Principles of Psychology
Dr. Cervantes
 Psychology is the scientific study of the mind,
brain, and behavior.
What is Psychology?
 It spans multiple levels of analysis
What is Psychology?
 All actions are determined by many
factors, the factors are rarely
independent.
 Individual differences can also help
e...
Perception isn’t everything
Foundations of Psychology
 Influenced by trends, issues, &
values
 Interacting factors
 Heredity & environment – recipr...
Philosophy
 “contemplation” of the human mind
 1649: Descartes
 Father of modern philosophy
 The human body is an “ani...
Empiricism vs Rationalism
 Aristotle’s tabula rasa
 John Locke
 Plato and nativism
 Rationalist
 People begin life wi...
Rationalism and Empiricism raise two
philosophical issues that are critical
for psychology
NATURE vs. NURTURE
MATERIALISM vs. DUALISM
Franz Josef Gall (1758-1828)
 Phrenology
Franz Josef Gall (1758-1828)
 Phrenology
 Discredited when a scientist, Pierre
Flourens, lesioned animal brains
 Popula...
Paul Broca
 Tan (1861)
 Lost ability to speak
 Intact intelligence
 Left hemisphere lesion
Psychophysics
 Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894)
 Visual & auditory perception
 Advocated unity of mind and body
 The ...
Origin of Modern Psychology
 Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
University of Leipzig, Germany
 Established the first laboratory ...
 Structuralism – Edward Titchener
 Analyze consciousness into basic
elements
 e.g. taste
 Introspection – careful, sys...
Gestalt Psychologists
 In line with structuralism, but this school
thought that the subjective experience
should NOT be b...
 Functionalism – William James
(1842-1910)
 Investigate function of consciousness
 Adaptive purposes – greatly
influenc...
Behaviorism: Redefining
Psychology
 John B. Watson (1878-1958): United
States
 Founder of Behaviorism
 Behavior = overt...
Sigmund Freud and the Concept
of the Unconscious Mind
 Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): Austria
 Founded Psychoanalytic school...
The 1950’s: Opposition to
Psychoanalytic Theory and Behaviorism
 Charges that both were de-humanizing
 A new school of t...
The Cognitive Revolution
 1950’s and 60’s – Part of the shift back
towards the internal mental processing
 Piaget, Choms...
Biological Psychology:
The Biological Basis of Behavior
 Biological Perspective - Behavior explained
in terms of physiolo...
 Synthesized approaches & Convergent
methods
 Modern experimental psychologists break
psychological phenomena (incl subj...
 How does the way we look at a
question impact the answers we
get?
 What does it mean to empirically
study a question? H...
Scientific vs Non-scientific
Approaches
 Science isn’t a body of knowledge.
 Its’ a systematic approach to evidence.
 E...
What is scientific theory?
 An explanation for a large number of findings
in the natural world, including the
psychologic...
Types of Research
 Basic Research
 Theoretical
 Applied Research
 Practical application
Major research areas in contemporary psychology
Psychology Today:
A Thriving Science and Profession
Principal professional specialties in contemporary psychology
Psychology Today:
A Thriving Science and Profession
Summary
 Before psychological science we had to rely on
intuitions and life observations to tell us about the
mind.
 Int...
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PoP wk 1

PoP wk 1
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - PoP wk 1

  • 1. Principles of Psychology Dr. Cervantes
  • 2.  Psychology is the scientific study of the mind, brain, and behavior. What is Psychology?
  • 3.  It spans multiple levels of analysis What is Psychology?
  • 4.  All actions are determined by many factors, the factors are rarely independent.  Individual differences can also help explain how two people react differently to the same situation.  People influence one another.
