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Push/Magh Magh/Phagu...
Adaptation Issues and Sustainability
• Inter-basin transfer of water (Rosi, Indrawati, Sunkoshi) is very costly
• Drying o...
Thanks
Narendra raj khanal
Narendra raj khanal
Narendra raj khanal
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Narendra raj khanal

Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Narendra raj khanal

  • 1. Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources and Community Adaptation: A Case of Jhiku Khola Watershed in Nepal Narendra Raj Khanal Prem Sagar Chapagain Central Department of Geography, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • 2. Structure of presentation • Study area • Observed climate change trends • Adaptation strategies for increasing drought •Rain water harvesting – tank at household and pond at community level •Increasing use of tube wells – drinking, sanitation and irrigation •Extraction of water from river bed - irrigation • Adaptation issues and sustainability
  • 3. Watershed Jhikhu Khola Watershed (km2) 140.30 Population(no) 90,000 Altitude range (m) 790-2200 Study Area
  • 4. Observed temperature and precipitation trend y = 0.049x - 69.446 R² = 0.3275 y = 0.0064x + 1.6069 R² = 0.0031 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 Temperaturein0C Maximum Minimum Linear (Maximum) Linear (Minimum) y = 1.1996x + 1501.5 R² = 0.0052 y = -8.0801x + 1570.4 R² = 0.1178 0.0 500.0 1000.0 1500.0 2000.0 2500.0 1947 1949 1951 1953 1955 1957 1959 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Precipitationinmm Annual Precipitation Trend Dhulikhel Panchkhal Linear (Dhulikhel) Linear (Panchkhal)
  • 5. 0.000 2.000 4.000 6.000 8.000 10.000 12.000 14.000 16.000 18.000 20.000 Mean Monthly Discharge Maximum Average Minimum 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0.0 200.0 400.0 600.0 800.0 1000.0 1200.0 1400.0 1600.0 1800.0 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 Precipitationinmm Year Precipitation and Discharge (1993-2005) Annual Precipitation Average Annual Discharge
  • 6. Adaptation Measures: Construction of Wells
  • 7. VDC Number Anaikot 21 Baluwa 186 Hokse 102 Kharelthok 12 Panchkhal 117 Palanchok 9 Total 447
  • 8. VDC Number Anaikot 21 Baluwa 186 Hokse 102 Kharelthok 12 Panchkhal 117 Palanchok 9 Total 447
  • 9. y = -17.907x + 37001 R² = 0.1955 y = 2.4345x - 4859.1 R² = 0.7317 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 0.0 200.0 400.0 600.0 800.0 1000.0 1200.0 1400.0 1600.0 1800.0 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 Precipitation No of wells Linear (Precipitation) Linear (No of wells) Strategies: Increase in the number of wells as the rains decline and fluctuates high
  • 10. -4.5 -4 -3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 June August October December February April Average depth of water level by season -12.00 -10.00 -8.00 -6.00 -4.00 -2.00 0.00 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 Recorded water level by month June August October December February April -12.00 -10.00 -8.00 -6.00 -4.00 -2.00 0.00 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 Recorded minimum and maximum water level Minimum Maximum 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 52 55 Fluctuation in water level Difference Average Water level in 37% tube wells is less than the average water level
  • 11. Decreasing Water Level 11% Detoriation in Water Quality 11% Dried Out Within 5 Years 3% Dried Out Within 5-10 years 1% No Change 73% Under Construction 1% Condition of tube wells
  • 12. Adaptation Measures: Construction of Ditch Along the River Bed
  • 13. Distribution of Ditches Total Number of Ditches: 127 Google Earth ( Jan 26, 2010)
  • 14. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 depth2013 Depth_2012 Density (No/km) Average depth (m) 2012 16 1.11 2013 20 2.14 Strategies: Increase in the number of ditch and its depth
  • 15. Adaptation measures: Rain water collection Tanks at Household Level and Water Storage Pond at Community Level
  • 16. Adaptation: Rain water harvesting (Tank)
  • 17. Rain Water harvesting Pond
  • 18. Adaptation Measures: Change in Land Use • Abandonment of agricultural land • Change in cropping patter ( maize)
  • 19. Current cropping pattern and monthly rainfall Type Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Push/Magh Magh/Phagun Phagun/Charitra Chaitra/Baisakha Baisakh/Jestha Jestha/Asar Asar/Shrawan Shrawan/Vadra Vadra/Aswin Aswin/Kartic Kartic/Mangsir Mangsir/Push Khet1 Khet2 Khet3 Bari1 Bari2 Potato Potato Tomato/ cauliflower Wheat Tomato/ bean Rice Cauliflower Tomato Bean Potato Rice Maze Lady finger Maize Jan. Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Rainfall 12.1 21.9 1.2 75.8 25.3 90.5 321.4 321.3 215.9 5.7 19.4 0 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 Rainfallinmm DroughtDrought Wet
  • 20. Adaptation Issues and Sustainability • Inter-basin transfer of water (Rosi, Indrawati, Sunkoshi) is very costly • Drying out of many tube wells (30%) and deepening of ponds along river bed indicates unsustainability unless efforts to increase recharge of ground water is carried out • Poor families who could not invest in digging wells ( lack of appropriate site, low family income) are unable to adapt those measures and they are more vulnerable • Strategies to improve recharge of soil and ground water from natural sources have yet to be developed and implemented
  • 21. Thanks

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