Neural Basis of
Behavior
Neural Basis of Behavior
• Brain basics and neurogeography
• Brain cells
• Action potentials
Gross anatomy of the brain
Gross anatomy of the brain:
Grey & White Matter
Glial cells provide support: myelin
Gross anatomy of the brain
Gross anatomy of the brain
Nothing
Corpus Collosum
Ramon de Cajal
Individual
Neurons with
small spaces
in between
Neurons: Structure
• Parts of neurons
• Relationship to synapses
• Insulation
Basic features of the neuron: dendrite,
cell body, axon
Electrical signals are transported down
an axon
• Dendrites: receive information
• inputs
• Axon: transmits electrical
sig...
Glial Cells
A closer look
Even closer
Action potentials
• Neurons specialize in
the transfer of
information within
the nervous system.
– Operated electrically
–...
Generation, Transmission, &
Integration of Neural Signals
• Electrical Signals are the vocabulary of the
nervous system
• ...
• Ions – electrically charged molecules
– Anions = negative
– Cations = positive
• A resting cell is more negative than it...
Ion Channels
Synapse
Serotonin: Example neurotransmitter
• Serotonin (5-HT) is involved in mood
• Anti-depressants allow for more 5-HT (e.g. SS...
Animal toxins can selectively block
channels
• Puffer fish and tetrodotoxin (TTX)
• Dart frogs and batrachotoxin
Behavioral Endocrinology is the
study of how hormones affect
behavior
• 8th Century B.C.E:
Palace Eunuchs of
Imperial China
• Hormones provide a mechanism of
chemical communication within the body
– Over 80 hormones have been identified in
mammal...
Homeostasis = key function of
endocrine system
• Body temp
• Blood glucose
• Blood volume
• Body weight
• Metabolism
• Gro...
Homeostasis is accomplished by feedback loops
Anatomical Organization of the Endocrine System
Hypothalamus and Pituitary gland
Goiters
Genes and Behavior:
The Field of Behavioral Genetics
• Behavioral genetics = the study of the
influence of genetic factors...
• Dominant, recessive
• Homozygous, heterozygous
• Genotype/Phenotype and Polygenic
Inheritance
Genes and Behavior:
The Fi...
Research Methods in Behavioral
Genetics
• Family studies – does it run in the family?
• Twin studies – compare resemblance...
PoP wk 2
PoP wk 2
PoP wk 2
of 33

PoP wk 2

PoP wk 2
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - PoP wk 2

  • 1. Neural Basis of Behavior
  • 2. Neural Basis of Behavior • Brain basics and neurogeography • Brain cells • Action potentials
  • 3. Gross anatomy of the brain
  • 4. Gross anatomy of the brain: Grey & White Matter Glial cells provide support: myelin
  • 5. Gross anatomy of the brain
  • 6. Gross anatomy of the brain
  • 7. Nothing Corpus Collosum
  • 8. Ramon de Cajal Individual Neurons with small spaces in between
  • 9. Neurons: Structure • Parts of neurons • Relationship to synapses • Insulation
  • 10. Basic features of the neuron: dendrite, cell body, axon
  • 11. Electrical signals are transported down an axon • Dendrites: receive information • inputs • Axon: transmits electrical signals – Myelin: insulates the nerve cell – Speeds up transmission – Terminal buttons: release transmitters • Synapse: site of chemical communication
  • 12. Glial Cells
  • 13. A closer look
  • 14. Even closer
  • 15. Action potentials • Neurons specialize in the transfer of information within the nervous system. – Operated electrically – Communicate chemically
  • 16. Generation, Transmission, & Integration of Neural Signals • Electrical Signals are the vocabulary of the nervous system • Synaptic transmission is precise • An action potential is a rapid electrical signal that travels along the axon of a neuron. • A neurotransmitter is a messenger between neurons
  • 17. • Ions – electrically charged molecules – Anions = negative – Cations = positive • A resting cell is more negative than its surrounding fluid (extracellular fluid). • The resting membrane potential is ~-70mV – This is a negative polarity
  • 18. Ion Channels
  • 19. Synapse
  • 20. Serotonin: Example neurotransmitter • Serotonin (5-HT) is involved in mood • Anti-depressants allow for more 5-HT (e.g. SSRI: serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor)
  • 21. Animal toxins can selectively block channels • Puffer fish and tetrodotoxin (TTX) • Dart frogs and batrachotoxin
  • 22. Behavioral Endocrinology is the study of how hormones affect behavior • 8th Century B.C.E: Palace Eunuchs of Imperial China
  • 23. • Hormones provide a mechanism of chemical communication within the body – Over 80 hormones have been identified in mammals • Types of chemical communication – Between the environment & the individual – Between individuals – Within a single individual
  • 24. Homeostasis = key function of endocrine system • Body temp • Blood glucose • Blood volume • Body weight • Metabolism • Growth
  • 25. Homeostasis is accomplished by feedback loops
  • 26. Anatomical Organization of the Endocrine System Hypothalamus and Pituitary gland
  • 27. Goiters
  • 28. Genes and Behavior: The Field of Behavioral Genetics • Behavioral genetics = the study of the influence of genetic factors on behavioral traits • Chromosomes – strands of DNA carrying genetic information – Human cells contain 46 chromosomes in pairs (sex-cells – 23 single) – Each chromosome – thousands of genes, also in pairs
  • 29. • Dominant, recessive • Homozygous, heterozygous • Genotype/Phenotype and Polygenic Inheritance Genes and Behavior: The Field of Behavioral Genetics
  • 30. Research Methods in Behavioral Genetics • Family studies – does it run in the family? • Twin studies – compare resemblance of identical (monozygotic) and fraternal (dizygotic) twins on a trait • Adoption studies – examine resemblance between adopted children and their biological and adoptive parents