  • 5. Perception isn’t everything
  • 6. Foundations of Psychology  Influenced by trends, issues, & values  Interacting factors  Heredity & environment – reciprocal impact of nature/nurture
  • 7. Philosophy  “contemplation” of the human mind  1649: Descartes  Father of modern philosophy  The human body is an “animal machine”  Cogito ergo sum  Dualism  Mind-Body
  • 8. Empiricism vs Rationalism  Aristotle’s tabula rasa  John Locke  Plato and nativism  Rationalist  People begin life with mental structures that provide constraints on how we experience the world
  • 9. Rationalism and Empiricism raise two philosophical issues that are critical for psychology
  • 10. NATURE vs. NURTURE
  • 11. MATERIALISM vs. DUALISM
  • 12. Franz Josef Gall (1758-1828)  Phrenology
  • 13. Franz Josef Gall (1758-1828)  Phrenology  Discredited when a scientist, Pierre Flourens, lesioned animal brains  Popularized the idea of cerebral localization of function
  • 14. Paul Broca  Tan (1861)  Lost ability to speak  Intact intelligence  Left hemisphere lesion
  • 15. Psychophysics  Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894)  Visual & auditory perception  Advocated unity of mind and body  The Mechanistic Oath
  • 16. Origin of Modern Psychology  Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) University of Leipzig, Germany  Established the first laboratory for the study of psychology in 1879  Main focus: using reaction time, self- report, etc for measurement of immediate conscious experience
  • 17.  Structuralism – Edward Titchener  Analyze consciousness into basic elements  e.g. taste  Introspection – careful, systematic observations of one’s own conscious experience The Battle of the “Schools” in the U.S.: Structuralism vs. Functionalism
  • 18. Gestalt Psychologists  In line with structuralism, but this school thought that the subjective experience should NOT be broken into parts.
  • 19.  Functionalism – William James (1842-1910)  Investigate function of consciousness  Adaptive purposes – greatly influenced by Darwin The Battle of the “Schools” in the U.S.: Structuralism vs. Functionalism
  • 20. Behaviorism: Redefining Psychology  John B. Watson (1878-1958): United States  Founder of Behaviorism  Behavior = overt or observable responses or activities  Rejected introspection and mental states  Emphasis on animal behavior  Stimulus-Response
  • 21. Sigmund Freud and the Concept of the Unconscious Mind  Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): Austria  Founded Psychoanalytic school of thought  Emphasis on unconscious processes influencing behavior  Unconscious = outside awareness
  • 22. The 1950’s: Opposition to Psychoanalytic Theory and Behaviorism  Charges that both were de-humanizing  A new school of thought emerged - Humanism  Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) &  Carl Rogers (1902-1987)  Emphasis on the unique qualities of humans: freedom and personal growth
  • 23. The Cognitive Revolution  1950’s and 60’s – Part of the shift back towards the internal mental processing  Piaget, Chomsky, and Simon  Application of scientific methods to studying internal mental events  Cognition = mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge
  • 24. Biological Psychology: The Biological Basis of Behavior  Biological Perspective - Behavior explained in terms of physiological processes  James Olds (1956)  Electrical stimulation of the brain evokes emotional responses in animals  Roger Sperry (1981)  Left and right brain specialization
  • 25.  Synthesized approaches & Convergent methods  Modern experimental psychologists break psychological phenomena (incl subjective states) into their component processes  Study function  Observe relationships between stimuli, mental processes AND behavior  We also link these mental processes to the nervous system (e.g. cognitive neuroscience).
  • 26.  How does the way we look at a question impact the answers we get?  What does it mean to empirically study a question? How does this differ from Introspection like that done by Philosophers?
  • 27. Scientific vs Non-scientific Approaches  Science isn’t a body of knowledge.  Its’ a systematic approach to evidence.  Empiricism = knowledge should be acquired through observation  But then subjected to strict tests & revised as needed = the scientific method!
  • 28. What is scientific theory?  An explanation for a large number of findings in the natural world, including the psychological world.  Accounts for existing data AND  Generates predictions  A testable prediction is called a hypothesis.
  • 29. Types of Research  Basic Research  Theoretical  Applied Research  Practical application
  • 30. Major research areas in contemporary psychology Psychology Today: A Thriving Science and Profession
  • 31. Principal professional specialties in contemporary psychology Psychology Today: A Thriving Science and Profession
  • 32. Summary  Before psychological science we had to rely on intuitions and life observations to tell us about the mind.  Intuitions are fallible because brains get selective information. Also, even with “good” information, brains can cause mental errors and illusions.  Historical pioneers in philosophy, physiology, and physics paved the way for psychological science to emerge.  Psychology does more than just aim to describe behavior, but also explain, determine cause, and predict future behavior